xt7crj48r10v https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7crj48r10v/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1932 journals kaes_circulars_260 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 260 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 260 1932 2014 true xt7crj48r10v section xt7crj48r10v  A COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
  Extension Division
nf  THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
I r
5 Lexington. Ky.
 A- June, 1932
Published in connection with the agriculturzml extension work c:1rried on
, by cooperation of the College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, with
 Z the U. S. Department of Agriculture and distributed in furtherance of the
work provided for in the Act of Congress of May 8, 1914.

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 _~ Cl0thing—Ren0vati0n and Remodeling
 1 The first step in getting one’s clothes ready for winter
  should be the renovation of those garments carried over from
 ji the previous winter, which require only minor changes to put
 E them in wearable condition. The second step is to make over or
I  cut down for smaller members of the family garments which
  require complete changing. These will then furnish the basis
  of the winter wardrobe, or wardrobes, and determine what gar-
 3 ments will have to be bought and what color schemes may be
 ` carried out. Dresses, coats, suits and other woolen garments
  that have been cleaned and stored properly during the summer
  will be found free of mildew and the ravages of moths and other
 f insects.
 i T0 Frc.sh.cn. If garments are not soiled, only dusting,
airing and pressing are necessary. Select a bright, clear day
for the work. Brush the garments thoroly on both right and
{_  Wrong sides, fasten them on coat hangers and hang them in a
 N Shady place in the open air for several hours. Place the gar-
I ments wrong-side-out over the ironing board and press, or right-
 , side—out and press under a damp cloth.
° if only slightly soiled, a garment may be freshened before
 p pressing by sponging it all over on the right side with a cloth
Q xpreferably of same material as the garment) wrung out of clean
; water to which a few drops of household ammonia have been
g Garments that need a. there cleaning may be washed or dry
` cleaned, the method used depending upon the fabric, the nature

 4 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 260  3f
of the soil and the design of the garment. Soap and water arg,  
by all odds, the most satisfactory cleaners if used used properly.  
Washing. Wool, silk and synthetic fabrics are injured by  f
high temperature and rubbing such as may be used safely on  
cotton and linen. Strong soaps and washing powders cause  
woolens to harden, yellow and shrink; they destroy the luster of  
silk and weaken synthetic fabrics.  5
How TO Wasn fabrics of wool, silk and synthetic fibers. *` 
1. Do not soak, and do not rub soap on them. P
2. Use a mild soap, flakes or beads of soap.  `
3. Make an emulsion by dissolving the soap in boiling water.  .
4. Have the temperature of washing water a little above blood ;
l1eat—-about 110 degrees F.  .
5. Add sufficient emulsion to water to make a 1·ich suds, and  Q
continue to add it as washing progresses and foam disap-  ,
pears. A one-inch foam should be maintained to assure  g
satisfactory results. Y 
6. Souse garment up and down in suds, turning and squeezing,  ;
for about fifteen minutes. Do not rub, pull or twist. `
7. Squeeze out of this suds and put thru a second one of the  
same temperature, prepared in the same way. —
V8. Very soiled places such as cuffs and collars may be cleaned  V
V by patting emulsion into them and manipulating gently 1
between the palms of the hands. ` 
9. Rinse thru at least two waters of the same temperature nS f
the wash-waters. “
‘ 10. Squeeze out, pin on coat hanger and place in the shade to _
dry. .
VVool sunburns if put into the sunshine while wet. lt ?
shrinks if dried in too hot a place or if allowed to freeze. lt  _
should be ironed while damp. If allowed to dry thoroly, creases  _
are hard to iron out. Press on the wrong side with a inediuur i
hot iron, or on the right side under a thick, damp pressing clotlt
until almost dry. Pressing until "bone" dry causes marking' :.
or shining.

  OZothing—Renovation and Remodeling 5
 J Press silk and synthetic fabrics on the wrong side after
am   allowing to dry. Use a medium-hot iron on silks. Test the
my   temperature of the iron for synthetic fabrics on a sample or
Y by if  hidden portion of the garment. As a rule they require a much
’ 011   lower temperature than do other fabrics,
iw?  Y To Dry Clean. Home dry cleaning is not recommended
T Of   because of the great risk involved. Anyone who undertakes it
;  should take every precaution against iire. There are on the
  market solvents prepared especially for dry cleaning. Altho p
S·   some are intlaminable, they are much less so than naphtha and
 ji gasoline.
  All dry cleaning should be done out-of-doors and away from
BL  7 flame or iire. Garments cleaned should be left out-of—doors
olood  e until the solvent has entirely evaporated. To avoid an explosion
 ; from statical electricity (which may occur when no fire is
, and 2 present), do not clean on a dry day and do not rub garments as
Lisap-  Q in washing. Also, when pouring gasoline from one container to
Ssum  { another. keep their edges in contact.
 I If garments are grease spotted, remove spots before placing
gzipg, —;  garment in the cleansing bath. Also remove buttons, buckles
f and metal or composition ornaments.
Jf the  s A clean porcelain jar is a much better vessel to use for “
  cleaning than a dishpan, which is shallow and has sides sloping
eaned . outward. A deep vessel of alumnium or tin is good. Put the
gently   §&1‘1H€11t to be cleaned into this and add suliicient solvent to
; cover. Cover the vessel and let the garment soak for thirty .
ure as L minutes. VVith a hand-suction cup—the kind used to uustop a
 ·V Glogged sink—work the garment up and dowwi for about fifteen
ade to  ` millutes, turning it from time to time so as to expose every part
  tothe action of the cleaning fluid. Squeeze out, do not wring,
  and rinse in clean solvent. If the garment is badly soiled, use
‘t- ll  4 H dI')'·ClCZ111l1]g soap in the Hrst bath and rinse thru two baths.
Z€— It  ¤ FilSt0n on a coat hanger and dry out-of-doors. lf possible, let
effiascs  i hflllg for twenty-four hours before p1‘OSSlHg`. _
icdmmi The solvent used for rinsing may be strained thru a thick
gx Clgtlh  _ UIUSUH cloth and used again for the first Wasliillg, if Cafe is tklkoll
larkmg  T 110t to pour off the sediment with it.

 ` I}
6 Kentucky Esctenstion Circulon N0. 260  
Too much emphasis cannot be placed upon the importance  T
of removing spots and stains as soon as they are discovered. ¤· 
Grease spots spread, sugars and gums harden and st.ains of all  
kinds are more difficult to remove if allowed to dry on fabric,  
The prompt use of absorbents sucl1 as talcum, chalk, or blotting  it
paper and warm iron removes grease spots. Successive applica.  Y
tions of salt, if brushed well into the material, will absorb all but  ¤_
the slightest trace of wet ink from woolcn material, and this can  
be removed by sponging with clean, cold water.  `
Silk, wool and rayon are very different in composition from  ·
cotton and linen and much more easily destroyed by strong i
chemicals. For this reason some bleaching agents which can he  T
used safely on the last named two cannot be used on silk, wool Z
or rayon. It is always best. to try out a cleaning fluid on a _-
sample"of the material from which a garment is made before T
applying it to the garment.  
Stain removers are grouped into tln·ec general classes:  
Absorbent, solvents and bleaehes.  1
I. Aiisoiznizxrs. These are a first aid to the removal of all I
kinds of liquid stains and, if promptly applied, take up the ex- 1
cess before it penetrates deeply into the fabric. Table salt, Q
blotting paper, French chalk (taleum powder), chalk, stareli .
and coarse corn meal are absorbents found in almost every _. 
1. Ink. If a bottle of ink is overturned on the carpet, imiiie- .
' diately pour on it plenty of clean, dry table salt, which will j 
quickly become saturated with the ink. Brush this salt oli  Q
and apply more, rubbing it well into the fabric with the tips Q
of the lingers or a stiff brush. Vxlhen this becomes dis- K
colored with ink, brush away and make another application  
of salt, again rubbing it thoroly into the fabric. llepeat l
until salt comes away clean. Next sponge the carpet with ·
skimmed milk. Remove traces of milk by sponging with é
tepid water in which a mild soap has been dissolved. Care ‘

 . l
  Clothing—Re¢io·vatioii cmd Remodeling 7
  ful, thoro work will remove practically every trace of the
ance  I *2. Oil or Grease. Immediately take up the excess by pressing
ered.  E between clean blotters. Then press between fresh blotters
if all   with a moderately warm iron. Use fresh blotters until the
bric.  :_ spot disappears. Remaining traces of grease can be
tting   removed with talcum powder or carbon tetrachloride.
ilica-   3. To remove old grease spots, cover with talcum or chalk and
lbut   rub well into the fabric. Leave for a while, then remove ,
s can ’  by brushing and shaking. Repeat until spot is removed.
from   ll. SOLVENTS. A. Water is used to remove spots made
mug   by sugar, starches, gums, milk, paste, eggs and blood. It is well
In be   to remember that any spot that is made by water or a substance
Wool  } which dissolves in water, must be removed with water, Milk,
Ou 2,,  i ice G1‘€21111, SHUCGS, gravy, and Salad dressings contain fat as well
Wim   as water-soluble substances, and require two treatments, one to
 , remove the fat and the other to remove the non-fatty substance.
 ` The cloth should be entirely free of the first solvent before the
$$5%*   second one is applied.
  B. Spots of a greasy nature require the use of a cleaner
of all  . that dissolves the grease and sets the dirt free. Benzine, gaso-
hc Cx.  i line, kerosene, naphtlia, chloroform, ether and carbon tetrachlo-
; salt, C ride may be used. Carbon tetrachloride is recommended for
starrli V general use because it is non-intlammable, inexpensive, and is
Ovary _.  effective in removing practically all greasy substances, paints,
 _ varnishes, tar, and chewing gum. Turpentine may be used to
_ ‘  soften dried paint and other substances before applying the
lmmf- Solvents. Acetone is a better solvent for dry paint than turpen-
flatly Y  tine, but is very inflamniable.
TC ,.,1,5 I General Method. First scrape away the excess of spotting
IS my  L substance.
lwmlm  ·i 1. Place table or board on which the work is to be done in good
lelmm i light.
lwml if 2. Put on thi··· l ‘ * · ` ii ·
V MII L · sa c oth folded to sex cial thicknesses, O1 a clean,
JCM,  V white blotting paper to absorb the cleansing liquid.

.8 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 260  
3. Spread spotted material on this, wrong side up.   ,
4. Sponge with a clean, soft cloth, moving the cloth from time   t
to time to a clean place on pad.   t
5. \Vork from edges of spot toward center to avoid spread-  S
ing it.   ‘
6. Reverse material, putting right side up, and sponge with   '
cloth of same material as that spotted.  
7. Do not rub hard enough to injure the fabric.  f l
lll. BLmcHEs. Stains made by fruit, ink, medicine, mil- ‘ V
dew and corroded metals require the use of a bleach. Chlorin- i
ated lime and bleaching solutions such as B. K., zonite, or   I-
hydrochlorite can be used on cotton and linen, but destroy silk ._ 
and wool. Potassium permanganate solution, hydrogen ])€1‘OX-  B
ide, Dakin’s Solution, and weak or dilute acids, except nitric  ; f
acid, can be used on them, if necessary precautions are taken. '¥ {
Before using a bleach on any colored fabric, test it on a sample,   3
or on some hidden portion of the garment to determine whether  2 il
or not it will destroy the color. “
General Directions. Place thc stained portion, wrong side  i
up, on a folded cloth and sponge with tepid water to remove as j
much as possible of the stain. Then stretch over a bowl of clean  i 1
water and apply bleaching chemicals to stain with a incdiciiit . iw
dropper.  [ J
Some Common Stains and their Solvents.   “
Ink. Ordinary writing ink. Treat with warm oxziii0   it
acid, or with lemon juice and salt. Keep moistened until staiii g 
disappears. Rinse well. T T,
i Iodine. Sponge with alcohol or dilute ammonia.  i M
Iron Rust. Bleach with lemon juice and salt, or oxalic aciii-   Y
Repeat. if necessary, but rinse before each fresh application.  i Q,
.M61‘C`lL7‘0Ch’l'0m6. Treat with potassium perinanganate S0ili·   :r
tion made by dissolving one teaspoon of the crystals in one piiil  r p
of water. Repeat application until st-ain disappears. Removv , it
the brownish stain left by the permanganate by applying lenioii  A in
juice, weak oxalic acid, or hydrogen peroxide made slightly acid   s<

 _? Olothing—Renovation and Remodeling 9
 V with lemon juice or acetic acid. Dakin’s Solution 1nay be used
time Air  to remove mercurochrome. lt should be washed out of the fabric
 i thoroly. It can be used on silk or rayon.
read`  , Coffee. Bleach with potassium permanganate, if ordinary
_th Le laundering does not remove it.
wi  -
  Mildew. Try the following in the order given. Ordinary
 T laundering, soak over night in sour milk, moisten with lemon
 . juice and salt and allow to lie in the sun. If persistent, bleach i
mil_   with potassium permanganate.
.0fiH· T  Perspiration. Use soap and water, hydrogen peroxide, or
e, OY   potassium permanganate.
    Search. VVet with soap and water and expose to sunlight
mm _  for a day. Slight scorch stains can be removed from any white
` _j fabric with hydrogen peroxide. Dampen a white cloth with it
aken. p . .
mph), i and lay over the stain. Lay a clean dry cloth over this and
ether  . press with a warm iron. Repeat, if necessary.
NC as  V Tinting and dyeing are effective aids toward maintaining
Ilia]; ‘ ml am`aCtl"€ and €0011011liCHl Wardrobe. Faded eolorg play bg
i ’ restored to their original freshness, or be re-dyed an entirely
 _ different color. Vllhite silk materials that have become yellow
 V with washing may be made to look like new by tinting them in
oxalic  ’ delicate colors.
stain ,i .
 . Faded prints and checks, too, may be re—dyed to give attrac-
 V tive eltects, provided a dye closely related in color to that of the
_   wlors in the cloth is used, For example, a white printed in red,
’ *l““l‘ l bellow and black, which has become faded and dingy froin wash-
)“·   lng and perspiration, if dyed a light yellow will hare the appear-
; solu- { unee of new material, since the dye strengthens the colors in the
e pint Iirint and covers the dinginess of the background. Often the
eni0V€  1 `~\' weight. Too much dye for the ruantitv of material is a t
ful to ‘ ` 1 '
G ` To cause spotting; therefore, start with the amount required
· no . . . . , . . , .
Ou ‘ in the instructions and, it more is needed, lift the material
1 from the bath before adding more dye, which should be
’ stirred thoroly before returning the material to the bath.
m_thm,, 9. Material that has been bleached must be washed thoroly with
,H,Qi,.]yy SOHP and \\‘2l1‘111 Water, then rinsed carefully before it is dyed,
e littnl   to remove all the bleaching agent.
v clean. ·
nee Some azds to stuecessjzd dyeing.
( '
. 1. Try a sample of the material in the dye bath before adding
the material to be dyed, and keep a sample in for testing
depth and fastness of color.
S 2- Flat goods take dye best, so, whenever possible, rip the
ldytH¤U· ~ garment before dyeing.
p_wk,,,» . 3· when dyeing gt garment that is not to be ripped, takeout
l El
e the hem, and remoye belt, buckle, buttons, and ornaments.

12 Kentucky Extension Circular N o. 260  
When dyeing silles.   6
1. The temperature of the dye should be kept slightly below   {
boiling. l
2. The time of boiling depends upon the depth of color desired. i
Darker shades require longer boiling.
3. Put from dye bath into COLD water and rinse until water   1.
runs clear. _. 
4. Black silks should be allowed to dry before rinsing. g 2
5. Do not wring silk. This causes what is known as chating I i
of silk, and gives slightly whitish streaks or speeks on the l
surface of the cloth. It should be squeezed gently and hung . 3·
dripping on the line. ‘
Tied Dyeing. Many attractive articles such as scarfs, haml-
kerehiefs, drapes, and so on, can be made by twisting, crushing,
folding and tying materials, then dipping them into dyes. A W
number of dye manufacturers have prepared illustrated leaflets   W
showing just how it is done. These are free to customers.
Inquire for these when buying your dye. W
Economy in making over.  
1. \Voolen garments offer the best opportunity for making ove? } M
satisfactorily, because of the weight and durability of the . M
materials, and because all traces of the original stitching · M
can be removed. . M
, 2. Cutting down clothes for someone who is smaller giv@S
opportunity to use only the best parts of the garments. ,
3. A real saving is effected only when the old material is dur 1.
able and will make a garment that looks and wears almost
like new. 2.
·l. The amount spent for new material to combine with old i 3.
should be small. , 4,
  Simple rather than elaborate design, finishes and decoration 5.
are used.  ` GI

 - Clothlng—Renot·ation and Remodeling 13
, 6, An old garment which is in good condition, fits comfortably,
ielow i and is not noticeably out of style should be worn as it is,
. rather than made over because one is "tired of it."
; Types of remodeling.
Waiél g 1, Making minor changes, as replacing worn parts, refitting
and adjusting, adding new collar or vest.
h 2. Changing the garment completely. Cutting down for
ming smaller person, making different type of garment out of it,
in Thil i combining with new material.
hung j  3. Combining two garments to make one, as making dress from
skirt and waist.
hlmd‘ i Suggested uses for old gormemfs.
shing,  .
Old Garment New Garment
2. A
SH, W0maH'S coat ................ Dress for woman or child, skirt, child’s coat.
ga 65 Won1an’s coat suit .......... Misses or boy’s suit, woman or girl’s dress,
0Dl€Y$· boy’s coat.
VVOIIIQIIYS dress .............. Dress for smaller person, skirt, small boy’s
suit, girl’s coat.
W0H1&l1’S skirt .............. Gir1’s dress, boy’s trousers, bloomers, skirt.
` Silk blouse ....................., Combine with wool dress to make girl’s dress
White crepe blouse ...... Tint and use for collar, cuff and vest set.
WOOI Sweater ................ Sweater, leggings and cap for child.
ig Ow M¤¤’S 0V€1‘c0at .............. Woman’s or child’s coat, boy’s overcoat.
of thc Manis coat ......................  be li 4. Cut, then mark notches indicating joinings or placing of
i' trimming, before removing the pattern. .
z for  V
,010,  ' _l[aL·a7¢zg the Gormcrzt. Plain seams pressed open generally
MH. Y  are best to use on woolen materials. Stitch them with a fairly
z slack tension and a long stitch. If the material does not fray,
P finish the seam edges by pinking; otherwise, bind or overcast
 _ them.
’but § Finish and press each seam before joining another to it.
aids   Make the garment as carefully as if it were of new material
TMS;   and when completed 1t should not have that "made-over" look.
rs in   Mending.
is in   lt is easier to repair worn places in material before the new
Q garment is put together. Do this after placing the pattern to
 . see what worn places cannot be avoided, and before cutting.
mi it   R€'l.7l_fO7`C’2i’IZiQ is used to strengthen weak places in material
mi ll L before the threads have broken.
) (
L   p Method 1 is to be used on heavy woolens of plain weave,
·. such as tweeds. Use a lengthwise rave] of the materials, work
 ' on the wrong side, and weave the thread in along the line of
crosswise threads of the cloth. Cover tl1e entire thin place with
 · close darning, carry the darning thread under and over same
elabe-  _ tl1rea