xt7cfx73w99p https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7cfx73w99p/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1944 journals 2_06 English Lexington, Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Kentucky fruit notes v.2 n.06. text Kentucky fruit notes v.2 n.06. 1944 2014 true xt7cfx73w99p section xt7cfx73w99p “l Vol. Z2 Jillllléll`}'. lll-}-l No. 6
— W. D. Armstrong, Horticulturist, Editor
3 KENTECKY STATE H()R'l`I- amorglg iéems mentioned was a large
I  · l l A · A — over ea water storage tank. con-
Q  ('LLTLRAL MEFVI ING structed near the orchard of used
  materials that enabled quick tank
  The 8'ith annual meeting of the filling and the application of more
  Kentucky State Horticultural So- tanks of sprays per day. Mr. Frank
 { ciety, The College of Agriculture and Street of Henderson gave a fine dis-
 , Home Economics of the University cussion of the important work being
  of Kentucky cooperating, was held done by the National Apple Insti-
—  in Paducah on December 16, 1943. tute and also led a discussion on im-
 3 Officers elected to guide the growers portant peach production problems.
 · during the coming year were Mr. Mr. Herman Yopp pointed out some
`  Herman Yopp, Paducah, President, of the important work that is being
 ir and the three vice presidents. Mr. done and can be done by State Hor-
 ;» Fred C. VanHoose of Johnson coun- ticultural Societies and pledged his
 . ty, representing eastern Kentucky; efforts to make the Kentucky society
, Mr. William Fegenbush of Jefferson of great service to Kentucky fruit
l county. representing central Ken- growers. Mr. W. W. Magill also re-
_. tucky; and Dr-_ D_ W_ Doran of ported on some of the activities of
 L Graves county representing western the society as well as reporting a
 . Kentucky. Mr. W. W. Magill of number of the important items
 ._ Lexington, Kentucky, was re-clect- brought out in the sectional fruit
 · ed secretary-treasurei; conference at St. Louis. Dr. P. O.
"‘ Q An interesting and informative Ritcher discussed the peach insect
 ‘ program was had covering many irn- work of 1943 consisting of curculio
_lm(l  · portant wartime fruit problems control and Oriental fruit moth para-
Olll_ _ Chief out-of-state speaker was Dr. SITO \\‘0l`k- along with th? Plam for
,0 ln ,   W. Kelley, Extension Horticultur- 1944; W- D- A1`m_$t1`0¥?§ dl$Cu$$€d the
lll l. i ist from Illinois, who brought an in- codlrng moth situation and_ spray
 ; spiring message urging fruit growers service work of 1943 along with the
j to carry out the best known orchard Pl3¤$ {OY 1944- This Work will _b€‘
l practices, to plant the lylggt produc- continued along present lines with
UVG V81`i€ties, to keep new young emphasis Oil gi‘Gat€1` SG1`\’1C€ and
plantings coming On_ and tO Cllml- closer contact with growers. _
_  . nate old trees of low yielding. poor   $OmG“'h3t Slmllm meeting for
vide- val-l€tlcS_ Dl._ Kelley also polnted fruit growers in northern and central .
lm' Out that retail peach purchasers for Kcillucky IS Planned Ou Janumy 21 `
V the home consumption preferred ni;nrn~C_ in connection with the farm and
idcr- ti~ee-l~lpGn0d fruit and polntcd Out home convention at Lexington, Jan-
\`**N'*· . needed methods in handling these um? 2528-
L‘il¤`l>` more mature peaches. Professor A. J.
llglll gltney reperted a fairly healthy con- '_‘_
il if 1ion as ar as most orchard sup- _ , _
A.%*`l* . plies are concerned with the excep- Chi"] RAL STATES H0RTICUL'
tion of baskets and new sprayers. TURAL CONFERENCE. ST.
Growers were urged to place orders LOU]S_ M0__ DEQ 13.15 ··
for spray materials, fertilizers, tools. A
and spray repairs as early as pos- _
~ anu sible. Mr. William Fegcnbush dis- A very important wartime horti-
lieid: Cussed a number of wartime, labor cultural conference was held at St.
and · Saving practices that would enable Louis on December 13. 14. and 15.
seeds f1`Uit growers to do their work more sponsored by the American POln0—
itlleh. quickly and efficiently. Outstanding logical Society and a number of cen-
ie ry

‘ tral state horticultural societies. in 24-quart crates per acre of second .
Fruit growers and Experiment Sta- year plots at the Western Kentucky i
tion workers were there from Mis- Experiment Substation at Princeton . ,
souri, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and of first year plots at the main
Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Experiment Station at Lexington:
· Oklahoma, Louisiana, Mississippi, s
Illinoisi Michiganillndianafand Ollie 1943 Strawberry Yields I
as wel as aut orities rom tie . _ i
United·.States Department of Agri- - m Crateb Per Acre `
culture and many representatives  #j4?_p——-jira; 1
from nurseries, fruit machinery, in- Prince- Lexing—  .
secticide, fungicide, and basket pro- virrieir {rmi Wi -
ducing companies. There was a '   Qjlr  Y
serious tone to all the discussions and imrveetl (llglrvggsi  
much information was brought to *“""d’”‘?‘T_“" i
light on important wartime fruit Teiiiiessee Sliippermi 196 l 274  i
v1·¤d¤¢¤<>¤ pl`Ob1€mS· Tennessee Beauty ,,..., l 257 E 255  i
Kentucky fruit growers in attend- Teririessee Supreme__i 257 l 25l
ance were Mr. Frederick Beyer of Fairfax ____ ____   _< _____e t 248 .
Paducah who represented Kentucky Catskill ` K       _· ______ l 2.il K
in the very important codling moth Blakemore ````       192 i 130 `
discussion; Mr. Thomas Hamilton of Aroma `'ii`' " `l lol i ___i  i
Mayfield, and Mr. and Mrs. William premier. `'```'``-``'A```''`--`'` l _ i "gq  —
Fegenbush of Buechel, in Jefferson ``````'```'i`'``’i`'`` l ````' g  ,
county. PI`Of€SSOI`     Oll"l€y, Head  ;  ,
of the Horticulture Department,  <
University of Kentucky, represented It is iriteresliiig to note that al
Kentucky in the peach variety dis- Lexington, with first year berries.  s
e¤SS1<>¤S-_ Mr W- W- Magill reperted the three Tennessee varieties, closely »
OU the 1mPQ1't3¤t StY3Wb€YYY W_Ol`k followed by Catskill and Fairfax. I
bemg deae m K€¤tuckY In variety yielded considerably more than
testing. mulehmgi and renovation ef Blakemore and Premier, the two  ‘
Old Patches- _ThiS _W3S the f€8tUI`€ main varieties in that section. It is _
SYF3Wb€1‘1`Y d¤S¢¤SS10¤ ef the €0¤· also interesting to note that at  ’_
f€1‘€¤€€- TNS K€¤t¤€kY F€P0Tt 0¤ Princeton, in second year plots, that ·
the b€hHVlOI` of il'\€ DQVV V&l`l€·tl€S, Tgllnggggg Bgguty and Tgylnggggp  Q
Tennessee ShiPP€Y amd Tennessee Supreme had unusually high yields .
Beauty, WGS enthusiastically 1`€· for second year harvests, 257 crates  `
eeived 3S WGS '€h€ i`€‘P01`t ef tht? Out- each. Tennessee Shipper was slight- f
standing results obtained in west- ly ahead of Blakemore, 196 to 192 __ 
SYU K€¤tu€kY fmm €‘3YlY winter crates in the same plots, while  
mulching. Aroma was down around the 109
crate mark. ’
'“;' These iiecords would indicate lhat ·_
, the new ennessee berries are irin `
STRAWBERRIES 1943 enough to stand up well under the
By W_ D_ ARMSTRONG nlosthtryingtcotgiditionts aged tha; they
aso avea en cncy o eara ieavy
_ crop on their second harvest year.
The spring of 1943 was very wet More records in 1944 will be obtained
and this condition extended through to increase our general knowledge
the strawberry harvest season. In of these promising new varieties in
general, most berries were full of comparison to standard varieties.
water, were soft, rotted badly in the
fields, and had very poor carrying ———
quality. This rotting in itself greatly ., , . .
redtlioeed the lyields in suelh varieties blRAW,BhRRY MUl»(·U
as roma, remier, an in Blak-
more to a less extent. It was inter- By W' D· ARMSTRONG
esting to observe that the Tennessee
Shipper and Tennessee Beauty Considerable work has been done
rotted considerably less than most in Kentucky since 1938 on straw-
other varieties and this fact is re- berry mulch study. Records have -
flected in very high yields compared shown that during most winters low ·
to some of the older main varieties. temperatures occur that cause seri-
The following table gives the yield ous injury to strawberry crowns.

 md roots, and fruit buds. It is generally For the whole eleven varieties the
’kY considered that temperatures of l5° average yields were as follows in
tcm or lower will cause injury in the 1943:
Elm early winter to unmulched berries; N N.
· while in mid-winter the plants can Fon Iflliogen ·········· 199 crates Per acre
stand lower temperatures with less Sa . ‘{\?.g€“ ·······- 190 crates Per acre
injury. Temperatures of zero to l0° Fpliing d gmgcn ···· 134 crates Per acre
below zero will cause serious injury, ElN.tan prmg
in as evidenced in 1940- l I`0g€l'1 .............. 126 CI`&t€S per acre
T` The recent unusual cold period of From these figures it is seen that,
2g` Hlld·D€C€TDb€l`     tLlITll'Jl€d in general, wherever nitrogen was
t t€mD€r21l¤1`€S to ¤€81` Zél`0 all 0V€1` added the yield was depressed. How-
arr lientucky, caused considerable _1n- ever, {all nitrogen depressed the
ff ° ]LlI'y to Ul'lI'OUlCh€d Sll`Z1Wb€I`l'l€S. yields rnueh less than Spr-ing appli-
. Tl1iS_ iojl-l1`y CHU ¤0W b€_ l0€at€d by cations or a combination of fall and
4 ‘ dlggmg Dl8¤lS and Sllcmg down spring applications. There was some
t5 through the Crowns of tht? HQW Dl3¤tS difference between varieties as
ll and thI`OLlgh l.h€ll` l`OOl.S ClOS€ to l.h€ nOted_ In practically all cases addi-
:8 CI`O\Vl'l. If l.l'lE CX`OWl'lS O1' I`OOl.S l`l8V€ tional nitrogen reduced the yield On
tl _ brownish, rusty colored areas this Blakemore and Premier, main var-ie-
;0 , indicates cold injury. The roots and ties. Spring nitrogen was slightly
  crowns of healthy first—year plants helpful to Starbright and Dresden,
$7 are clear and white on the inside; tvt'0 new varieties apparently not
t while it is natural for second year adapted to Kentuelry_ Fall nitrogen
1 · and Older Dl3¤tS to tum Dinkish. 01‘ was decidedly helpful to Catskill,
8 dark bl`lCl(-l`€d OH tl‘l€ lI`lSld€. Fairfax, Tennessee Shipper, Ten-
; at . 1944 records will, no doubt, show nessee Beauty, and G3ndy_ ln the
ries, that growers who mulched their spring nitrogen plots there was
sely berries before the recent mid-D€- larger, taller, and greener foliage;
fax, ` cember freeze-up will net a sizeable maturity was delayed and there
1han · profit from this work at harvest were more rotted fruits,
'tllltl l1m€· These results are generally in line
ll ld P with previous trials in this state.
Bl j ..... In several previous tests and obser-
that — vationsi; it gas bcéenl notedbthat after
5560 ; tr a soil as een uit up, y a rota-
€l€l$ STRAW BERRY NITROGEN tion using general fertilizers and a
6*205 ‘ r TESTS leguminous cover crop, additional
gh? . nitrogen often reduces the straw-
l_92 I-e>¤¤gt<>¤ berry yields. However, there are un-
’llll<‘ C S WALTMAN doubtedly many locations and some
100 t ' ` varieties wheike extlia nitrogeni _
es eciallr the all a ication, wi
that 1 In September 1942, some nitrate pg¥;*_ Tliis problem_Ft£erefore, goes
firm 5 fertilizer trials on eleven varieties bael.; to individual cases and the fact
l llltf of strawberries were started. The that each grower should study his i
WON 1942 growing season had been very individual needs and act accordingly.
EBVY favorable and most varieties had
  made heavyd plant glrgwth. Plots
g were nitrate three i erent ways: ·r ··
  (1) Fall nitrate on September 3; ll HATSAHEAD
és (2) Spring nitrate on May 4; (3) By A_ J_ OLNEY
' Fall and spring nitrate; (4) No
nitrate after setting and no fertilizer . , _ -
_ before setting. The fertilizer applied fugge 0%% Gill]; lgilgspiglts Ugg; iii;
was nitrate of soda at the rate of fruit gmwcl. at this time are as ‘
200 Pounds pw acre and thc plots bright as in any field of agriculture.
fertilized in fall and spring got this The O1.Chm.dS OfC€ltt1.&rEu1.Op€it3\,€
amount each time. The soil was been destroyed tnrengn neglect and
donc good productive garden soil that the ravages or war. Knowledge of
rl`”“" had been gl`0Wll lll 3 V€g€ldbl€ l`0l3· the importance of fruit in the diet,
have tion and had had fertilizer on the as a means of promoting health, has
E lew pl`€Vl0‘·l$ €1`0PS but, HS m€1lll0llCd, reached a level heretofore unattain-
$€l`l‘ NODE immediately ahead of the ed, The peoples of the world are
)Wll$~ Strawberries, becoming fruit conscious. Fruit ex-
3 .

 ' f
ports now top the list of foods sent SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT m
abroad. ln the post-war period, Fi
, fruits will be shipped from country By A. J. OLNEY _—  in
` to countra, all gv? the globe,hbe- ,j  ai
cause o eman . ecause we ave · . . . - . it ei
I learned how to handle export ship- ti with th? [gig? heed f?iai€luu_.‘{n€1   ei
ments, and because we will have _],Ci_p1?i.?“§` io iacisomliag p““Y*'·  . {L
uio ships. No doubt, foreign coun- Eiciwi _°" TOP, _ C '“"   to PW T is
tries, too, will develop fruit produc- H Q Lil Bfcesdiiy fuppiicé dfld  7
tion. Thus, the picture grows. One f)°“"p“;i“§‘i Q me lc 1m* uy lull  .
can envision much change and the ETECC (QC] » _ _ _ . .  j
need for cooperative effort. We i fg .ilFu°{t‘O“ }_¤g—i¤d_¤¤g_.S¤_¤¤}¤~S  Q
must look beyond present difficulties O UU leclei _sp¥°’.y uldml ***1*: dlld  °» I
if we are to be ready for the future. ¤<¤¤¤t>m¤¤t fm hult g‘°“'°"$ ls    
Recently, there has been a feeling glmimg to Case $‘?m€“'lj‘“ti according  .
of discouragement among apple ia? 1a€pX;itS.*?F°_“?d ffom the “f“`  5
‘ growers because the ideal of quality 09 . m1m*Uat_1°“_ end made °‘S'
- we have Stiivan SO hard to buiid up SOC13tlOIliS._ The distribution of these 2
was not recognized in tha price commodities will continue to be con- .
e ceiling. Certainly, it was irrational t¤·<>U¤d m Ord"` that they may be _Q
tO aaa COnihinatiOni Utility and evan available to. those that need them. i
Unclassified packs bringing prices at It ‘S Cmphaslzgd tha? g"O“'€*`$ Should  g Q
Oi. naai. that Ot tha hast gtadaa Yat, place their orders with dealers early,  » {
this is Smhathing that can ha OOi._ so that distributors can include them (
ractad it gi.Owai. Oi.ganiZatiOnS ara in making up their allotments,. i
Sti.Ong €nOOgh tO dO SOin€thing ahOtit The manpower situationcontmues K S
it. price earrings wui be in area ¤¤f3V<¤‘¤b1<= all ams the 12¤==·» whicii  
for all fruits during the coming year. géans {hea; dclays m Clclivery will .· i
We must be organized to be repre- _Q Lmal Olhablcyimd tgtsys aY°°th°I` _ `
sented on the National Councils. The ia€ai;C€;,a“ y Bm y Ol Clmg is 1m‘ V i
$$33 b2€$§if§L“i¤t$Y§§*c`é€L‘i“ti iiiiii ,,,,§§i;b5;`§55ii,¤;; ;g};$§;g,,§¤;;glg5i i T
_ growers receive a fair price for their This is a nan, tOi.i.n Ot nitmgan tgitii  _
PY0_d¤ei$- The h`uit_€i`O“`eY$, Orgehh izer. When first put out. it was found U?
. Zetwn lh Kehh·*ckY is the Stew HOV that this fertilizer soon became wet  
ticultural Society. The society was and than h€OaniO OakOd and haiti ,
active in 1943, along with organiza- and difticuit to hahdiO_ ROOOnth._  ¥
tions f1`0m other Stéités, and WHS 1`G- ammonium nitrate has been manu- =
sponsible, to a large degree, for a factured in pellet form, which has ` 
boost of about one cent a pound on largely overcome this difficulty.  -
the price the growers received for However, it seems best not to plan .
their apples last year. The strength to store this fertilizer for long V
of the Kentucky State Horticultural periods. Since ammonium nitrate S
Society will depend entirely on the contains approximately twice as `
fruit growers, themselves, not only much nitrogen as 16% nitrate of
by becoming members and helping Sodet, donlari halt fas tiiiuch will be ‘
to finance the ro ram, but b ac- heefe ·_ XCCD 01` We 3m0Uhi~ 1`U-
tiva paiticipatign ii a tiiii andyttaa quired, it should beused the same as
discussion of the problems that face other mtmgch {C"t}hZe*`$; _ _
the indnSti.y_ The interests Ot Sti.aW_ Most spray materials will be avail-
berryi peach and appia growers ata able in adequate amounts. _Present
at Stake. Theta is avery mason ta indiaiations   that there will be as i
believe that the welfare of the fruit mL;i° sad MSGNIFC this yea? 3.S lust
arawara aaa ba aiataaiad if tha an perhaps. more, but this is not
aaawara taka prampt aatiaa certain. lt is expected that copper
Vary aaaa many athaa aiabiama stiilfate wilia be adequate, but sup-
as important as price ceilings will be Ei.§;i.ih/éuia i$nigg?tta§%lCd’ and Call}
forced upon us. Will we he organized The Supply Oi baskets and COn_ »
Bhd ieady to hieet them· Prehlems tainers is limited by labor shortage
of tFH¤SP01`t3t10h, meikehhg ehd and available materials, but it is
Werld hhde must be meh The future hoped that the situation will improve
1S ln the h3h<3iS of the f1`U1t g1`0W@1'S· by harvest time. Second-hand con- ·
If theyiact wisely, the prospects for tainers should be saved and repaired.
the fruit industry are bright indeed. Repair parts for most standard

 iT makes of machinery are available. started and the discharge from the
Frequently, an old outfit can be put spray rod allowed to flow back into
in good condition if the worn parts the tank under full pressure. Next,
. are replaced. Although some in- pour in slowly 6 gallons of spray oil,
and crease in the Iamohint of new_mSchg}n— alilnd {purging éintil thorouggily fmlgiited.
U  ‘ ary manu ac ure is promise , c ex, a more poun s o ue-
xi . fullest possible use of old equipment stone, 2 pounds of hydrated lime and
and ~ is essential. water to make 200 gallons of 4-4-100
V.,] · bordeaux plus 3 per cent oil. Apply
H ‘ ___ at once.
MN   Déirmant sprays should be applied
—   .. - , » ,_ on ays warm enough for the spray
    DORMAIEF S?RA\5   AI to dry fairly quickly. Temperatures
ling tj PLLS AND PEACHILS qéf 45* hF. lar above, are preferred.
. ' _ - , are s ou be taken to hit every
Wal é B) P` O' RITCHI§R’ d limb and twig and wet them thor-
85- ,.  Department of Entomo ogy an Ougmy On all Sid€S_
iese y Botany
ton- i .__
be  ` . . .
 t Now is the time for fruit growers ,= = Y
   _ to start thinking about dormant NIC0FrIg1l!EC§)l;)}}A"}§(§?`HEDULES
H.] ,  ; sprays so they can be ready to spray _ · TOTH
h    ; when a good day comes along. Too CONTROL
E · often the dormant sprays are put oii".
mes  Q growth starts and it is too late to BY P- O- RITCHER
. ’  spray. _
   . QU 8PP]€$· the d¤mi¤¤t SPYHX IS In recent years the U. S. codling
thc,. · mainly {O! UIQ Comm] Pi Sc·‘l°· moth laboratory at Vincennes, Indi-
im_   Whew there ls detlfgcr Of mJm`Y bg ana, under the leadership of Mr. L.
  YOSY aPh1$» '“3t€U·‘lS C*?“ be edd? F. Steiner, has developed and per-
mm. `V IO the Scale Spray _tO kill uleraphls fected several nicotine-bentonite
mtg  ; €ggS· The best dm?“m_tlSP{§>_°9nf spray schedules for the control of
,,.m_ } ;15tS(<; 3t§§gO£i_{gd O;%;;HSiO;1pl*3_ codling moth. These schedules give
d { . ‘ · _ . . control equal to that obtained with
Q5; _° Cglxyalglltlgé C$’Tf(;‘;’i)1falvV;1tlB1?‘“L,}}é an intensive lead arsenate spray pro-
myd Q S10 _ Ifm h._ ggd _) d f ;_DN gram, such as that recommended by
mba · $$1%/[QH 3303 2 ·;)1PO£“ gagons Oi gte Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky
amp » __ ,. _ ·_ V __ xperiment Stations. V
  I £ilg§`°§e°$0`§“ 32§€?f$}`a‘iC$$$lL"?é,— Adnmesss Of mcoms me 1-rad
una  . _1 p t_ 1 j _ 1. .d 1.m ‘ u1fu_ arsenate schedules are (1) reduction
pléti  — 2225 §’3t;°m€$%i ‘i°i“‘aii餧0ii0e€i i¤ Coding mm S¤¤gS» <=¥> comet of
IONK i' with water to make ioo gallons of leaf hqppers and plant llc? (3) bet-
[,.8,;, S ra 7 ‘ ter foliage, (4) larger fruit, and (5)
as _ pOg' ] U d mam mv iq no poisonous residues at harvest,
3 ol · {0,. th§i%i,}ii`l O}CS;,1_]OSc $5513 ima Disadvantages of nicotine oveinlead
1 b — _ _ ·_ , ,_ arsenate schedules are (I) higher —
t if i$?£0§“éii-0g$EiiJiFS23£t§i¥ifi; §"El§l~ ¤<>St· <2> PGOM ¤¤¤¤*s>1 of ¢¤r¤¤h¤
was cent oil in 3 4-4400 baideaux mix- we <3> m¤¤¤¤¤¤¤b1ht>’ with me-
ture   HITIC qulful. at tho i,Cl`l3lS l`lGCGSSZ`tl`y fOl` bli.t€l` l`Ot COI]-
,.·1_ . ` `. 2 ' .c ._ trol.
gsceiit _ lnlgllgg; zlfggiiguicyl lpple gpm} Fixed nicotine spray schedules are
,9 as Growers wishing to prcpam their being used successfully by several
IHSL own oil emulsions will find their “'€$tBm Kentucky apple g1`¤We`Sm
not choice Of Gmulsmms ,.CSt,.,ctCd_ Since the Henderson and Paducah areas.
~pper both calcium caseinate and soybean Thcy hfl"_€ found mst wher? ¤¤9}1gs
SUP- flour are unobtainable. One method meth “ db Pittmg 2 €m61fl$l€_ it?
?€1i‘l§’ is to use bordeaux mixture as the UICY could C fmge O 3 AG limi? me
emulsifier as in standard practice for Sclmdule and, Show a good pm} On
CON- preparing the oil-boydeaux peach their crops in spite of the higher
rtage ‘ Spray. This is done by starting the mmal COS} _ _
it is agitator with about 25 ggllgng of Two nicotine-bentonite schedules
lrove water in a 200-gallon sprayer tank {WG Si\’€¤ m Table L S?h€d“l€ A
COI]- and adding 5 pounds gf powdered is for problem orchards with severe
tired. bluestone and 6 pounds of cliemical eodling moth infestations. Schedule
idard hydrated spray lime. The pump is B is for orchards with light to mod-
5 .
i ·. ·:, ra

 l Fixed Nicotine Spray Schedules for 1943 3;;
 ._... ..;.....;e,. 1
I `   first brood. cover ` 2 to 4 second-brood V
Calyx and sprays rover sprays (at 10-14 _
Top-off spray (First 3. days apart; day intervals) ._
. last 2, 10 days apart) I
Schedule A \Lead arsenate 3 1b.l1)/lississippi `Misslssippl l atl
for Lime 3 lb. bentonite 8 lb. bentonite 5 lb 2
severe codling Wettable sulfur ti lb. Mineral oil 2 qts. Mineral oil 2 qis 4 EY
moth infestations Water to make 40% nicotine 40‘1 nicotine i ju
100 gal. sulfate 1 pint sulfate 23 pl < in
Water to make 100 gal. Water to make 100 gal   Of
Schedule B `Lead arsenate 3 lb.`Commercial (14%) \Commerci;il (14·`;n  ~
for Lime 3 lb. nicotine nicotine ,
moderate codling Wettable sulfur 6 lb. bentonite 3 lb. bentonite 2*; lll  I l·
~ moth infestations Water to make Summer oil 2 qts. Summer oil 2 qts.  _ )·
100 gal. Water to make 100 gal. Water to make 100 gal. ` 01
. r:
erate infestations. In both cases, DID YOU HAVE BLACK R()'[‘? { E
the shift to nicotine is made with the ,.
first cover spray xvhjch Should bg (From Illinois Horticultural News J  
completed within 14 days after petal L<’¢f€’T) t U
fall. The first second-brood cover  i 8
SP1`3Y $h0uld be €0mPl€t€d bY 2 Black rot has appeared in many  ’ a
W€‘€k$ 8ft€1` the fifth Hl`$t·b1"00d Illinois apple orchards this year. 2 v
00V€1“ SPYHY- In W€SY€F¤ K€¤ii¤€kY Dwight Powell of our Division of 1 l
an additional nicotine spray for Plant Pathology analyzes the situa- ' l
third-brood worms should be applied tion for us:  . c
giiblizeguaia »£;t€gr;F1Sh§?I;Ogg Comparison of Black Rot and Bitter  
spray to stop drop. Rm ; '
Every attempt should be made to Many growers have experienced .
p control scab in the pre·bloom sprays. an alarming amount of black rot on  I
. If a fungicide is needed after petal apples this year. Some thought il  `
fall, wettable sulfur can be used in was bitter rot and became doubly `
the first §xgd-]qjg()’[,jn9 Cgvgy Spray 3·l81`ITl€d: Following 3.110 SOIDC Clli-  
provided the mineral oil is omitted tmguishmg €h31`3€i€1`i$l1€$·  
in that spray and reduced to 1 quart L Thc black mt fungus €u)V_¤X$ Qu- i 
per 100 gallons in the second cover ters th? applc Uu`Ough.SuCh mJPu"°$  P
Spray as 'coilllng moth entries or stings.
If bitter rot shows up (1) remove   Loy §g1l;C$}§&?’f1.g;t c°&€,?SCin5FQ
and destroy all infected fruits and common m.Ou‘nd tllé Caiyx than in
(2) Spobspray with 8·8·100b<>1‘dee¤X any other area. Bitter rot will in-
mixwre- This will reduce the ef- sept the apple directly through iiip
fectiveness of the nicotine previously unmjul-ed Skin.
applied e¤d if further berdeeux 2. Black ipt iiiiepiipii will iipi
SDYBYS 31`€ ¤€€d€‘d te k€€P bitt€1` ret change the contour of the fruit; bit- V
iu Check, it HWY be u€C€$$3}`Y te edd ter rot lesions are saucer-shaped.
1€ad_ aY$€u3t€ for Pi`0t€€tl0u from 3. Both black rot and bitter rot
ceglmg QW}? WOFTUSL) start from trunk, limb Ol` twig °
wo ississippi entonites, sold cankers froln which spores are >ro—
under the trade names of "Xll0 Fil- duced. Black rot spores infect both
trol" and "Panther Creek" have been fruit and leaves; infection on the
found by the Vincennes laboratory leaves is known as frog—eye leaf
to work well in the tank-mix form- spot. Bitter rot infects only the
ula (schedule A). Neither of these fruit.
left objectionable residues at har- 4. Black rot isn’t likely to spread
vest if the fruit was brushed. Fruit from one apple to another; thus in- —
treated with the sprays called for fection generally will appear to be
in schedule B should not need brush- uniform throughout the orchard. Bit—
1¤g· ter rot spreads from apple to apple

 and usually is more serious in lim- as compared with commercial fruit
..__ ited areas. farms tells why:
mod » Why Black Rot was More Serious Production P9? iF€€ on farms less
.10-14 in 1943 than 100 trees (Farms) ...,____ 1_8 bu,
·’ _ _ . _ _ _ Production per tree on farms of
l Reasons for increase ln black rot 1,000 trees and Over (Fruit
Z infection probably were. (1) Weath- Farms) 3 6 bu
or conditions early in the season Bearing angle"{;eeg"ln"l§é6l` g8_ '
5 lb were especially conducive to fungus 848 070 yleldlng l26 433`05{bu
2 qis growth and arsenical and frost in- Bearing apple tlfees ’ln ’l940. ‘
2,3 J'~ll`Y· (2) Thc P""c€ma$C Of fruits 58,152,108 yielding ..150 236 768 bu.
00 gg} { iniured by insects was high because An an 1 . f F . F’ ’.
—   Of the ligllt cron a ysis o ruit arm income
—A,- _ by the Census Bureau reveals that
I   Control Measures less thin 2% of income is received
In i There was 3 general tendency fel. iorn 0 ier source than fruit. 1940
zzzqlg   black rot to be more prevalent in Fruit Farm lncome fOu°WS·
00 gui. V orchards sprayed with a nicotine F1'0m F{`¤1f .....·.....1........ $$00,975,952
· schedule G r o xv e r 5 experiencing FYOYU I-·lY€$t0€k --—·-·---·-- 5.311,450
rather serious outbreaks may find it FYOm Dalfy —-—v·——--——--·—-—··- 4,946-357
,0,]., necessary to continue the lead sched- l"1`0m Poultry ........___,___, 5,018,372
‘ ‘ ule through at least the fourth cover Frvm V€g€i8bl€S -.·»-·--»- 6,249,077
Jews spray in order that Bordeaux may
be applied during this period. By
using sulfur through the first cover _ _
and bordeaux in the second, third HINTS AND OBSERVA-
many and fourth cover sprays, black rot TIONS
year, ` will be substantially controlled. Un-
on of ' less such preventive measures are BY W· W· MAGH-*L
situa- _ used. it is likely to develop into an- Field Agent in Horticulture
other serious disease of the apple.
Bitter 2 ··—‘
 V THE FRUIT FOOD SUPPLY DE- Systematic Starvationl
a·<;;,<»;;   cw- <>r<<:HAR¤¤ST ihiaraltizih i%*l§i,t£F1tiaii°",“§,,i§
gnnblv (From Missouri Horticultural News, meeting at the Frederick Beyer Or-
e di:_ `— September) chard. He had sealed the inside of
` °’ a large old chicken house with phos-
ys en- ` The general farmer no longer is a glgiaipgfpigexggsaagglsgstlgfiiolgig?
juries factor in producing fruit. Insects. and 3 5O_eent edleek ‘ ln lling house
stings. , blights, and orchard pests have he ned Smredpl 000 neld crates TO
2s in- ’ driven the farmer out of fruit grow- edn.; the enrldslt , Of d few emw_
more ing. The commercial orchard today   bny unlocked tllbe dem. Selected 3
an llll · produces 5/6 of all fruit grown. The ilslle it random and wllll the help
ill in- trend toward the fruit farm and C22 \,._.tm‘_ m’wel_S mm the 1
gh the  ` away from the farm orchard is 2l_3;em;l€nnl.l[°l Vglegfeund ’0·l ectlve
Shown m the fouowmg Ycccmly m` over-winteri codling moth larvae hi-
I not leased Census flgums bernating in the cracks and crevices.
ti bw . Farmers Ab¤¤<1