xt7cvd6p065b https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7cvd6p065b/data/mets.xml Beckham, Charles Wickliffe. 1885  books b92-229-31183845 English John D. Woods, : Frankfort, Ky. : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Birds Kentucky Nelson County. List of the birds of Nelson County  / by Charles Wickliffe Beckham. text List of the birds of Nelson County  / by Charles Wickliffe Beckham. 1885 2002 true xt7cvd6p065b section xt7cvd6p065b 

             JOHN RE PROUTER, Lirfetor.

          .o..-o.LIS1l OFP THEPI--0





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    THE following paper is based almost entirely upon my for-
mer list of the birds of this locality, written in January, 1883.
and is prepared at the suggestion of Professor Procter, State
Geologist, to accompany Mr Linny's report on the geology of
Nelson county.
    So short a time has elapsed since the former paper was writ-
ten, and my opportunities for field work have been so limited,
that I can only add four species to the fauna as herotofore
given, namely:   Coturniculus henslowi, Jonornis martinica,
Nettion carolinensis, and Fdligula collaris. The first, third
and fourth of these were all taken by myself, and the circum-
stances which induce me to include the latter are fully set forth
in another place.
    Most of the observations were made in the immediate vicin-
ity of Bardstown, which is situated in N. Lat. 37o52', W. Long.
85018', just on the western limit of the "Bluegrass Region,
forty miles southeast of Louisville, and about one hundred
southwest of Cincinnati.
    The sylvan flora of this locality is quite diversified. The
    ' A list of the birds of Bardstown, Nelson county, Ky. By Charles Wickliffe Beckham.-Jour-
nal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, Vol. VI., July, I 83, pp. 136-147.



most characteristic trees are beech, red and white oak, black
walnut, butternut, poplar, (Liriodendron tulipifera), sycamore,
black gum, dogwood, white elm, and hickory (Carya aTba, to-
mentosa et glaabra), and in some places there are dense and ex-
tensive glades of red cedar.
    The country is gently undulating, and is mostly in a high
state of cultivation. In summer the greater part of the small
water courses become dry, and there is a corresponding scarcity
of that desirable liquid.  In the western part of the county
there are still many large tracts of wild, uncultivated land,
where such birds as the Pileated Woodpecker, the Ruffed
Grouse, and the Wild Turkey are still to be found.
  The list represents barely two-thirds of the birds that are,
doubtless, to be found here at one season or another, but it is
thoroughly trustworthy, as far as it goes, for no species has been
admitted on any but the best of evidence. Out of the one hundred
and seventy-one enumerated, the writer is personally responsible
for all but eight of them. He here takes the opportunity to say
that any information in regard to the birds of this and neigh-
boring counties, that may be in the possession of any one into
whose hands this paper may fall, will be gratefully received.
   The nomenclature followed in this catalogue may strike some
as being rather peculiar-which it doubless is-but I am merely
adopting the emendations and corrections that are being carried
out under the authority of the American Ornithologists' Union,
principally by Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, whose intimate acquaint-
ance with the classical literature of ornithology fit him particu-
larly well for this difficult task. The reasons for all of these
changes are clearly set forth in his "An alecta Ornithologica"
articles, already published and to be published in "The Auk."
   The average ornithologist loves diversity in the closet as well
as in the field-when he can't find a new bird to describe, he



                  BIRDS O1F NELSON COUNTY.                   0

will go to work and give a new name to an old bird-and for
most of them-
            "-the new has charms which the old has not,
            And the stranger's face makes the friend's forgot."

   But let us hope that, with the " Stricklandian Code" as a
beacon-light, our nomenclatural pilots will be enabled to steer
the name-battered old bird-ship into a safe andfinal port before
she is engulfed by the sea of synonyms that just now surges
around her.

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    Species known to breed here are indicated by an asterisk (!; those strongly
inferred to do so, by a dagger (t'j

        Order PASSERES: Perching Birds.

             Suborder OSCINES: Singing Birds.

             Family TURDIDAE: Thrushes.

                    Genus Hylocichla.

1 Hyloijchla mustolina (GMEL.). Wood Thrush.
     A common summer resident; arrives about April 20th;
     departs about October 15th. In quality of tone perhaps
     the most gifted of our woodland vocalists. The song of
     no 1ird that I know comes anywhere near the full, liquid
     timbre of the note of the wood thrush. It is most often
     heard during the last hours of the long spring and early
     summer afternoons; and he also, when in pursuit of the
     " early worm," doubtless serenades the rising sun, but I
     have never heard him at that unseasonable hour.  The
     song, however, lacks one important elepient of attractive-
     ness-that is, quantity.  The bird generally stops sing-
     ing just as you prepare to give him your undivided atten-
     tion.  Their food is composed almost entirely of insects.



2. lylocichl& fuscescens (STEPH.). Wilson's Thrush.
      Transient; uncommon in April and May. I have only
      seen this bird Uapon two occasions in the spring, and have
      ne-er recognized it at all in the fall.  It breeds in the
      northeri. Fait of ,;he United States and in Canada.
3. -.41cc;cLla alicia BA.rKwI. Grey-cheeked Thrush.
      Transient; common during the last week of April and
      the first week of May. Generally found in company with
      the next, which it much resembles, as I have taken speci-
      mens that gave me considerable trouble to distinguish
      from the other sort.
4. Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni (CABAN.).   Olive-backed
      Transient. The most abundant of the thrushes during
      the migrations, except the robin. A few stragglers are
      seen as late as May 20th.
6. Hylocichla Un1aascw pallasi (CABAN.). Hermit Thrush.
      Transient; common; arrives last of March; leaves for
      the South about November 1st. It is highly probable
      that a few of these thrushes winter here in sheltered
      places, as I have found them common at the same latitude
      in Maryland, where the temperature was as low as 6 Fah.,
      and they are known to winter north of here in Illinois.

                      Genus Merula.
6. Merula migratoria (LINN). American Robin.
     A permanent resident. It is quite likely that the Robins
     we see during winter leave in the spring, and are suc-
     ceeded by birds that have wintered farther South. On
     the 15th of February, 1881, immense numbers of these
     began to congregate in the dense cedar groves near Fred-
     iicksburg, in Washington county, nine miles from Bards-




     town, and remained about there until March 8th. Thous-
     ands of them were captured by merely picking them off
     the branches of the cedars at night, and were sold as low
     as ten cents a dozen. The "roost" was raided in force,
     by a lot of men and boys, on the night of February 21st,
     and eight thousand birds were killed. [See files of Nel-
     son0 County Record for February and March, 1881.

                      Genus Mimus.

7  Jjimus polyglottus (LINN.). Mocking-bird.
     A common summer resident. A few remain all the year,
     as I have observed them in every one of the twelve
     months. Ten years ago they were comparatively rare
     here, but now there are few gardens or yards where one
     or more pairs do not nest. They often sing quite late in
     the fall. I heard one in full song on the 8th of Novem-
                   Genus Galeoscoptes.

8. Galeoscoptes carolinensis (LANN.). Cat-bird.
     A common summer resident. An inveterate bug-hunter,
     hence a good friend to the farmer, but he also enjoys
     strawberry and cherry time about as well as the rest of
     us, and on this account the small fruit grower regards
     him with an evil eve.

                 Genus Harporhynchus.

9   Haporbynhus rufus (LINN.). Brown Thrasher. "French
     Common summer resident.    Always one of the earliest
     of the spring arrivals. In 1881 I saw one on March 3rd.
     Found almost exclusively in thickets and dense shrub-




                       Genus Sialia.

10. Siaia sialis (LINN.). Blue-bird,
      A common permanent resident. The habits of this popu-
      lar bird-"with the sky on his back"-are too well
      known to require comment here.

         Family SYLVIIDA: Old World Warblers.

                     Genus Polioptila.

11. Polioptila cxrulea (LINN.). Blue-gray Gnat-catcher.
      An abundant summer resident. Arrives about April 1st.
      Fresh eggs are found July 2nd, when fully fledged young
      are flying about. The nest of this dainty little midget is
      a marvel of avian architecture, rivalling in the delicate
      beauty of its structure, and its ingenious illustration of
      what may perhaps be termed the principle of protective
      imitation, that of the humming-bird.  On account of
      its outer covering of lichens, which give it the exact ap-
      pearance of the limb to which it is attached, it is very
      difficult to find. The bird can not sing, but apparently
      has a good time trying, as they are quite noisy after
      their puny fashion.

                      Genus Regulus.

12. Regulus calenduld (LINN.). Ruby-crowned Kinglet.
     Transient. Abundant in spring and fall. Arrives about
     April 1st; departs about October 16th. Most abundant
     in cedar and other evergreen trees and shrubbery. Their
     song, which is not often heard with us, is one of surpris-
     ing depth and sweetness.

13. Regulus Satrapa LICHT. Golden-crowned Kinglet.
     Transient, but a good many winter here. Inhabiting the



      same places as the last, with which it often associates.
      The last of theeljeave for the North about April 25th.

              Family PARIDA: Titmice, &c.

                   Genus Lophophanes.
14. Lophophanes bicolor (LINN.). Tufted Titmouse,"Tomtit."
     Also known as "Peter-peter," In imitation of one of its
     notes. An abundant permanent resident. Never taken
     its nest, and it is a standing mystery why the nest of so
     common a bird should be so difficult to find, as I have no
     trouble in finding those of other hole-breeding species.

                       Genus Parus.

lb. Parus carolinensis AUD. Carolina Chicadee.
     An abundant permanent resident. Fond of the society of
     the preceding.  The Chicadee raises quite a large family
     for such a small bird. I have several times counted seven
     young "chicks" in a nest, and other observers have re-
     corded as high as ten. It must keep the industrious lit-
     tle birds always "a hustling" to provide for so many
     g.apirig mouths, and they doubtless make it lively, if not
     interesting, for the bugs and other creeping things.

             Family SITTIDE: Nut-thatches.

                       Genus Sitta.

16. Sitta carolinensis GMEL. White-bellied Nut-thatch.
     A common permanent resident. This Nut-thatch is popu-
     larly "lumped" with that imaginary group, the 'Sap-
     suckers   i. e., the smaller woodpeckers, but I have yet
     to see the man who ever saw this useful little bird pursu-
     ing this nefarious practice.  Their food is strictly insect-




17. Sitta canadensis LINN. Red-bellied Nut-thatch.
      An irregular fall and winter visitant, but whenever pres-
      ent, always quite common.

              Family CERTMIIDI: Creepers.

                     Genus Certhia.
18. Certhia familiaris rufa (BARTR.). Brown Creeper.
      A winter resident; sometimes quite common in spring.
      Arrives about October 15th; leaves about April 15th.

            Family TROGLODYTIDA: Wrens.

                   Genus Thryothorus.
19.  lyotborus ludovicianus (GMEL.). Carolina Wren.
     An abundant permanent resident.     The liveliest and
     noisiest bird for its size that I know. Appears to always
     have a quarrel on hand with somebody, and their ire
     reaches fever heat whenever the ubiquitous cat happens
     around. Their song is very strong and melodious, and is
     often heard in mid-winter.

                   Genus Thryomanes.

20 Thryomanes bewicki (AUD.). Bewick's Wren.
     Not uncommon.    Probably a permanent resident, as I
     have seen them in mid-winter. Found almost exclusively
     in the vicinity of dwellings.

                    Genus Anorthura.
21. Anorthura hiemalis (VIEILL.). Winter Wren.
     A rather common winter resident; arrives about October
                   Genus Cistothorus.
22. Cistothorus stellaris (LICHT.). Short-billed Marsh Wren.




      I have never seen but one specimen of this wren, a male,
      which was shot May 1st, 1882, from the top of a small
      blackberry vine in a rye field, while singing, if the queer
      stridulous noise he made can be called singing.

      Family MOTACILLIDE: Wagtails and Titlarks.

                      Genus Anthus.

23. Anthus ludovicfianus (GMEL.). American Titlark.
     Transient. Captured as late as April 19th. Generally
     found in wet fields. In my former list it is stated that
     this bird was sometimes seen here in winter.  This state-
     ment was made upon what I am now convinced, was insuf-
     ficient evidence, although it doubtless does occur here at
     that season.

       Family MNIOTILTIDE: American Warblers.

                     Genus Mniotilta.

24. Mniotilta raria (LINN.). Black and white Creeper.
     An abundant summer resident. Arrived, in 1882, as early
     as April 1st.
                  Genus Helminthophila.

2b. tHelminthophila pinus (LINN.). Blue-winged Yellow
     Common from April Ioth to May 25th    a few probably
     remain to breed.  Unlike most of the arboreal ifniotilti-
     dae, which generally do their so-called "w warblingo" while
     tlitting about amongst the tree-tops in pursuit of insects-
     this dainty little beauty perches himself in the top of
     some small tree thirty to forty feet high. and at interrals
     of two or three minutes, pours forth his " screepy ' solo ;
     sometimes remaining fifteen or twenty minutes on ike.




      same perch. On several occasions, although knowing that
      the birds were generally only twenty or thirty feet from
      me, I have had a great difficulty in finding them, so well
      do they conceal themselves in the foliage.

26. Helminthophila chrysoptera (LINN.). Golden-winged War-
      Rare; one specimen only. On May 11th, 1877, while
      sauntering through my favorite collecting ground, I saw
      four or five warblers skipping about the top of a small
      willow tree; getting two of them in line, I fired, and down
      came this bird and a Cape May Warbler-two species
      entirely new to me, and both very rare in this locality.
      Only those who are " in the secret" can appreciate my
      feelings upon that occasion.

27. Helminthophila ruficapilla (WILSON). Nashville Warbler.
      Transient; not uncommon.

28. Zelminthophila celata (SAY.). Orange-crowned Warbler.

29. Helminthophila peregrina (WILSON). Tennessee Warbler.
     Transient; sometimes common in the fall.

                  Genus Compsothylpis.

30. tCompzothy1pis americans (LINN.). Blue yellow-backed
     A common summer resident. Very abundant in spring.
     Exceedingly variable in plumage.

                   Genus Perissoglos8a.
31. Perissoglossa tigrina (GMEL.). Cape May Warbler.
     Transient. Rare; two specimens only; both taken in




                    Genus Dendrmlca.
32. Dendrca mstiva (GMEL.). Summer Yellow-bird.
      A common summer resident, arrives about April 15th.
      This warbler, which is found all over the United States
      during the breeding season-" from Sandy Hook to the
      Golden Gate," is perhaps the most abundant representa-
      tive of the genus here.

33. Dendrmca cmrulescens (LINN.).  Black-throated Blue
      Transient. Common; arrives about May 5th; departs
      October 10th to 12th. Frequenting the lower limbs of
      trees and bushes in preference to the tree-tops.

34. Dendirca maculosa (GMEL.). Black and yellow Warbler.
     Transient; abundant.  Arrives about May 7th; departs
     about October 10th.

35. Dendrwca coronata (LINN.). Yellow-rumped Warbler.
     An abundant winter resident; arrives about October 10th
     and the last of them leave about May 8th. Theey winter in
     the cedar glades near Bardstown, where their lively
     " tsip " is often the only sound to be heard in those dis-
     mal solitudes.

36. Dendrwca cxruIea (WILSON). Caerulean Warbler.
     A common summer resident; arrives about April 10th.
     Very abundant in the spring. I have several times killed
     two at one discharge of my gun.

37. Dondrwca pennsylanica (LINN.). Chestnut-sided Warbler.
     Transient. Common; particularly so in September. Ar-
     rives about May 7th; departs about October 10th.

38. Dendwca castanea (WILSON). Bay-breasted Warbler.
     Transient. Not common; arrives about May 10th.



39. Dendrica striata (FORST.). Black-poll Warbler.
      Transient. Rather uncommon; arrives May 7th to 10th;
      departs about October 10th.

40. Dendrxca blackburnix (GMEL.). Blackburniaen Warbler.
      Transient. Very common in September; but all of them
      are very plainly colored then as compared with the fiery
      hues of the vernal costume. Generally an early arrival.
      In 1882 I took one on April 3rd. They leave towards the
      last of September, but I have taken stragglers as late as
      October 13th.

41. Dendroca dominica albilora BAIRD.  Sycamore Warbler.
      A common summer resident; arriving very early in April.
      Almost always found along streams in the sycamore trees
      (Plantanus occidentalis), amongst the branches of which
      they creep in their search for insects with more of the
      habits of a Certhia than those of a warbler; occasionally
      uttering their rather musical song, which is singularly
      like that of the Indigo Bird. Their nest I have never
      been able to find, although they undoubtedly breed here.

42. tDendrmca 7frens (GMEL.). Black-throated Green Warb-
     Transient. Very common. Arrives about April 18th;
     departs October 10th to 15th. I saw and identified one
     on July 14th, 1882, but, of course, didn't have a gun
     along, and the bird was not captured. All the specimens
     I have ever taken show great variation in the amount and,
     intensity of the black on the breast.

43. Dendroca pinus (WILSON). Pine-creeping Warbler.
     Transient. Common in April and September. It is quite
     likely that this bird breeds here.




44. Dendrxca palmarum (GMEL.). Red-poll Warbler.
      Transient. Quite common. A few undoubtedly winter
      here in sheltered places, as I have seen them in December
      and in the middle of January. Exclusively a terrestrial
      bird; generally associating in flocks with the smaller

45. tDendrxca discolor (VIEILL.). Prairie Warbler.
      Common in the spring. So far as my observations have
      extended, this warbler is transient here, but for reasons
      too lengthy to mention now, I feel quite sure that a few
      of them breed.   An inhabitant of sassafras and cedar
      bushes, etc., that have grown up in old abandoned fields,
      where its curious song, which Dr. Cones likens to "a
      mouse complaining with the toothache," can always be
      heard in spring, during the intervals between his short
      flights after mosquitoes, flies, and other pestiferous flying
                       Genus Siurus.

46. tSiurus auricapillus (LINN.). Golden-crowned Thrush.
     Common in spring and fall. Nearly always found in wood-
     land, where their loud monotonous chant "drowns" all
     other bird music.

47. Siurus noveboracensis (GMEL.).Small-billed Water Thrush
     Transient. Rare, as I have never seen but two here-on
     May 17th, 1882.

48. SjiuruS Motacilla (VIEILL.) Large-billed Water Thrush.
     An abundant summer resident; arrives about April 1st.
     Frequenting small woodland watercourses, every one of
     which generally has a pair. They are first-class musi-
     cians, but do most of their singing during the first two




      weeks after their arrival from the South. They are said
      to build their nests among the exposed roots of trees
      along the streams, but I have never been able to find one
      of them.
                     Genus Oporornis.
49. Oporornis agilis (WILSON). Connecticut Warbler.
      Transient; rather rare. I have taken it only twice in the
      spring-May 12th and 13th, and once in the fall-Octo-
      ber 11th.

50. Oporornis formosa (WILSON). Kentucky Warbler.
     A common summer resident; arrives about April -20th.
     This handsome ground warbler is another bird that in-
     dulges in the erroneous idea that he knows how to sing,
     if one may judge from the stolid persistency with which
     he grinds out his wearisome ditty, but it doubtless has
     the desired effect upon "Mrs. Kentucky," and he cares
     not for the plaudits of any one else.
                    Genus Geothylpis.
51. Geothylpis philadelphia (WILSON). Mourning Warbler.
     Transient; rather rare. I have only taken three speci-
     mens, all in May. Its habits are very similar to the next,
     but its song impresses me as being much finer.

52. Geothylpis trichas (LINN.). Maryland Yellowthroat.
     An abundant summer resident.     Arrives about April
     20th; departs October 10th to 12th. An inhabitant of
     bushes and tangled thickets in the neighborood of streams.
     Very suggestive of the wrens in its nervous, jerky disposi-
     tion and quick movements. Sometimes, during the breed-
     ing season, the males indulge in a curious habit of flying
     up obliquely to the height of thirty or forty feet, and
     then descending, singing volubly all the time.




                       Genus Icteria.

53. bcteria virens (LINN.). Yellow-breasted Chat.
      A common summer resident; arrives about April 25th.
      If birds were not known to be temperance folks, the
      Chat would be accused of " alcoholism," for this would
      be a very logical explanation of his absurd squawkings
      and clown like gyrations in mid-air when the nuptial
      ecstasy is upon him.  Like the preceding species they
      prefer the seclusion of thickets to all other places, and in
      such haunts they generally bring up their families; but I
      once knew a pair to build their nest in a wren box on a
      piazza. [See Bulletin Nuttall Ornithological Club, 1881,
      Vol. vi., P. 1151.

                      Genus Sylvania.

54. Sylvania mitrata (GMEL.). Hooded Warbler.
     Transient. One of our rarer, as well as most beautiful
     warblers. I have never taken but two specimens-April
     19th and May 9th, 1877.

55. Sylvania pusilla (WILSON.)   Black-capped Yellow
     Transient in May; not common. Generally in low trees
     in sparsely wooded thickets.

56. Sylvania canadensis (LINN.). Canadian Fly-catching
     Transient. Abundant in May; arrives May 10th to 15th.
     A bird of the forest. This and the Black-poll generally
     form the "rear guard" of the great sylvicoline army in
     their annual march towards the Nortlh, as it is always,
     with us, the last of the warblers to appeal.




                     Genus Setophaga.
 57 Setophaga ruticilla (LINN.). American Redstart.
      Summer resident. Very abundant during the migrations,
      but not very common in summer. Arrives April 23rd;
      departs about September 15th. Fresh eggs found May
      27th. One of the handsomest representatives of our syl-
      van ornis, and unrivalled as an insect-catcher; it must be
      a very "cold day" indeed when the Redstart has to go
      without his dinner.

         Family VIREONIDE: Vireos, or Greenlets.

                    Genus Vireosylvia.

58.  Tiriosyvlia olivacea (LINN.). Red-eyed Vireo.
      An abundant summer resident; arrives April 10th. They
      nest in the immediate vicinity of dwellings as well as in
      the forest.

59. Vireosylvia philadelphica CASSIN. Philadelphia Vireo.
      Rare. One specimen only; shot May 19th, 1877.

60.  Vireosylvia gilva (VIEILL.). Warbling Vireo.
      A common summer resident; arrives about the 1st of
      M ay. All the nests of this species I have ever seen were
      placed near the tops. of trees instead of within a few feet
      of the ground-situations that the Red-eye and White-eye
      generally select. This dull-looking, inconspicuous little
      bird is one of our sweetest songsters, although his voice
      is not particularly strong, and the variety of his notes
      is limited.

                     Genus Lanivireo.
61. taivires flavfirons (VIEILL.). Yellow-throated Vires.
     Rather common; arrives about April 20th. I have never




      taken the nest of this greenlet, but I think that they
      breed here.
62. Lanivireo :olitarius (VIEILL.). Blue-headed Vireo.
      Transient. Not common. Arrives about April 20th;
      leaves about October 20th.

                       Genus Vireo.

63.  Virso noveboracensis (GMEL.). White-eyed Vireo.
     Abundant in spring, and rather common in summer. Ar-
     rives April 15th to 20th. Fresh eggs found May 16th.
     An inhabitant of the thicket, exclusively, and an exceed-
     ingly lively little bird, with a voice loud enough for one
     four or five times his size. Capt. Saville Reid, in his
     "Birds of the Bermudas" likens one of its characteristic
     calls to the suggestive phrase "ginger-beer-quick."

             Family AMPELIDE: Waxwings.

                     Genus Ampelis.

64.t Ampelis cedrorum (VIEILL.). Cedar Waxwing. "Cherry
     An irregular, but at times very abundant, permanent resi-
     dent. Common in the cedar glades, whenever here. In
     Louisiana this bird is known as the "Ortolan."  There
     are no less than five different birds that have had this
     name applied to them: 1st. The true Ortolan, Eniberiza
     hortulana of Europe. 2d. The Sora-Rail, PoZana caro-
     lina. 3d. The Bobolink or Reed-bird, Dolichonyx oryZi-
     VOrMS.  4th. The Shore Lark, Oocorgs alpestris (see
     Lemoine's ' Oisseaux du Canada," p. 225); and 5th, the
     bird under consideration. It is suggested that those who
     contend for a vernacular nomenclature, instead of a Latin
     and Greek one, put this in their pipes and smoke it.




            Family HIRUNDINIDA: Swallows.

                      Genus Progne.
65. Progne subis (LINN.). Purple Martin.
      A common summer resident; arrives about March 20th;
      sometimes as early as the 10th. A general favorite, breed-
      ing here, as elsewhere, in boxes put up for their accom-
      modation, which sometimes occasion a triangular fight
      between this bird. the Blue-bird and the English Sparrow.
      In one three- or four-days battle, which I witnessed, the
      Blue-birds came off victorious.
                   Genus Petrochelidon.

66. Petrocheljdon lunifrons (SAY). Cliff Swallow.
     A rather common summer resident. I have never seen
     their nests.
                     Genus Chelidon.

67. Chelidon erythrogstra (BODD.). Barn Swallow.
     An abundant summer resident; arrives about April 20th.
     These swallows do not appear to be nearly as common
     about here as they were ten or fifteen years ago. Boys
     destroy a great many of their nests, in the barns and other
     out-buildings, which has doubtless had a very appreciable
     effect upon their numbers.

                     Genus Clivicola.

68. tClivicola riparia (LINN.).  Bank Swallow.   "Sand
     A common summer resident.
                   Genus Stelgidopteryx.
69. Ste1gidopteryz serripennis (AUD.). Rough-winged Swal-




      A common summer resident. In the immediate neighbor-
      hood of Bardstown this is the most abundant of all the
      swallows. Their favorite nesting places about here are
      natural cavities in the limestone cliffs that surround the
             Family TANAGRIDA: Tanagers.
                      Genus Piranga.

70. Piranga erythromelas (VIEILL.). Scarlet Tanager.
     Transient. Abundant in May and September; not seen
     during the summer; arrives about May 1st. A bird of
     the forest; rarely seen about cultivated places.

71. Piranga rubra (LINN.). Summer Red-bird.
      A common summer resident; arrives April 20th to 25th.
      Fresh eggs are generally to be found about May 15th.
      Their nesting sites are confined exclusively to " the open,"
      and almost always near a path or road. The terminal
      portion of a lower limb is selected, upon which the nest
      is " saddled;" the beech being their favorite tree. They
      frequently build in the immediate vicinity of dwellings.
      One was taken by me in May, 1882, in a small dogwood
      near a cistern, directly over a paved way, and within twenty
      or thirty feet of the house. About four- fifths of the nests
      contain three eggs-the remainder four. They have a
      rather pleasing song, which is heard only in May and June.
      In September they seem to become particularly abundant,
      and wander around in an uneasy, anxious sort of way,
      constantly uttering their querulous call-note.
      Family FRINGILLIDE: Finches, Sparrows, &c.
                   Genus Carpodacus.

72. Carpodacus purpureus (GMEL.). Purple Finch.
     A common transient. A few probably winter here. Prin-




      cipal food the leaf-buds of trees; those of the " poplar "
      (Liriodendron), being apparently preferred to any other.
      I have heard them singing in October, but have never
      seen any birds in the red plumage at that time, all of the
      males being then in the sombre plumage of the female.

                       Genus Loxia.

73. Louis currirostra americans (WILSON). American Cross-
      A flock of six or eight of these birds appeared here on
      November 18th, 1882, in some pine trees, the first time I
      had ever observed them. They remained only a day or
      two, and none were seen until the 17th of March, follow-
      ing, when I shot eight out of a flock of about twenty, in
      the same place where they had previously been seen. Sev-
      eral flocks were observed about the same time near Bloom-
      field and Glenville, in this county, and excited considerable
      comment on account of their queer bills. The weather at
      the time was quite mild, so their appearance here was
      probably due to some other cause.

                       Genus Spinus.

74. Spinus tristis (LINN.). American Gold-finch. "Yel-

     An abundant permanent resident; more so in spring and
     fall than in summer and winter. Always in flocks, ex