xt7cnp1wfs4j https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7cnp1wfs4j/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1932 journals kaes_circulars_264_annual_report_1932 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 264 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 264 1932 2014 true xt7cnp1wfs4j section xt7cnp1wfs4j ,  I
Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
__ FOR THE 4
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Annual Report of the Extension Division for 1932.
T. R. BRYANT, Assistant Director
e llivi- _ _ _
tulmm The trying eonmlitions brought upon farm people by the
A Nm severe and prolonged economic depression, multiplietl the prob-
`tivim leins facing the extension service during 1932. Despite this con-
mmm tlition extension workers accomplished a larger service than in
any previous year in the history of the service. The great tlrouth
of 1930 increased the intlebtetlness of many farmers aml entailezl
nzneh ale mli:·autit’ying of homes.
11 usual · The enrollment and percent of completions i11 -L-H Club
lsaletll llierli exceeded the record of any previous year, despite the
teu·l··=l dropping of agents by certain counties. The total enrollment
meer ei was 22.377, an increase of 1.627 over tl1e previous year. The
liercent of completions was $2.5 as compared \\'llll 77.7 i11 1931.
· to tlr TlllS is largely accounted for by the lietter l1`2lllllll{I of \'0llUll'<‘<‘1`
xteiisiote local leaders.
reels an = The clubs for older boys and girls, known as lvtopia (‘lubs,
{l\\‘l1t'l`l`ll have grown rapidly. lt is apparent that this interestin;1‘ phase
the ltlilf of extension work has long been neezled a11d 111USl be more gener-

6 Aimual Report for 1932
ously provided for. In addition to performing their project T
work exceptionally well, these older boys and girls become excel- C1
lent leaders, especially for 4-H Clubs, and assist in the social `
_ and recreational programs in their communities. I,.
In most phases of extension work the financial situation has Oi
caused a shifting from those practices requiring eonsideralilt· H,
cash outlay, to those requiring little money. Some decrease, {oi- H,
example, was noticed in the use of liming materials but thi, H,
occurred mostly in the use of pulverized limestone that had to _ il,
be purchased while the use of marl was about the same as inthe ,,i
previous year and the use of ho1ne—burned lime actually in- Hg
` Perhaps no part of agronomic extension work has been at i,
greater cash value to farmers or has done more to cleinzmstialc U.
good farming practice than pasture improvement. Increasinc 1-,
the carrying capacity of pastures and devoting to improvid S,
pasture, land formerly tilled but which should not have been H
plowed has increased earnings, reduced production costs an=l ,1
labor. Recommended mixtures were sown on 375,000 aerea
Korean lespedeza was sown alone on 1.15,000 acres while 25Vl.llll!l “
acres came voluntarily as a result of previous sowings anil tl
approximately four million pounds of seed was saved, wliil· U
16,862 acres of new bluegrass pasture was sown with lioiran D
lespedeza, not to mention a much wider use on old bluegrel~* N
pastures to increase their carrying capacity.
Since tobacco is thc principal cash crop in Kentucky all pos- I
sible was done to improve quality, Fertilizer demonstrati¤»u~· l U
the use of disease-resistant varieties and other means to1‘i¤1‘·‘· ‘ |;
· venting ravages of disease were popular projects. Deinonslra-
tions in proper curing methods were especially helpful and tliosc 1
following instructions received improved prices as a result. I
A total of 3,525 farm buildings or structures were built "’l` H
remodeled according to plans provided by the extension service. ]
These ranged all the way from new dwelling houses to the briiilz :
ln·ooder that proved cheap and satisfactory. The 1n1n1l=er··l ‘ i
plans cited does not include those for terraeing, drainage, water A
supply, sewage disposal, farm lighting and other such fealui‘r#» i

 ]i'eii.fucL=y E.rtensi`0iz Circular N0. 264 7
»roje4·t The only limit to accomplislnnent in this Field is the time and
excel- endurance of the extension engineers.
social ` A part of extension work that has doubtless been stimulated
by scarcity of money is landscape gardening or the beautifying
on has ot home grounds, schools and churches. Wlieii money is scarce
leralile and time at home is plentiful, improvement of home sites is the
se, ter usual result. The wealth of native trees and shrubs may be p
it this used to adantage and without cash outlay. The demand for
had t·· liorticultural service has far exceeded the time at the disposal
inthe ot the specialist but training schools for leaders and county
lly iu- agents have extended rapidly the volume of work.
Movable Schools and visual instruction have continued as
***11 at important means of disseminating information and ideas. Equip-
11”11`*‘l" ment was sent to counties where projection apparatus and other
70*1*111* tacilities for ettective instruction were not available, and the
l’1"1“"1 supply of tilms has been in heavy demand. The effectiveness of
'<‘ 1’1"`11 the radio is difficult to measure but correspondence and other
ile *111*1 indicators show that it is quite eitective.
  Information thru the press is constantly proving, to be
LF Emi, worth while. ,'lhe press has an advantage over radio lin that
e’“,m,\ detailed directions and figures can be given.- The. cordial atti-
·v tude ot editors 1nay be attributed to the material being free trom
ktllwml priipagainla. A wide and constant use by newspapers of the
11°¥1`*"` news provided by the College has been the result.
Dairy extension wo1·k, like that with poultry, has shown
2=11_r‘***‘ _ the savings ot costs and the actual making of money in periods ‘
1'*11"'1li‘ et depressed prices. This has been proved especially to mein-
(11` lm)- i tiers of dairy herd improvement associations.
10mm- (`ream grading work has progressed under the stimulus of
i=1t‘11t‘*" llisiier prices, which extension workers induced cream buyers to
111l· PHY tor premium cream. The salaries and expenses of grading-
l>uilt,*`*1` Fil1]>e1‘viso1·s who work nnder the direction of the College WOYG
sei·vi,<··¤ paid by the buyers. The cream grading service has developed
ie ln·1cl1 a triple purpose, that of reducing losses, making money for
nber et l`2ll`lll(‘l'S and putting the industry on a sounder basis.
e. water Poultry extension work has made money for those who have
`ealures. followed recommended practices. Emphasis has been laid upon

8 Annual Report for 1.93.2
the "healthy chick program." Following this program has ,
enabled cooperators to reduce mortality to a minimum and to H
raise higher-producing pullets. ]1`acilities for B. \V. il). testing O
with the cooperation of the extension veterinarian have been de- ii
veloped at eight places in Kentucky. By this means the pro- ii
curing of disease-free stock has aided those who took advantage  
of it to sell eggs to hatcheries at several cents per dozen above
the ordinary market. As a result a number of counties have re O,
ported incomes increased by several thousand dollars each. O
Many growers have reported labor incomes as high as $1.75 per  
hen, despite general low prices. The inability to procure brooder _ I,
stoves has been overcome by the brick brooder designed by the (
College which is homemzule, designed to burn wood, costs prac-
tically no money, saves operating cost and is entirely satis-  
factory. ln a number of counties a "poultry consciousness" ll
has developed which may bring about the development ot 1
superior products and the possibility of buying eggs by grade.  
so that the best producers will be properly rewarded.  
Opportunity was presented in 1932 for the liortienltural  
program both to serve the business of farming and sustain the  
farm family. Examples ot? aceoinplislnnent were displayed in 1_
tour counties where "t’ood festivals" were held. At least elle (
ot these counties had been compelled a year betore to seek out
side help in teeding the poor. 1
The use of eertitied seed potatoes gave convincing results. l
Taking the state as a whole. the yields were more than douhIc.l _. i
by the use of such seed. All told, at;124 bushels ot certitictl \
Snell \\'e1‘e planted. This was made possible by the llll\\Nllilil}' U (
' low price ot such seed. llalt of this total was planted in inonn- I
tain counties. \\’here seed treatment, t’ertilixatiion and sprayinji
were practiced, the results were even more striking. ,
Many owners of orchards who used the tank-mix cold eil l
emulsion declared that their spray costs were reduced to less .
than halt. ltordeaux was used where necessary.
\Vork with sinall t’ruits was quite snccesslul. l""’ in
reveral years the l·]xtension Service has emphasized the arivaut-
ages of small acreage per farm, high quality and careful grad-

 ’ i
If0m‘ue7.·y Ertcizlsion Circular No. 261 9
adb; ing This resulted 111 prices of berries well above the average
. . on terminal markets 111 kentucky. Tillage a11d fertihzing
  dt»aionst1·atio11s had taught tl1ei1· lessons. The small units en-
abled the family to ]}O1'i:()1‘1l1 all work except picking. The re-
l lm} sguit was good yields, high quality and good prices. The Mc-
ntage . , _ , _ . . . _ _ .
` lracken County association, tor example, w as composed of units
above . _ . , . . .
ot two acres, ayeragc size. l`he picking season ot three weeks
  employed $30,000 at an Zl\`€1'ilg€.Of $1.00 per day. The whole
_, ` ' l‘llll`·l`l)l'iSC was declared by business men a11d farmers to be a
0 lm. "lite-saver" for their community and they credited their success
  largely to extension work.
`imw The problem of coordination and management must be
Sam solved if prohts are to accrue from dilterent branches of farm-
mm.1 ing. At times this work has appeared to move slowly because
Ht of farnzers are reached most effectively one by 0110. The cumula-
n_md(_· tive ettect of several years’ work became apparent in 1932, partly
° because margins were so narrow that study of management
Mum] was no l0llQ(‘l’.2l matteriot choice but of necessity. Coinniunity
in HW ?¤lll’·\'(‘§`S are still airassistance because they attord comparisons
md in wlneh help te solve individual cases. Even where tarmcrs were
St lm" not yet ready to keep full accounts, their inventories have. been
k Om, Ol assistance. Farm accounting has been found an admirable
project for the older boys and girls of the lltopia Clubs.
mms, Farni management schools, tours and the other 1l1ClllO(lS
[mlm g iiaiially employed gave better results than nrprevious years and A
Timllll · lllilividual cases of success following the gl1ltl2lllCC ot extension
{WIN _ \\‘g1‘ll€813,1SO.()O. A
The back-to-the-farm movement has been growing for tw O
years. In 26 counties in eastern Kentucky. 7,577 families movetl  
from industrial centers back to farms. The majority of ll1t‘*f ·  
families who settled in the mountains of Kentucky, protlar· _ F
, little or no surplus and they have practically no funtls with iz
which to buy from surplus-producing farmers, They only zilfrf r
the whole economic situation to the extent that they relieve tl1»· C
public somewhat of the necessity of providing for them. ltaclt I
of the time of extension workers, whose primary function is that ,,
of giving information, is taken up in aiding these returned fana-
ers. The innnediate effect of this inttux is to retard rural lll"’Y‘ V 9
ress. These people taking their place as rural citizens piweiit
another burden on the community and another opportunity tor
the activities of the county agent.

 p Kentucky Extension Circzzlar N0. 264 11
,[a,.m In addition to the crop loans and back-to-the-land IHOVG-
io illlli ment, the shortage of money has led to another project which
,(p,,i,· has been given state-wide attention, namely, the Live-at-Home
to the ]}l'(lg'l‘illll. The purport of this proggram is to assist farmers so
several lar as possible to live well at llO1llC 011 l1o111e—produeed products,
gs illlll and to provide 2ll)tl1l(l£l11CC of feed for the farm livestock. Exten-
sion ageiits have ll11tl(31’tlll{Gl1 to show farm people how to do
tlieee things well.
'l`he followiiig table indicates some of the activities and
, mlm 1;rc<>mplisln11e11ts;
wa tllzil
( l2l`1·
mmp·l‘_ (`0lll1ti0S Wlllll ?Lg€lltS .---..----»··.»»-~»---------..---·-.-....·.`-.-.....·......-..........»..·.- SS
{lap (mi County extension 0rgz111iZatiOl1S ........................................................ 71
1 ,t;. _ Men ____........................ . ..................................................... 6,762
is ····1 i,G,,,,,,,,S,,,,,§ Women _··_·_   llun _ pnnlllnlllllnlh Q Innnln _ ____·A.._»__»_»>__________>__.___»·_ 11352
’ j‘Hm` Connnunities that built extension prograins ................................ S90
?@Xll`*l‘ Cznnmuiiity leaders in e0n1n1unity-built progranis .................... 8,952
llemler training meetings .1.....,............................................................ 871
lll‘lll¤*ll‘ -\ll€ll(l211lC€ of loeal leaders ............................................................1. 9,461
~1 . Meetings held by local leaders, not participated i11 by county
(11111115 _
· agents .....__._.___________.....______________..........___........_.....__________............._..... 2,125
1 appli-
_ Attendance .__..__________________.______....._.___.._.__.__..____,__________....________._____............ 41,993
L 51UmN ll€lll0lHl all meetings held, including demonstrations, Short
`ll mm- <'0ll1`S€S, leader training meetings, ete ____.,__....___........,.......... .. 14,348
til p1‘f>¤· ¤\lle11 W.
l Swine ......,,...............»».,... 294] -
L Beet ....................»..»....,.__ gm
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        .y- ,_    ·~1    ,           ‘ ~ ··  
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     * 1. 1     .    ,,l»,» M   1
  . ’‘.     ·= l   T      ?f??iTYi ‘l “l r <==
\YfllUllt(*(*l‘ leziders are the ]ll'lHl'lD2ll :<11p1r¤>1·t of Vfilllllllllllly i;11p:·m·e;11··:11
as 1111cle1·t:1l111e111;1l. b
I11 E1(lCl1t101l to this special l1elp was given t0 l10111G111Hl{Gl’S 111 El: N
. · . . *
e0u11t1eS 110t having l101r1e cle111011st1‘at1011 agents. Ju1110r heme- _ T
. . . . ,, . · ¤*
llléllilllg p1`O(]CCtS WGIG CEl1'1‘1€(l 011 111 Ol COH1lJ[lGS. Tllé \'Olll1ll@ (ll · ii
werk aeeemplislied thru O1‘g£l1llZZlTlO11 and with the help ef loqal P
· . . _ ‘
leaders was greater than 111 the previous year. Three llllll(llCll C]
311Cl t\\’€11t}’ eO1111111l11ity groups 0f \\’O1HC1l, with an e111‘0ll111C11l of
6,122, and 367 4-H groups, with a11 e111·0lh11e11t 0f 4.829 girls.
carried 011 detiiiitely Olltll1lC(-l work. Tl1e 1111111her reeeiviiia ¢l¤‘ll‘ l`
1]ll`(‘ help was l6,l$5 and there were 3,259 loeal leaders zissisiini`- H
]’1*og1‘(L111 of work. Ill aL * ‘  
S ‘   j ·—_· ¤  ~   hg   .  .   ‘      ‘ A  '“ 1
V 1*-ics;  6 "2 ii `V4; i    m‘g ‘ i’   —. il      eli` iii , .
  *     l‘¢-·   l..l V.  Vc    "  * ’
{—V—\“ii -       ` '‘,·   Y   . ~*"i’   »;· ·Q’Y‘?Z
e’   .   5`ri   ‘         _‘ ·¢2_ _· · ». ‘
»     Q _·.‘ \.; _       .       ·• _   . ¤_
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·   .·   ·.VV,», `¤·     . :·· .—· -.   ..V — V
l'l0j11L·l}}2!iik‘l`S at the Oak Island Coinniunity Irluuse in Kenton County
<·;11111111;‘ veggeuililes for relief work.
  Food and N1¢t1·i1‘i012V. Food—preparation work was carried
Oll in ei<1·ht eounties and as a result   homeiiiakers re iort
Z? 7 ,
|lCiiOl'])1`Q])&ll'E‘Ll and more attractively served meals. Nutrition
umm ivork was undertaken in 12 counties. As a result, meals have
. _ been ilanned to include the foods needed for liealtli and resist-
1 111 ZG _
homo 31100 to disease and to eorreet various nutritional conditions such _
mm Of HS Overweiglit, nnderweight, anemia, constipation and indiges-
_ _ » t1o11. ll1l)1`OVC(l iraetiees in food and nutrition work we1·e re-
»i loeal I
ported bv 19,391 >eo ile. The sehool-lunch work enabled 12 422
  »»   1:; iz 1.—· ;           ~   i ·
1\ 1101111111::11*:1111111 111111$0 111 (;1Lll`1{ County. A 1011:1111 11r111$;> 1)1'1`()Z'L* 111-1112 ,
111 111111i1i011 10 1110 work (1011C i11 1111011 p1·01+01*v11111111 111111
h11()l‘&lg'1‘, 1110 (i.1rJ1\'C"111r'II(1111C`7 ])1'(1g'1'2l111 111C11`l(11‘(1 11l1il'1‘1lS1‘(1 111111
i111]11·11x*0:1 11$0 111 11111110 growii 0r11p$ w11i011 11011) 111 ]_)]'O\`1111¥ 1110 `
fzuuily 11*i111 211 111*211111y 11i01. '1`110 i1101·011$011 11$0 of GQQQS7 1110 11s0 L
1117 (1&111')’ [)l`1>111lC1S 11)* 111z111'()l111C1'S l1§$1‘(1 \\'11`1l 1110 QX(j(‘1)1`1()ll of $1111, 51*111 In
111111 S11§;’il1‘. g
1l1(’ll.1’_1` 11'1n·71‘. A g·1·0111 110111 111* F111111 ]'(‘11(‘1? \\`O1’1{ 11218 110011 <1""" *1
11y 111>l111‘1ll2l1((’1'S 1l11(11*1' $111101·vi$io11 111’ 11111110 (1C1lI()l1S1`1'2l111111 21Q\‘111$· I
'1`110 v111·i1111$ 21(211\