xt7cjs9h4n42 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7cjs9h4n42/data/mets.xml Lexington, Kentucky (Fayette County) McDaniel, J. M. 1896 v. : ill. ; 38 cm.  Monthly during the collegiate year, September-May. journals  English Lexington, Ky. : State College Cadet, 189u- This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. The State College cadet University of Kentucky. Kentucky University. State University, Lexington. State College, Lexington. The State College cadet, vol. 7, no. 2, November 1896 text The State College cadet, vol. 7, no. 2, November 1896 1896 2012 true xt7cjs9h4n42 section xt7cjs9h4n42 I A   rl { •~*"'*—\" '     b
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  N0. 2. XYOL. 7. U
A NOVEMBER, 1896-

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~   L
r A UNIVERSITY OF I
· . gest Assorl TIN r
. KENTUCKY ’ g
. _l_0F_ Pa1lo1 . ,
.      :};<;b suave lOc, E
 Atywk  rr guaranteed.
,_,   5 O am.
'  
Sta.t10  MM  {once  
i ¤C.,C,.< · 5    
IE l  
LIBRARY l jj
fi
TRAN5Y'~VA*`» Presented by mg Make"- El,
P INTING CC , 2 ,
R U.  E . Station 1. b at  y *§INGTh  
onc. e very "`
I0 E. HAH`, STR tents and faculty. V  
THB Slidlill Gilllllllli (ll Ktlllilllllill  
offers to the public the following Courses of Study, viz;
` l
Agricultural, Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering,
Classical, Normal School and three Scientitic Courses, l
each of which covers four years in the College
proper and leads to 21 degree.
3
Its Faculty contains twenty-eight professors. lts grounds, buildings and equip-
ments represent $450.000 in value. Its laboratories Chemical, Physical, Biological, ”i
Botanical, Geological, Physiological and Mechanical are the largest and best in  
Kentucky. I ._
Each Legislative District is entitled by law to free tuition, room rent. fuel and i 5
lights for four properly prepared students in the College proper, and to an equal ` i
number in the Normal Department, Alumni of other college in Kentucky are entered
in post graduate courses free. For catalogue and other inforrnalion apply to y
JAMES K. PATTERSON, Ph. D., LL. D., l
President of the College, Lexington, Ky.
l
l

 . I . R {/V ii 
1 The Place to Get Your Money’s Worth.     V
Suits From $13.50 up. Pants From $4 up. Overcoats $15 up.    
Send us your cleaning and repairing. F *  
5 W. T. MORRIS & ..   ?
. 107 East Main        
  No. S West Main Street, L  
H   Lexington, Ky.
l   The I
t g   Leaai¤gPhOtOg‘F3ph€Y,
   _?_ _,__.___.____i____
F,. Nutt-nagel Bras. l o. D. CUNNINGHAM,
  Proprietors of thc 1    
  . Ashland Roller Mills   G1sSs.Br¤shss.
  ixmuumecurers of I House Paiigtor and l)e¢·0r:1tor·
an Flour, Meal,   F€€d, Etc •   The oldest paint house in the oily.
l -66 Walnut Street. l 2I w_ SHORT sT¤EET_ -
L Surdries. ’ ‘ Repairs. J M—YS;éWnwwwi"‘
> Blue Grass   GLEN MARY COAL. . 
l     I $11111.1:1 iumamin a 12120.
L Thos. B. Dewhurst, Prop. I S·*]*‘ A¤¤**l*·  
  Opera House Bldg. Lexington. l 51 N. Broadway. Patterson and Merino. ’ 1
  ’   Lexington Steam Laundry,
l ` 109 and 111 East: Main Street.
‘, Modern Machinery. High—CIass Work.
i 'l‘. L. Cniupboll,--AGEN'l`S--[’au1l \\'a1·tl, »

 "`   ~\—·. in
  \  
. `“5 .
A  — :" } .41 l
,e ©2§ QALESS `  
ll The great rainy weather shoe for men. Drill or calf lined. They look
as well as patent leather, never crack, always remain soft and are prac-
__   tically waterproot`. If they don’t suit you, we have hundreds of others.
S   n THE GREAT SAMPLE SHOE HUUS ,
, w
·   @'Student’s Headquarters for Footwear. 4 W, MAI st STREEJ-·
VANDEREN & SCO I T’S  P
Is the place to buy your A
RAZORS. STRAPS, PEN KNIVES, All the boys must have one —
of the above: each and every one guaranteed Ca`l and sec our line and prices.
Agent f0rStearne’s YELLOW FELLOWS.
22 KX?. MAIN STREET.
GO TO E Q KIDD
_ • • 9
  8   Ixuporter and Dealer in
n For Picture Fralues wa China, Glass, Cutlery,,La1ups.
_ Toilet Sets and jardineries.
Paper and Window Shades. .
B th- - - d 1 Many beautiful pieces in Cut Glass and _
car is in funn W len you Mantel Ornaments and Decorated Ware
want Your DlPl0“laS fi'8n*€d• for wedding and Christmas presents.
_, 69 E. MAIN STREET. 65 E. MAIN STREET.
 
Invite the attention of Professors and
’ P   8   , Students of the different Colleges
° ' to their FALL SHQES which have
been selected with great care Spec-
A R , ial inducements offered to College
t d .
, 8 EAST MAIN STREE P. ra 6
——- ‘  ‘ in@liiihlif?T¤¤·. '
  `ljlni lilllli.l:lll;..",",l,   _ V B
  .yy_yy_     rr  .:.i.l,,,  lCI0l° 0g2\€l’I,
     .:—  f;Zi+s. "*t».
     y. A MANUFACTURING .1EwE1..ER, ·
    57 E. Main Street, Lexington, Ky.
  Diamonds, Watches and Jewelry.
‘~° ®¤    y  _..,   Reliable Goods ·
  .-‘   a @ ‘  i
 "‘~?L~;L;·»“’  *2   , · - .
  Fair Dealing and Bottom Prices. .
‘ *~ 4 \ Q:) # M _~ .
l.L.@2.§Hl.Nl@i1.f @Ml I.? MJ; A lll.Nl@ @@.9
High Grade Plumbing. Steam and Hot Water Heating.
- T PUMPS- WINDMILLS.

   (Che Etate Qellege Qabet.
VOL. 7. LEXINGTON, KY., NOVEMBER, 1897. NO. 2.
ON THE BANKS OF THE MISSISSIPPI. ~
However much may be said of the "Father of Waters," however
rich his praise, varied his grandeur, or thrilling his experience, still
one can not fully conceive these until he has seen with his own eyes.
The actual experience and vision of this majestic stream is thrilling,
delightful and inspiring At one time you approach high hills, cut
by small yet deep ravines; and, after climbing them, the great river
bursts into view——a broad and powerful stream at the base of the
cliff on which you stand. Then, with wonderful and beautiful wind-
ings stretching away in the distance, until linally it looks like a sil- ·
Ver band encircling earth’s bosom. The lowlands lining either bank
are dense with the foliage of spring. Another cliff rises in the dist-
ance. Yonder roll black clouds of smoke from the steamer labor-
iously toiling up the stream. The day is calm and serene. The
bright sun makes every wavelet sparkle wiih laughter as it journeys U
seawird. Here and there leap sportive fish in their glee.
Onward, O river! with thy resistless {low, ,
Carrying on thy placid stream
. The deeds of men of long ago.
Onward, O stream! while harvests we glean.
Thou, O stream ! in rhapsodies wild!
Thou, O stream ! while rolling sweet pean !
Art evermore humbling untaught child
. To the sterner virtues of sterling man.
No wonder savage and dusky mate
Sang love—songs on thy fertile bank ;
No wonder later bards, that wrote,
Thy matchless praises sang.

   28 THE CADET  
  In majesty, on thy swelling bosom '  
__ Are carried cargoes to the sea.  
€ Likewise in life, with joy and song,  
· ' We journey toward eternity. Q';
But, perhaps one finds more of recreation and real fun in the nut-  
ting parties that annually visit his extensive bottom lands. To-mor-  
row we shall go. This afternoon there is bustling and hurrying to  
° and fro getting things ready—baskets to be collected, a run to the i_
neighbors’, the wagon got in trim-everything must be ready for an  
early start in the morning. \Ve all go to bed early, but can not go T
to sleep for some time. Finally weary eyelids close in sweet slum- _
ber. \Ve dream of wondrous exploits in the wood, and adventures  
that make us shudder with dread. But ere long father calls, and out  
of bed we jump, and the whole place is lively long before the sun-  
beams paint the eastern sky. Our various tasks are early done, and  
soon we are off to the "b0ttoms," as the nutting grounds are called. L
The jolting and the brisk moving air make us merry and lively. ._ .
Soon the "bottoms" are reached, and out jumps some one to get the T
first nut. They are plentiful, large and sweet. The trees on which r
they grow often rival the giants of the forest. Grapevine swings are
plentiful, and, moreover, the wild grapes, too. The grandeur of the
. wild scenery is enchanting. We can hardly work for want of run- _
ning hither and thither to see the new "sights." But we cheerfully
' »~ fill and refill our baskets until, ere noon has come, we feel tired and
quite hungry. The luncheon is spread and we begin-—nothing is -
left. We spend a pleasant time in ch ttting with our best girl, and
then start for home. \Ve hull the nuts on the way, and have them T
ready for a feast when the deep snows come. Thus passes the day.
With a fishing party it is quite different. Everything necessary ~
for "camping out" is taken-cooking utensils, blankets, provender,
ctc. We go down to the river under some big tree, where we hitch
the horses and get things in readiness for the night. The long lines
of hooks are brought out, overhauled, put in good condition, taken _
down to the river, baited, and then placed for the night. We then
turn in, telling fish stories and ghost tales. Our beds are rude and
well nigh sleepless. The hooting owl or a rustle in the leaves makes
you shudder, or the puffing and churning of a steamboat will awaken »
you at midnight. But ere morning dawns the camp is awake and
. if

   THE caoar. 29  
  off to the river to see its luck. Yes, and how lucky! But one small ·  
  fish adorns the hundred hooks! But to be a successful fisher you  
  must try, try again, and so they did. Hooks were rebaited and re- V -
  set. The day was spent in procuring fresh bait, wandering along ‘
  the bank or taking a boat ride. Then the hooks are tried again and .
  an 80—pound catfish comes up and gives his captors a lively struggle A
Z ere they place l1im in the bottom of the boat. Then comes the feast,
f and off for home we go. C
K Thus have been spent a few days on the banks of the Mississippi.
(To be continued.) -
  GEOLOGIC TIME.
la
gr? Theories as to the age of the earth. in so far as they are based
  upon facts at all, naturally fall under two heads :
p _ 1. Physical and astronomical.
li 2. Geological.
·_ First—The physical and astronomical theories:
. (zz). The purely physical,based upon data relating to the rate at
which the earth is cooling off`, and thence to the time that has l
elapsed since it was in a molten state."—Sir William Thompson.
l (b). Astronomical--Based upon data relating to the rate at which
tidal friction retards the rotation ot the earth, and thencs totime
. since the moon sepnatccl from it——the earth of course being molten C .
at the time.——George Darwin. C
r (0). Mixed Physical and Astronomical—Taking into consideration E
tidal friction, earth cooling, and also sun cooling and contraction.- f
, V Tait and others.
Second--Geological 1
(zz). Calculations based upon estimatxd total thickness of rock sed-
iments, and rate at which such sediments accumulate to-day along
shores and in secluded ocean basins.——Haugl1ton, Wallace, Williams
l and others.
(Z2). Method (a) modified by the introduction of time ratios based
upon the relative thickness of rocks formed in the different geologi-
. cal ages.—\\'alcott, Dana, Williams. Q
(c). Calculations based the rate of erosion since the ret1·eat of the
ki »

 E _Y_, __. _,J" "" “" ’ · ‘   ·i ·  "· — ‘ 4r_ 
 fi  U T  .  T -  
  T ij 
   
%, 30 THE CADET.  
" H
  ' ice sheet from the northern continent. This method is also used in  »
- conjunction with method of time ratios.——Geikie, McGee, Bright and  
Ol3ll€l‘S.  
_ , In this paper we will consider mainly the evidence coming under  
  A (rz) and (6) of this second group of theories--the purely geological.  
  Time is such an abstract idea that mere numerical expression of  2
  it, especially if they exceed much the three score and ten years meas·  
l uring the span of individual existence here, are apt to be perfectly  
meaningless. Take a thousand years, for instance; hardly anyone  
is in a position to say offhand what may or may not take place in  
that length of time. And when we come to a million, it might as `
well be infinity, for all our mental conceptions of time magnitudes `
aid us in tl1e appreciation of what event occurrences are possible »
l within that peroid.  
There is a great deal of loose thinking with regard to this matter  
of occurrences in time. The evidence of this is the reckless use of  
the terms thousands and millions in speaking of events astronomi—  
cal, geological and biological. We repeat glibly astronomical esti-  
mates of the time it takes light to come from distant suns; refer   ‘
lightly to the energy of coal as millions of years’ old suns’ heat, and  
indulge in offhaud opinions as to the reasonableness or unreasona-  
ness of the evoluti0nist’s demand for the millions of years necessary  
i , for the development of life on this globe by the slow processes of dif'-  
r ferentiation implied in his theory.  
  In view, then, of the vagueness that attaches to conceptions of  
if magnitudes in general and time magnitudes in particular, it may not  
` be inappropriate to institute a little critical examination into the isp"
1 matter, with a view to dissipating some of the ncbulous haze so apt  
l to envelope ideas that are pure numerical abstractions. And here  
i the method of comparison is best, for our ideas of time can only be  
E relative.  
N The astronomer trys to make the vast conceptions of space with  
which he deals more intelligible by bringing in the idea of time rela-  
‘ tions. We are told that a train traveling a thousand miles a day  
could make the journey from the earth to the sun in two hundred and il
, j thirty-four and one-third years.  
  The geologist can return the compliment by introducing the space  
l r.,

   l
  THE;CADET. 31  
  relation, in order to help the mind out in its effort to obtain an ade- · i
  quate comprehension of avast time magnitude. — Croll has suggested Q
  this illustration as a good one to convey to the mind some idea of
  what a million of years really is:
  _ "Take a strip of paper an inch broad, or more, and 83 feet 4
  inches in length, and stretch it along the wall of a large hall, or
  round the walls of an apartment somewhat ove1· 20 feet square. Re-
  call to memory the days of your boyhood, so as to get some adequate
  conception of what a period of a hundred years is. Then mark off
  from one of tl1e ends of the strip one-tenth of an inch. The one-
i tenth of the inch will then represent one hundred years, and tl1e A ·
entire length of the strip a million years. It is well worth making
, the experiment, just in order to feel the striking impression that it _
l}·» ; produces 011 the mind "
  Or, suppose we take this as an illustration:
  The Kentucky river at High Bridge flows at the bottom of a gorge
  some 300 feet deep. \Ve know this gorge has been cut down to its
  present depth solely through the action of the river itself; and that,
  ` too, within a period of time geologically recent. How long has it
  taken the 1‘ZlV€1' to do this? A definite numerical answer to this
  question is not an easy one to give. The rate of river cutting is not
  uniform. Much depends upon the rate of land elevation. A river
  is like a saw ; to be kept at its wo1·k constantly the feed into it must
  be constant—that is, the bottom must be made to rise against it, as
  it were. If the reve1·se process—subsidence—take place, the river V
  will cease to cut, or may even begin to fill up its channel instead.
  But, suppose the action and the 1·ate has b€€l1 constant, resulting in
  the wearing away from the bed one—tenth of a foot in one hundred
  years; how long would you say it had taken for tl1e canon at High
li Bridge to form? Would one million years seem too long or too short?
  By actual calculation, at such a constant rate, such a result could be
  easily accomplished in 300,000 years. It seems perfectly reasonable
lf to conclude that the Kentucky 1·ivcr could have fo1·1ned its gorge
li,} within one million years with considerable time to spare. Here is A
 if an instance of where we are liable to over, rather than under, esti-
  mat-e the time it has taken to accomplish a geological event; at least
  . · . , —   

  
 IV  .»~ 4*" t §j . . » ·   ' V   "*·_”  r·
  y ze ras canrrr. j 
  ‘L we might do this if we did not take the time to make the simple pr0— ‘ 
1 . visional calculation. ~` 
We will next consider some other cases where we are in danger of    »· .
.   making the opposite error :  
  The Cumberland river, a wide, shallow and somewhat gently-flow  
  _ tng stream in its upper course—from where it hreaks through the  
E , Pine mountains at Pineville to about 25 miles below Williamsburg,  
» in all about 80 miles-—here suddenly narrows up and plunges into  
Cumberland Falls, 05 feet over a precipitous escarpment of the car-  
boniferous conglomerate, into a wild, narrow gorge, trenched some  
—· four or live hundred feet into this tame conglomerate formation.  
Through this narrow canon, filled at the bottom with chaotic accum·  
ulation of large bowlders, the river finds its turbulent way by a suc-  
» cession of pools, rapids and cascades. This continues for a distance  
of some six or seven miles, before the cliffs recede somewhat and the  
channel becomes free from bowlders. There is no doubt but that  
this seven-mile stretch of "devil’s jumps," as it is called, marks the  
_ trail of the fall’s retreat up the river. When we consider how slowly  
this retreat has been conducted (no appreciable change has been no- '  
ticed in the position of the falls since their discovery by white men gf 
about 1750) the vague length of time involved in this retreat must  
, appear very vast. Suppose we give to the falls a rate of retreat of  
one foot in one hundred years——it could hardly have been greater  
  . than this-and to the gorge a length of six miles—it is certainly  
; more--and we have over three million years as a minimum for the  
J age of the falls and gorge. With a less liberal allowance in rate and  
j a greater in distance, all within the limits of justification by facts,  
p and ten million years would not seem an extravagant estimate {OI' the  
l time in which this action has taken place.  
  Slow, however, as are these processes of river erosion, resulting in  
  their cutting down their beds and back their falls, they are rapid in  
_ comparison with the rate in another set of phenomena we will next  ‘-
consider.  
At the headwaters of Green river, on the borders of Pulaski and  f
l _ Casey Counties, there arises to the height of 1800 feet above sea  
; level-800 feet above the bed of the steam at its base-—a knob, known ·  
  as "G'reen River Knob." With its base in the Devonian black shalet  
.1 .

  ’ — THE eannrr. ss -  
  it exhibits in outcrop, to one climbing to its summit, the whole sub-  
*  carboniferous series of the State, and is capped by the final member  
  of this series, the Chester sandstone, which forms the base of the coal  
  measures. Standing upon the summit of this knob——the highsre it
  point in the State west of the Eastern Kentucky mountains—one may 1.
fj  upon any clear day enjoy a most magnificent panoramic speetacle.  
  Northward stretch the barren Casey County Waverly sandstone up- - =
  lands, to where they terminate abruptly in a line of conical knobst
  encircling the more subdued, rolling contour outlines of the Blue,
  grass Silurian limestones. To the west and east the eye roams ove- T
  a similar foreground, till upon the line of the distant horizon——more ~~
  distant toward the west than toward the east—it rests upon the rugged
  margins of the two Kentucky coal fields, here some ninety miles y .
  apart. It will not be hard for anyone, standing upon this isolated ·_
  outlier of topmost sub-carboniferous, with this graphic picture of de-
  nudation effects spread out before him, to readily acquiesce in the
  view of Shaler, that the two coal fields were one time connected ; that
  the great Appalachian and Central coal nelds of the United States
'   were one time continuous across Southern Kentucky, and that they
FQ;  became separated in course of long ages by the slow processes of at-
  mospheric decay and surface denudation. Indeed, the study of a
  good geological and topographical map would lead to the same con-
  clusion. Restore the air lines of strata connecting those of Green
  River Knob with those outcropping along the margins of the two
  coal fields, and the demonstration is complete. The strata themselves,
  aggregating over a thousand feet in thickness, must have once Hlled ·
  in the intervening space.
  And if this be true, why may not the rest of the area now com—
  prehended in the boundary of the State have suffered like exten-
  sive denudation. Everywhere in the north central portion of the
  State evidence identical in kind with that just cited indicate that ,
 ‘- this same uncovering process has been going on. The outliers of
  newer formations, far within the encircling boundaries of the old,
 _· and the concedtric character of their successive lines of outcrop, l .
  point strongly to this conclusion. There seems some ground for
  beleiving that all the State, even this Blue-grass region here, was ·
  one time deeply covered by the coal. No Silurian rock exposed .
 ¤ i
.  9 

 5
  »V . t    _.  .   l   y  .   ‘  , ,
J   T E  i
  34 THE CADET. ?
  here then, with its accompanying thick envelope of rich blue—gras$f  A
fg soil, but coal-measure sandstone and shales, with resulting poverty  `
  characteristic of the mountain lands.  
  \Ve know that Kentucky, along with most of the Eastern and V—_·
  Northeastern United States, emerged from beneath the sea at the if 
 R; close of the period called, on account of the great accumulation of _
E `· carbonaceous matter therein——the "carboniferous." It looks as if the lz; 
‘ dry land resulting from this uplift first appeared here in the Blue-  
grass region. The 1·idging up took place along a line extending  
north and south through Cincinnati and Lexington, developing finally  
into a broad, low fold, with its highest point or dome here in this vi·  
cinity. The earth {irst lumped itself,`as it were, here in the Blue-grass  
region, andthus first here challenged the atmospheric agencies to  
- their work. This is the reason the wearing away here has been the jj.
most pronounced, exposing strata once lying at great depths. In the  
great lapse of time since then great inroads have been made in this  
old land surface. Frost and snow, wind and rain, dissolving action { 
» offcarbonic acid and corroding effect of decaying vegetation have  
donc their worst. They have been aided and abetted in their work fl;
of destruction by the streams, which, receiving the materials robbed  
from the land and using a portion of them as abrasives to trench  
· more deeply their channels into the earth, have carried them as finely  
_ comminnted materials relentlessly to the sea. According to this  
if ·= _, view, each formation of the State. up to and including the coal meas- g, 
- ures, was once continuous over the Blue-grass, and was successively  ·‘
worn through in this region. From this point as a center, the mar-  
fj gins of the older formations, often marked by more or less steep es-  
Q   carpments, have chased those of the newer outward in ever-widening  
  { concentric lines. lt is evident these 1·etreats have been conducted  
_;* with extreme slowness ; every inch has been fought over--a stubborn  
contest between the resistaant power of rocks and the ceaseless, insid-  
ions action of atmospheric decay. We try to grasp the magnitude of  
the time interval in which this has taken place, but are obliged to  
confess failure. Ii the down~cutting of an active stream is measured  
- in hundreds of thousands ef years; if the retreat of a falls in hard  
‘ rock carries us back into millions, are we in danger of overestimating  
if we allow tens or even hundreds of millions of years as a period of ?_ 

 — · . - · 1-
· .¤
 i  ·»
j  
1 *5
_ THE CADET. 35  
 ` time necessary for the accomplishment of such enormous denudation? »  
g Are there any methods by which we may approximate, at least rela- {
 i tively, the length of such denudation periods? Yes ; the annual sed-
 ; . iment discharge of rivers; and this, in connection with the thick ness
 Q of sedementary deposits formed in a certvtin period of time, furnishes
V data for this purpose. Calculations l>as.·d an the results obtained by
 i Humphrey and Abbot in their investigation of the annual discharge
Lf}  of solid materials by the Mississippi river indicate that the whole
  basin of the river is lowered, on an average, about a foot in 6,000
  years. Upon the supposition that the thickness of the strata formerly
  over the Blue-grass region, and removed by this rate of denudation, A
E}  aggregated 2,500-—an addition of the thicknesses of all the forma-
  tions between the top of the Trenton and the middle of the carbonif-
*  erous will give this as a minimum—the time that has elapsed since
E.  the close of the carboniferous is 15,000,000 years (6,000x2,500). With
  a maximum thickness of 6,000 feet for all the strata that could have
_ '~i  possibly been over this area in question, these iigures must be in-
t   creased to 36,000,000 years for the same period. But sediment is the
  correlative of denudation. All that is worn from the land must nec- h
  essarily,in the same period of time, be deposited in the sea. This
Vi  gives us the means of estimating directly the°length of certain given
  geological periods, and also—especially if the principles of time ratios
ii  be introduced—the length of geologic time in general. As an illus-
  tration of the application of this method to the measurement of a
  single period of geologic time we have the following ; ` P
  The Mississippi river, according to the investigations cited above,
  would form in 3,000 years strata 32 feet deep over an area of mechan-
  ical sedimentation containing 50,000 square miles. Assuming that
_'’l  S the Mississippi river is an average large river, and that this area of
  distribution is also an average one, so that the same conditions may l
  have existed in what is the Northern Appalachians during the depo- _
  sition there of some 14,000 feet of Devonian scdimen t, and we obtain
  2,800,000 years as the length of time in which these 14,000 feet of
li  strata could have accumulated. l
·f·l  Similarly Walcott, present Director of the United States Geologi-
’ cal Survey, computes 17,500,000 years as the time necessary for the .
 S accumulation of the palaeozoic sediment formed in what he terms the _
 i i

 I
t  ' A I l
  36 THE CADET.  .
Ti Cordilleran Sea, and which are now exposed as strata in the great
  interior plateau region of the Western United States. In making .
  this estimate he endeavors to take into consideration the rate of de-  V
  position for chemical as well as for mechanical sediments.  L
L  (Fo be continued.)  A
if THE NIGHT-BLOOMING CEREUS. _
She stood in the lamplight’s golden flood,  _ V
Yet seemed like a spirit ethereous, _
As softly she said, "Let us look at the bud  _
Of the beautiful night—blooming cereus-- J
The delicate night- blooming cereus." `
r So together we sought for this caprice of God
In the garden-this night-bloo rning cereus. I-
The ilowers’ perfume, and her zephyr-tossed hair, l
_ Led my thoughts into fancies delirious ; l
And so they bewitched me while whispering there- ` I 
This girl and this night—blooming cereus-  y
This fairy-kissed night-blooming cereus l
My soul was enchanted e1·e I was aware
By this maid and her night-blooming cereus.
wry In the silvery moonlight, hovering o’er
- Its star-loving petals mysterious-  °
` As little she dreamed ofthe charm that she wore _ 
ji, As the pure, waxen night-blooming cereus- ‘ a
  The white, soulless night-blooming cereus- T-
i E Knew less of what lay at my aching heart’s core ‘
l   Than the dew-drinking nightblooming cereus. _
  And to-night, as I stand in the shadow, alone,  `
’Neath the firmament, nebulous, glorious ;
From my heart comes a sigh, from my soul comes a moan  
For the past-and the night-blooming cereus-  V
  The gloom—hidden night-blooming cereus-  _
» Each year in my memory more precious has grown,
For her sake, sweet night-blooming cereus. A- —
i y,   G. ARBON. ‘
‘ l M 

 ‘ . i
Y THE oAnE·r. ev  
l
. Anson DAY.  
j  I have written many verses, but the best verses I have produced are _
the trees I have planted . —Holmes.
I The day is fraught with good to our native land. It is noble to .
 , repair the ravages of the forest, to re-establish cool retreats for the
tired traveler or panting herd, and to protect home against stormy p 
; blasts. It is a notable step in our nation`s progress that she fosters .
_ - the departmentvof forestry and seeks to interest her people in the
 _ abundant sentiment and illimitable usefulness of the tree. The tree U
I in its native haunt sees nature in her wildest yet most charming form. A
° It sees her clothed in her primal beauty, which the painter in vain
` tries to depict on his canvas. It hears the sweetest melodies of warb- I
ling songsters of which the bards sing.
  Trees are beautiful and attractive. They are witnesses of the chang- .
l ing seasons. They are monuments in history and monarchs of the
_ vegetable wo1·ld. Deprive the hills of their luxuriant verdure, or fell
`, the silvan giants of the valley, and sterility will ensue. Trees are
 · more valuable than gold or silver. Nearly every art is dependent
° upon wood. They are an inspiration to the poet.
_. *‘And this our life. exempt from public haunt;
 I Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks,
· Sermons in stones, and good in everything."——Shakespeare.
T Plant trees along the highways of men; p1'€S€1'VG the blooming
 = beauties of woodland shades, and thus with your own hands contribute _
' to the future welfare of your country.
 ` "O, Painter of the fruits and iiowers!
 » We thank Thee for Thy wise design, g
· Wliereby these human hands of ours .
 it In Nature’s garden work with Thine."-—Wl1ittier.
¥ Who is it that, after having well spent the day, delights not to
f spread his couch beneath the green tents of nature? Who is it that
`.  delights not to walk through green-broidered aisles lined with odor- . ·
I ous flowers? Who is it that finds no beauty in nature, no music for
. his soul? None but the base. Many {lowers are dependent upon trees
 —' for their existence. Keep the trees and keep the flowers; because l
t i

 I
   W K do vt sv _
,i.
  ,
  38 THE CADET.  V
ii "Your voiceless lips, O Flowers, are living preachers,  
  Each cup a pulpit, every leaf a book
  Supplying to my fancies numerous teachers  i
  From loneliest nook.  ’
  ’Neath cloistered boughs each floral bell that swingeth, J-
ii And tolls its perfume on the passing air,
  Makes Sabbath in the iields, and ever ringeth -
1 A call to prayer."—-English poet. 2
Long live this day, Columbia, l
And live our land.  T
Oh, long may all thy people see  B
Thy fairest hand T
· Adorn with garland wreaths of love
This, Freedom’s land I C., ’98.
THANKSGIVING BULLLETIN. ' . O
November 26, 1896. g
1:00 a. ni.-—"Dreams of turkey."  T
- 5 :00 a. m.—"Starts in his sleep ; faint sounds of the waking gob-  
bler are heard."  E
Q