xt7crj48q03j https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7crj48q03j/data/mets.xml Busbey, Hamilton, 1840-1924. 1904  books b98-59-43710255 English Macmillan Company ; Macmillan & Co., ltd., : New York : London : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Horses. Horse racing United States. Trotting and the pacing horse in America  / by Hamilton Busbey. text Trotting and the pacing horse in America  / by Hamilton Busbey. 1904 2002 true xt7crj48q03j section xt7crj48q03j 







-, V- el -kko.

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       NEW Lorh

All rights reserved

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           COPYRIGHT, 1904,


  Set up and electrotyped. Published July, 1904.

            Norwood Press
9f. S. Cushing & Co. -Berwick & Smith Co.
        Norwood, Mass., U.S.S.



  FOR thirty-eight consecutive years I was a
visitor at breeding farms and a close observer
of horses at speed on the trotting tracks of the
country, and in this way I gained knowledge of
the subject discussed in this volume. I was an
unwavering advocate of movements which estab-
lished system where chaos had reigned, and it
would be mock modesty for me to pretend that
my acquaintance with facts is distant. The evo-
lution of the trotter took place during the active
period of my life.  The fortunate owner of a
good library on the horse counts his books by
the hundred.  Whole volumes have been sur-
rendered to one family or tribe. It was no easy
task to condense, from thousands of letters and
printed pages, the facts which I present. I have
tried to give a bird's-eye view of the situation,
and have not spun yarns in which a pound of
fancy paralyzes one little grain of truth. It has
been my aim to give a compact history of


vi                  Preface

  Some who idly turn these pages may think
that, if I have erred, it is in conciseness of state-
ment; but people of inquiring minds who refer
to the book for information, having faith that
fiction has been subordinated to fact, wvill thank
me for an error of this kind.

                           HAMILTON BUSBEY.
   June, 3904.



CHAPTER                                              PAGS
    I. The Introduction of the Horse and the Gradual
           Increase of Speed.    .   .    .   .    .   I
    II. From 2.IO to Two Minutes and Better. Tracks,
           Vehicles, and Wind-shields.    .   .    .  II
   III. The Two-minute Horses of 1903.    .   .    .  25
   IV. Primordial Streams of Speed   .    .   .    .  36
   V. The Lady Suffolk Era .    .   .    .   .    .  40
   VI. Flora Temple, 2.I94, and Dexter, 2.174  .   .  46
   VII. Goldsmith Maid and Smuggler   .   .    .    .  51
 VIII. From the 2.134 of Rarus to the 2.031 of TheAbbot  65
   IX. Cresceus: Reduction of Stallion Record and Double
           Harness Rivalry  .    .   .    .   .    .  78
   X. The Foundation Horses, Imported Messenger and
          Justin Morgan.   .    .   .    .   .    .  86
  XI. Three Energetic Sons of Justin Morgan, Bulrush,
          Woodbury, and Sherman Morgan   .   .    .  96
  XII. The Morrill Tribe and Other Descendants of Justin
          Morgan  .    .   .    .   .    .   .    . 105
 XIII. Mambrino Chief and his Descendants     .    . I13
 XIV. The Pilot Family .    .   .    .   .    .   . 129
 XV. Messenger and the Tribe of Hambletonian .    . 135
 XVI. Prepotent Sons of Hambletonian, including George
         W ilkes  .    .   .    .   .    .   .    . 152
XVII. The Family of Electioneer .    .   .    .   .173


viii                   Coiltents

CHAPTER                                             PA(;E
XVIII. Volunteer, Aberdeen, Happy Medium, Dictator,
            Harold, and Strathmore.   .   .    .   .184
   XIX. Cuyler, Egbert, Jay Gould, Edward Everett, and
            Other Members of the Hambletonian Tribe   . 199
    XX. The Star Family  .    .   .    .   .   .    . 210
    XXI. The Clay Family .    .    .   .    .   .    . 216
  XXII. The Blue Bull, Royal George, and Other Subsidiary
            Families.   .    .   .    .   .    .   .  225
 XXIII. Great Producing Mares: Green Mountain Maid,
            Miss Russell, and Beautiful Bells  .  .   . 233
 XXIV. Other Great Producing Mlares, including Clara,
            Alma Mater, and Dame Winnie   .    .   . 249
  XXV. The Era of High Prices    .    .   .    .   . 270
  XXVI. The Dawn of Systematic Breeding: Track Gov-
            ernment .   .    .   .    .   .    .   . 275
XXVII. The Growth of Discipline: Horse Shows      .   . 285
XXVIII. Road-riding Movements     .   .    .   .    . 296
XXIX. Amateur Driving Clubs     .    .   .    .   . 301
  XXX. The Pacing Horse      .    .   .   .    .   . 303
  XXXI. The Multiplication of the Pacer.   .    .   . 3i6
XXXII. Breeding and Breeding Establishments   .    . 324

INX .      .   335




Lou Dillon                  .    .          .    Frontispiece
                                                   FACING PAGE
E. E. Smathers, driving Major Delmar  .      .   .    .
C. K. G. Billings, driving the Champion Trotter, Lou Dillon  14
Pace-maker with Wind-shield        .    .      .   .     24
Wind-shield and Dirt-shield                  .           24
Major Delmar     .   .    .   .                          30
Dan Patch   .    .   .                                   34
Prince Alert.    .   .    .    .                         35
E. T. Bedford, driving York Boy and Bemay.  .    .       35
Flora Temple       .      .    .   .                     46
Beautiful Bells                    .    .      .         46
Dexter        .    .           .   .    .   .    .    .  48
Goldsmith Maid          .      .        .    .   .    .  50
Nancy Hanks                 .    .        .           .  50
Maud S.                     .             .           .  68
Sunol                     .               .           .  72
Alix                 .    .    .   .                  .  76
The Abbot   .                                            76
Cresceus                              .      .        .  78
Kremlin                                          .    .  78
Palo Alto                                                1..  .      .        .      .  24
Directum                                                 1..      .                     24
Rysclyk's Hambletonian.   .    .   .    .    .   .       144
Mambrino Chief   .   .    .    .   .    .    .   .    . 144


Ill/s/h al1ols

George Wilkes
AMiss Russell .
Green Mountain Maid
P. P. Johnston
William Russell Allen
WV. P. Ijams .
J. Malcolm Forbes.
John E. Thayer
Lawrence Kip
Robert Bonner
William H. Vanderbilt
Mambrino Patclhen
Baron Wilkes
Star Pointer .
John R. Gentry
Joe Patchen
Brown Hal
Charles Backman .
Benjamin F. Tracy
William C. Whitney
C. J. Hamlin .
Leland Stanford

     . 156
     . 156
     . 232
   . 232
     . 270
     . 286
     . 286
     . 286
     . 290
     . 290
     . 290
     . 296
     . 296
     . 306
     . 306
     . 312
     . 312
     . 320
.    320
   . .324
.    324
    . 326
    . 326




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               CHAPTER I


  ACCORDING to Nesbit, horse-races were made a
feature of public festivities as early as the Patri-
archs' time. The fever spread from Eastern coun-
tries to other countries. Horses first drew burdens,
but after the invention of saddles carried them
on their backs. In the days of Augustus sport-
loving Romans rode in different colors, usually
green, red, white, and sea-color. In the reign of
Henry II of England races took place at Epsom,
and the breeding of horses was encouraged by
Henry VIII.
  The horse, as shown by fossil remains, existed
in America prior to its discovery by Columbus,
but the first importation across the Atlantic
was made in 1493. These horses were taken to
      B              I


2     Tbe Trolling and the Pacing Horse

the West India Islands by Columbus, and from
there the stock spread to Florida in I527. De Soto
was attended by cavalry in the expedition in which
he discovered the Mississippi River. In i604
horses were taken from France to Nova Scotia,
and in i6o8 the French introduced horses into
Canada. In i609 English ships landed horses at
Jamestown, and Bancroft informs us that in i656
the horse had multiplied in Virginia and through
favorable legislation had improved. Speed was
especially valued. Horses were landed in Massa-
chusetts in i629, and in the same year were im-
ported into New York from Holland. In Virginia
and the Carolinas particular attention was paid to
the breeding of horses for the running track, while
in Pennsylvania, New York, and the New England
States the horse of general utility was cultivated.
  The easy motion of the Narragansett pacer made
him desirable for the saddle when road-building
was in its primitive stage, and the first speed com-
petitions between horses were on level stretches
of the country. These saddle contests were far
from orderly, but were keenly relished by the little
communities weighed down by monotony and
craving excitement. All kinds of sharp practices
were resorted to for the purpose of beating a rival,


LIfrodulction of the Horse

and there is more fable than actual truth in some
of the reports handed down to us from those
days. Time could not be accurately taken on these
straight stretches of road, and this afforded boast-
ers plenty of latitude for exaggeration. The time
reported for flights of speed in straightaway ice
races and speedway exhibitions is always open
to question, and is not officially recognized. It
belongs to the realm of irresponsible talk.
  The early tracks were poorly constructed, and
seconds slower than those of to-day. The trainer
had to ride as well as drive in contests, a large per
cent of the recorded races being open to horses
under saddle.  The observation stands were
roughly constructed, and the entire surroundings
were crude. On a half-mile track at Harlem, New
York, in June, i8o6, a horse called Yankee is re-
puted to have trotted a mile in 2.59. The per-
formance of Boston Blue, at Jamaica, New York,
in i8i8, a mile in three minutes, is authentic. In
I827 Rattler trotted two miles under saddle in
5.24; in I828 Screwdriver trotted three miles
under saddle in 8.02; and in i829 Topgallant
trotted three miles in harness in 8.ii. The dif-
ference between saddle and harness for three
miles is nine seconds, but the difference in the



4    The Trotting and the Pacing Horse

capacity of the two horses is not accurately known.
In i834 Edwin Forrest, a black gelding, trotted a
mile under saddle in 2.3II, and in the same year
a bay mare called Sally Miller trotted a mile in
harness in 2.37. The Lady Suffolk era began in
i845, when she trotted in harness in 2.29k-. The
same year Moscow, a bay gelding of unknown
blood, trotted in 2.30. In I849 Lady Sutton, by
Morgan Eagle, trotted in 2.30, and Pelham, a
bay gelding of untraced breeding, trotted in 2.28.
  In the appended table I give championship
records, designating those made with wind or dirt
shield with the letter s, and those made on kite
tracks with the letter k -

One mile, Lou Dillon, chestnut mare, I903  . .  I.58-- s
Two miles, Robert McGregor, chestnut horse, i902  4.17
Three miles, Nightingale, chestnut mare, 1893  .  6.5 5
Four miles, Senator L., chestnut horse, 1893 .  . 10.12
Five miles, Zambra, brown gelding, I902  .  . 12.24
Ten miles, John Stewart, bay gelding, 1867  .  . 28.024
Thirty miles, General Taylor, gray horse, i885  . 1.47-59
One hundred miles, Conqueror, bay gelding, 1853 . 8.55.05

  Twenty, fifty, and one hundred mile perform-
ances are no longer in vogue. They served no
good purpose, and the Society for the Prevention
of Cruelty to Animals interfered.


Inlroduclioit of /be Horse

  The best high-wheel records at one mile
are: -
Maud S., chestnut mare, i885.  .    .   . 2.o81
Sunol, bay mare, I89I. .   .   .    .   . 2.o8J k
Palo Alto, bay horse, I89I. .   .    .   . 2.084 k
Jay-eye-see, black gelding, I 884  .  .  .  . 2.10

  Mr. Bonner, who owned both Maud S. and
Sunol, estimated that the high-wheel record of
Maud S. on the oval track at Cleveland was a
second better than that of Sunol on the kite
track at Stockton.  The kite was but a passing
fancy and is no longer in use. The first one
was built at Independence, Iowa, in i890, and
the one long turn gave it an advantage in point
of speed over the regulation track with its two
turns, especially when high wheels were in gen-
eral use. After the introduction of the bicycle
sulky in i892, this advantage was not so appar-
ent; and as the public objected to kite races on
account of the horses going so far from the
grand stand, the tracks of this design ceased to
  The important question is how much Lou
Dillon was assisted by the horse immediately in
front of her with a dirt-shield. Maud S. trotted
without artificial aids. Mr. J. Malcolm Forbes



6     The Trotting and the Pacing Horse

estimated the difference between the high-wheel
record and the bicycle sulky at five seconds.
Only through careful experiment can we deter-
mine the difference between shield records and
other records.
  The best records made under saddle are: -

One mile, Great Eastern, bay gelding, i877  .  .  2.15
Two miles, George -I. Patchen, bay horse, i863  .  4.56
Three miles, Dutchman, bay gelding, i839  .  .   32
Four miles, Dutchman, bay gelding, I836 .  .  . 10.5I

  The harness record of Great Eastern is 2.I8,
and, taking his two performances as a guide, we
fix the saddle as 3 seconds faster than the sulky.
Horses are not alike, and some will show           a
greater difference than this between saddle and
  Trotting with running mate has also gone out
of fashion.   It was no proof of merit, because
the runner not only relieved the trotter of weight
but pulled him forward. The records are: -
One mile (against time), Ayres P., chestnut gelding, i893, 2.031
One mile (in a race), Frank, bay gelding, I883  .  . 2.o81

  The team records for one mile are:
The Monk, brown gelding, by Chimes, and Equity,
   black gelding, by Heir at Law, 1903  .  .  . 2.o8


Introduction of the Horse


Rose Leaf, black mare, by Gold Leaf, and Sally Simmons,
    bay mare, by Simmons (in a race), i894
The three-abreast record of one mile was made in i89I
    by Belle Hamlin, Globe, and Justina, all by Hamlin's
    Almont Jr., and it is
The four-in-hand record, one mile, was made in i896 by
    Damania, Bellnut, Maud V., and Nutspra, all by
    Nutwood, and it is
The fastest record at one mile over a half-mile track is
    that of Cresceus, in 1903





  The best undisputed record of Cresceus on a
mile track is 2.02-, which would fix the difference
between the two tracks at 5.3 seconds.

The fastest half-mile record on a mile track is that of

Major Delmar, made in i902


The records to wagon are: -

One mile, Lou Dillon, 1903.   .   .    .   .   2.00 S
One mile, Major Delmar, 1903  .   .    .   .   2.031 S
Two miles, Dexter, i865  .    .   .    .   .   4-56k
Three miles, Prince, 1857.    .   .    .    .  7.532
Five miles, Fillmore, I863.   .   .    .   . I3.I6
Ten miles, Julia Aldrich, i858.   .    .    . 29.0412
Twenty miles, Controller, I878.   .    .    . 585 7

  The wagons of to-day are but mere feathers as
compared to those of i865, and this fact should
be taken into consideration in estimating the
difference between performances.


8    The Trolling and the Pacing Horse

The best trot of a pair to wagon on a half-mile track was
    that of York Boy and Bemay at Parkway, in
    in 1o92   .   .    .   .    .   .    .    . 2.121
The best trot in single harness to wagon on a half-mile
    track was that of Cresceus, in i9oi  .  .  . 2.12

    It is not possible in the space to which I am
limited to give all meritorious performances, but
the reader will gain a clear idea of progression
in breeding and development from the chapters
which treat of epoch-making horses.
   Nevertheless, at the risk of being charged with
repetition, I introduce a compilation which will
enable the reader to see at a glance the progress
of development.     It took years to increase har-
ness speed from    three minutes to two minutes.

Boston Blue, black gelding   .      . I8I8     3.00
Bull Calf, bay gelding.    .   .    . 1830     2.47T
Edwin Forrest, black gelding.  .    . i838     2.361
Dutchman, bay gelding .    .   .    . x839     2.32
Lady Suffolk, gray mare                1. .    . I845     2.291
Pelham (converted pacer), bay gelding  . 1849  2.28
Highland Maid (converted pacer), bay mare i853  2.27
Flora Temple, bay mare.    .   .    . i856     2.241
Flora Temple, bay mare.    .   .    . 1859     2.I93
Dexter, brown gelding .    .   .    . i867     2.17T
Goldsmith Maid, bay mare   .    .   . i871     2.17
Goldsmith Maid, bay mare.  .   .    . I874     2.14
Rarus, bay gelding  .      .   .    . I878     2.I31
St. Julien, bay gelding.   .   .    . 1879     2.124


It/roduc/ioit of the Horse

Maud S., chestnut mare
Maud S., chestnut mare
Jay-eye-see, black gelding
Maud S., chestnut mare
MNauid S., chestnut mare
Sunol, bay mare
Nancy Hanks, brown mare
Alix, bay mare .
The Abbot, bay gelding
Cresceus, chestnut horse
Lou Dillon, chestnut mare

        . i.88o
    .   . i881
    .   . I884
    .   . I 884
       . I885
   .i. i89i
   .   . i894
    . 1900
       . I901
        . 1903

  The bicycle sulky came into use in I892, and
Nancy Hanks and all subsequent record-breakers
had the advantage of it.  The i.58- of Lou
Dillon was made with a pace-maker and dirt-
shield in front of her.
  The first record up to the present standard was
made in i845 by Lady Suffolk. Now there are
over thirty thousand trotters and pacers of stand-
ard speed rank.  The steady advancement of
the light-harness horse was not due to chance.
It was the result of earnest thought and per-
sistent effort. The man who was able to show
a higher rate of speed than his neighbor in a
brush on a country road felt a thrill of elation,
and the desire grew in him to breed a still faster
animal.  His neighbor was ambitious to excel,
to lead instead of follow, and he also turned his



2 .03 I
s-581 s


10   The Trolling and the Pacing Horse

thoughts to breeding and development.  Year
after year a greater number of mares were bred,
and who can tell of the anxious days of anticipa-
tion After the safe delivery of the colt hope
began to expand, and every change of form from
babyhood to maturity was followed with deepest
interest. The disappointments outnumbered the
successes, but they stimulated the breeder to
try again.  He was determined to rise above
failure. If he sold a promising young horse, he
did not lose interest in it. He kept in touch
with it through reports in journals which chroni-
cled events of the track, and each victory brought
a glow of pleasure to his face.  Thousands of
foals pressed with tiny hoofs the clover blossoms
of spring and summer, which never trotted or
paced a mile in 2.30, but the motto was to per-
severe, and the dream was nursed of finally
producing championship form.  The long road
from three minutes to two minutes ran through
shadow as well as sunshine, but the accomplish-
ment was worth millions of heart-beats, because
the light-harness horse is recognized the world
over as one of the greatest triumphs of the
industrial life of America.




  FOR years after the trotting record had been
carried down to 2.Io by Jay-eye-see, August I,
I884, there were discussions as to the ultimate
speed of the trotter.  Pages were written to
prove that the two-minute horse was an impossi-
bility. The early arguments were based upon
the assumption that there would be no improve-
ment in tracks and vehicles. Five years after
Maud S. had trotted to a record of 2.084 at
Cleveland the kite track came into use, and
on it Sunol beat the record by half a second.
It was September 28, i89i, that Sunol trotted
to a record of 2.081.  Seven years after the
2.o84- of Maud S. at Cleveland the ball-bearing
bicycle sulky was introduced, and it enabled
Nancy Hanks in September of that year to
trot to a record of 2.04. Nancy Hanks tried
to equal 2.o84 to high-wheel sulky and failed,


I2   The Trolling and the Pacing Horse

as did Alix, who in 1894 trottedl to a record
of 2.033. These are impressive facts to every
thoughtful man of experience. The advantage
of the 28-inch wheel with pneumatic tire is that it
reduces friction, especially around the turns, and
enables the horse not only more fully to extend
himself, but to carry the speed over a longer dis-
tance. Year after year the regulation track has
improved, particular attention being given to
angles, grades, and elasticity of road-bed; and the
sulky and wagon builder has turned out vehicles
of lighter and better design. A special aim has
been to overcome as far as possible atmospheric
resistance. In 1900 The Abbot reduced the
world's record to 2.031, and in 190i Cresceus car-
ried it down to 2.02-. Here it stood until 1903,
when another striking innovation was introduced.
Vehicles and tracks had continued to improve,
and a shield was brought into use.
  After Lou Dillon had trotted at Readville,
Massachusetts, in two minutes, Mr. Albert C.
Hall addressed a letter to me at Colorado
Springs, where I was engaged upon this work,
in which he said: -
  "I was pleased to hear from    the lips of
MIr. Billings how well the mare finished the


From 2.10 to Two Minutes anzd Belter I3

mile, going the last quarter in 29 seconds, and
the last eighth in 14 seconds.  He told me
that she went without check, with 4-2-ounce
shoes forward and 24-ounce shoes behind, and
with very few boots.  Now that the trotting
horse has reached the two-minute mark and
within one second of the pacing record, what
does Mr. Busbey think will be the limit of speed
for a mile "
  The shield innovation looked so dangerous
to me that under date of September 22, I903,
I addressed a formal letter to William Russell
Allen, President of the American Trotting
Register Association: -
  " Previous to the conference between the
National Trotting Association, the American
Trotting Association, and the American Trot-
ting Register Association, which led to the pres-
ent rules governing performance against time,
the validity of many so-called time records was
questioned.  There were heated controversies
in the public prints over trials against the watch,
and but little faith was reposed in some of the
stated efforts. As the official head of the Ameri-
can Trotting Register Association, and as a
member of the Board of Appeals of the National


14   The Trot/lg and the Pacing Horse

Trotting Association, you were in a position to
bring about a much-needed change; but if my
recollection is good, no suggestion was made
by you that a horse in going against the watch
should be more favored than a horse competing
against a hostile field.  The desire was to
remove a prejudice against time records, and
to place them on an absolute equality with race
records.  In actual races no artificial aids are
allowed, and the logical presumption is that this
is true of performances against time. In a race
where every heat must be contested by every
horse in the race, and every horse must be driven
to the finish, there is no room for a foreign factor
like an automobile or a wind-breaking runner,
and I should like to be informed what position
the Register Association is likely to take on this
question.  Each year your Association rejects
records for one cause or another, and if you
could favor me with your views on the reported
wind-shield time performances of Dan Patch,
Prince Alert, Cresceus, Major Delmar, and Lou
Dillon, I would esteem it a favor. It was by
slow stages that sneering allusions to 'tin-cup
records' were silenced, and I take it that it is
not conducive to the best interests of breeding



               LOU DILLON, 1.58

 This page in the original text is blank.


FIvmn 2.10 to Two Minuutes and Better I5

and the Register Association to encourage de-
parture from the rigid rules which have placed
all records on a footing of equality."
  September 27 President Allen wrote in reply:
  "' There is no rule against using a pace-maker
in trials against time. Rule 58, Section i, allows
any other horse to 'accompany' the performer.
You will note the rule says may 'accompany.'
As the rule allows a horse, it is presumable that
it was not intended to allow an automobile to
'accompany,' or it would have been so worded.
Does the   word 'accompany' mean that the
any other horse may precede the performer
.A horse alone, immediately preceding a per-
former, would act as a wind-shield to a certain
degree. A horse with a man in a cart would act
in the same way in a greater degree. No horse
not actually a participant in a race is allowed to
precede any horse in a race, but a participant in
a race may precede other horses, and other horses
may use him as a shield or wind-break at pleas-
ure. So that we have or can have in races,
pace-makers and wind breaks or shields. I can-
not tell you in answer to your question what
position the Register Association is likely to
take. It is a matter for careful consideration,


i6 The Trot/lig and the Pacing Horse

and I have no doubt it will come before the Asso-
ciation for determination before the next Year
Book is published."
  October I, i903, I replied to President Allen:
  "It is true that Rule 58 makes it proper for a
horse to accompany a contestant against time,
but when it declares that this horse shall not in
any way be attached to said contestant, the im-
plied understanding is that no agent shall be
used to overcome natural elements. Atmos-
pheric pressure is one of these elements, and the
idea of sending a wind-breaker in advance of a
competitor was never contemplated by the
  " In some parts of a race a horse may trail
another, and thus be materially aided by the
shield; but should his driver persist in these
tactics from start to the head of the home-stretch,
the judges would fail in the performance of their
duty if they did not admonish him. If one horse
is permitted to trail, why not another, until we
have an absurdly long line of trailers At the
head of the home-stretch each horse shall select
his position and swerve neither to the right nor
the left. Here, at least, there is no place for a
wind-breaker. What is called 'helping' is strictly


Fromn 2.10 to Two Minutes and Better I7

forbidden in a race. Unless every heat is con-
tested by every horse in the race and every horse
is driven to a finish, the race degenerates into a
farce. The chronic trailer, according to my way
of thinking, invites suspension or expulsion. I
regard it a mistake to make time records easier
of accomplishment than race records. Time is
the basis of the standard, and care should be
taken not to revive the old prejudice against
horses that obtain records in competition against
the watch. If the two-minute horse is allowed
favors in a contest against time, why not the 2.31
or 2.32 horse And then we may look for shoals
of the newcomers, until the speed standard is
debased. I am not opposed to progress; I have
never proclaimed the impossibility of the two-
minute horse; I should rejoice to see the trotter
equal the runner, -but we cannot make rules
for one performer which do not apply to all
performers at the same gait. This fact must be
clear to every intelligent mind, and I have asked
a few questions of you because you occupy official
position and have established a reputation for
clearness of thought and terseness of statement."
  I received an invitation by telegraph to come
to the October meeting at Lexington and discuss


Is   The Trotting and the Pacing Horse

the question with official heads of governing asso-
ciations, and took the train from Colorado for
Kentucky. At Lexington I met President John-
ston of the National Trotting Association, Presi-
dent Allen of the American Trotting Register
Association, and Secretary WV. H. Knight of the
American Trotting Association, and views were
exchanged. I was in the judges' stand with Presi-
dents Johnston and Allen, when it was directed
that all trials with shields should be so entered
in the official record book of the meeting. The
object of this was to bring the question squarely
before the governing associations. The letter
which the late J. Malcolm  Forbes wrote me
on the shield question is given elsewhere. I
agree with him that a distinction should be made
between wind-shields and dirt-shields.
  Under date of December II, I903, the sons of
Robert Bonner addressed a letter to William H.
Knight, Secretary of the American Trotting Reg-
ister Association, protesting against the accept-
ance of the 2.05 of Lou Dillon at Cleveland,
September I2, I903. The reasons given were
that the announcement was made that Lou Dillon
would trot to high-wheel sulky to beat the 2.083
of Maud S.; that the performance was invalidated


From 2.10 to Two Minutes and Better   i9

by the use of a wind-shield, and by resort to ball-
bearing axles.
  When Mr. R. E. Bonner sent the protest to me
for an opinion, I, in substance, replied that I did
not believe that Mr. Billings was a party to the
concealing of the use of ball-bearing axles on the
sulky of Lou Dillon; that unreflecting employees
of that gentleman should be held responsible for
this action; that the major point at issue was not
ball-bearing axles, but the use of a dirt-shield and
a pace-maker in front. The judges of racing can-
not discriminate between high-wheel and low-
wheel sulkies. Each manufacturer has his own
ideas, and competition is open to all builders. If
one high wheel is lighter and less friction-produc-
ing than another, you cannot impose a handicap
on the man who is shrewd enough to take advan-
tage of it. There is a marked difference between
the speed-contributing power of an old-fashioned
high-wheel sulky and the up-to-date bicycle sulky;
but if a man has a horse properly entered in a
race and is not so fortunate as to own a ball-
bearing bicycle, you cannot refuse him the privi-
lege of starting to high wheel, unless you take the
ground that the handicap is self-imposed for a
fraudulent purpose.  Under registration rules


20   Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse

high-wheel and low-wheel records are treated
  January 5, I904, a joint committee, composed
of three representatives each from the National
Trotting Association, the American Trotting
Association, and the American Trotting Register
Association, met in New York and one of the
things discussed was shield performances. The
validity of irregular performances against the
watch was formally disputed by the American
Trotting Association, and this brought the ques-
tion before the official board, the three presidents
of the governing associations.  On January 7
there was a public hearing before the board, coin-
posed of Presidents P. P. Johnston, WV. P. Ijams,
and WRilliam Russell Allen, and the fact was
established that the official announcement at
Cleveland was that Lou Dillon would start to
beat 2.084 to high-wheel sulky.  The report
telegraphed over the country that the mare started
under the precise conditions that governed the
record-breaking performan