xt7d251fjh7v https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7d251fjh7v/data/mets.xml Abbott, John S. C. (John Stevens Cabot) 1872  books b92bb6442009 English Dodd & Mead : New York Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Boone, Daniel, 1734-1820 Daniel Boone, pioneer of Kentucky text Daniel Boone, pioneer of Kentucky 1872 2009 true xt7d251fjh7v section xt7d251fjh7v 
   Daniel Boone

Pioneer of Kentucky



New York Dodd, Mead and Company-Publishers 

Copyright, 1872,


DODD & MEAD. Copyright, 1900,




The name of Daniel Boone is a conspicuous one in the annals of our country. And yet there are but few who are familiar with the events of his wonderful career, or who have formed a correct estimate of the character of the man. Many suppose that he was a rough, coarse backwoodsman, almost as savage as the bears he pursued in the chase, or the Indians whose terrors he so perseveringly braved. Instead of this he was one of the most mild and unboastful of men ; feminine as a woman in his tastes and his deportment, never uttering a coarse word, never allowing himself in a rude action. He was truly one of nature's gentle men. With all this instinctive refinement and delicacy, there was a boldness of character which seemed absolutely incapable of experiencing the emotion of fear. And surely all the records of chivalrj may be searched in vain for a career more full of peril and of wild adventure.

This narrative reveals a state of society and habitudes of life now rapidly passing into oblivion.   It is 

very desirable that the record should be perpetuated, that we may know the scenes through which our fathers passed, in laying the foundations of this majestic Republic. It is probable that as the years roll on the events which occurred in the infancy of our nation will be read with ever-increasing interest.

It is the intention of the publisher of this volume to issue a series of sketches of the prominent men in the early history of our country. The next volume will contain the life and adventures of the renowned Miles Standish, the Puritan Captain.


Fair Haven, Conn. 



Discovery of the New World.   Of Florida.   Conquest   nd

eltiei of DeSoto.   The Wigwam.   Colony at St. Mary.   S  r Walter Beleigh and his Colonies.   Grant of King James.    Settlements in the Virginia.   Adventures of John Smith.    Arrival of Lord Delaware    Terrible massacres.   Pressures of Colonists to the West.   Doherty Trade with Indians.    Attempted Colony on the Tennessee.   Daniel Boone...... 8


Trials of the Colonists.   George Boone and his home.   Squire Boone.   Birth and character of Daniel Boone.   His limited education.   A pioneer's camp.   A log house and furnishings.   Annoyance of Boone on the arrival of Scotch emigrants.   His longings for adventure.   Camp meetings.    Frontier life.     Sports.     Squirrel hunting.   Snuffing the candle.............................................. 36


Louisiana, and its eventful history.   The expedition of DeSoto.    The Missionary Marquette.   His voyage on the Upper Mississippi.   The Expedition of La Salle.   Michilimacki-nac.     Its History.    Fate of the "Griffin."   Grief of La Salle.   His voyage of Discovery.   Sale of Louisiana to the Doited State.   Bemarks of Napoleon................... 1i 




John Finloy and his adventures.   Aspect of the Country.    Boone's Private Character.   His Love for the Wilderness. First view of Kentucky.     Emigrants' Dress.     Hunter's Home.   Capture of Boone and Stewart by the Indians.    Their Escape.   Singular Incident...................... 8i'


Alleghany Bidges.   Voyage in a canoe.   Speech of Logan.    Battle at the Kanawha.   Narrative of Francis Marion.    Important commission of Boone.   Council at Circleville.    Treaty of Peace    Imlay's description of Kentucky   Settlement right.   Bichard Henderson.   Boone's letter.   Fort at Boonesborough.................................... 109


Emigration to Boonesborough.   New Perils.     Transylvania Company.   Beneficence of its Laws   Interesting incident.    Infamous conduct of Great Britain.   Attack on the Fort.    Beinforcements.   Simon Kenton and his Sufferings.    Mrs. Harvey......................................... 129


Stewart killed by the Indians.   Squire Boone returns to the Settlements.   Solitary Life of Daniel Boone.   Return of Squire Boone.   Extended and Romantic Explorations.    Charms and Perils of the Wilderness.   The Emigrant Party.

   The Fatal Ambuscade.   Retreat of the Emigrants._

Solitude of the Wilderness.   Expedition of Lewis ai-.d Clarke.   Extraordinary Adventures of Cotter............ in


Heroism of Thomas Higgins and of Mrs Pursley.   Affairs at Boonesborough.   Continued Alarms.   Need of 8alt._Its 

Manufacture.   Indian Schemes.   Capture of Boone and twenty-seven men.   Dilemma of the British at Detroit.    Blacknsh adopts Colonel Boone.   Adoption Ceremony.    Indian Designs.   Escape of Boone.   Attacks the Savages.    The Fort Threatened............................... 182


Situation of the Fort.   Indian Treachery.   Bombardment.    Boone goes to North Carolina.   New Trials.   Boone Robbed.   He returns to Kentucky.   Massacre of Colonel Rogers.   Adventure of Col. Bowman.   New Attack by the British and Indians.   Retaliatory Measures.   Wonderful Exploit.............................................. 209


Death of Squire Boone.   Indian Outrages.   Gerty and McGee.    Battle of Blue Lick.   Death of Isaac Boone.   Colonel Boone's Narrow Escape.   Letter of Daniel Boone.   Determination of General Clarke.   Discouragement of the Savages.   Amusing Anecdote of Daniel Boone.......... 230


Peace with England.   Order of a Kentucky Court.   Anecdotes.

Speech of Mr. Dalton.   Reply of Plankashaw   Renewed Indications of Indian Hostility.   Conventions at DanviUe.    Kentucky formed into a State    New Trials for Boone.. 2*8


The Search for the Horse.   Navigating the Ohio.   Heroism of Mrs Rowan.   Lawless Gangs.   Exchange of Prisoners.    Boone Revisits the Home of his Childhood    The Realms beyond the Mississippi.   Habits of the Hunters.   Corn     Boom's Journey to the West......................... >7l 



Colonel Boone welcomed by the Spanish Authorities.- Boone's Narrative to Audubon.   The Midnight Attack.     Pursuit of the Savages.   Sickness in the Wilderness.   Honesty of Colonel Boone.   Payment of his Debts.   Loss of all his Property........................................... 293


Colonel Boone Appeals to Congress.   Complimentary Resolutions of the Legislature of Kentucky.   Death of Mrs. Boone.    Catholic Liberality     Itinerant Preachers.   Grant by Congress to Colonel Boone.   The Evening of his Days.        Personal Appearance.   Death and Burial.   Transference    * ihe Remains of Mr. and Mrs. Boone fe> Erancfort, Kentucky 330 

The Discovery and early Settlement of America.

Discovery of the New World.   Of Florida__Conquest and orueltiee

of Desoto.   The wigwam__Colony at St. Mary.   Sir Walter

Relelgh and his Colonies.   Grant of Ring James.   Settlements

In the Virginia.   Adventures of John Smith__Arrival of Lord

Delaware.   Terrible massacres.   Pressures of Colonists to the West.   Doherty Trade with Indians.   Attempted Colony on the Tennessee.   Daniel Boone.

The little fleet of three small vessels, with which Columbus left Palos in Spain, in search of a new world, had been sixty-seven days at sea. They had traversed nearly -three thousand, miles of ocean, and yet there was nothing'bflt'.a NVidfe'.'eX'g^nse of  'waters spread out before ;them.,' /The despairing crew were loud in their murmurs, demanflitig:tb'aj:'the expedition should be abandoned;ariji;fhat/thAsh|ips'sbould return to Spain. The morning of tihe'iitlhoT.October, 1492, had come. During the day Columbus, whose heart had been very heavily oppressed with anxiety, had been cheered by some indications that they were approaching land. Fresh seaweed was occasionally seen and a branch of a shrub with leaves and berries upon it, and a piece of wood curiously carved had been picked up. 


The devout commander was so animated by thes   indications, that he gathered his crew around him and returned heartfelt thanks to God, for this prospect that their voyage would prove successful. It was a beautiful night, the moon shone brilliantly and a delicious tropical breeze swept the ocean. At ten o'clock Columbus stood upon the bows of his ship earnestly gazing upon the western horizon, hoping that the long-looked-for land would rise before him. Suddenly he was startled by the distinct gleam of a torch far off in the distance. For a moment it beemed forth with a clear and indisputable flame and then disappeared. The agitation of Columbus no words can describe. Was it a meteor ? Was it an optical illusion ? Was it light from the land ?..........

Suddenly thV tojch; fike :aj stair,, again shone forth with distinct though, faint .gleam.    Columbus called some/of.-his ;Compkn56ns!!toiiis side and they also saw the light. clear)y. .     Btft again it disappeared. At two o'clock'jn .the'mbrhm'g'a sailor at the look out on the mast head shooted, " Land ! land ! land !" In a few moments all beheld, but a few miles distant from them, the distinct outline of towering mountains piercing the skies. A new world was discovered Cautiously the vessels hove to and waited for the light of the morning. The dawn of day presented to the eyes of Columbus and his companions a sper 

tacle of beauty which the garden of Eden could hardly have rivalled. It was a morning of the tropics, calm serene and lovely. But two miles before them there emerged from the sea an island of mountains and valleys, luxuriant with every variety of tropical vegetation. The voyagers, weary of gazing for many weeks on the wide waste of waters, were so enchanted with the fairy scene which then met the eye, that they seemed really to believe that they had reached the realms of the blest.

The boats were lowered, and, as they were rowed towards the shore, the scene every moment grew more beautiful. Gigantic trees draped in luxuriance of foliage hitherto unimagined, rose in the soft valleys and upon the towering hills. In the sheltered groves, screened from the sun, the picturesque dwellings of the natives were thickly clustered. Flowers of every variety of tint bloomed in marvellous profusion. The trees seemed laden with fruits of every kind, and in inexhaustible abundance. Thousands of natives crowded the shore, whose graceful forms and exquisitely moulded limbs indicated the innocence and simplicity of Eden before the fall.

Columbus, richly attired in a scarlet dress, fell upon his knees as he reached the beach, and, with clasped hands and uplifted eyes, gave utterance to the devout feelingswhich ever inspired him, in thanksgiving to 


God. In recognition of the divine protection he gave the island the name of San Salvador, or Holy Savior. Though the new world thus discovered was one of the smallest islands of the Caribbean Sea, no conception was then formed of the vast continents of North and South America, stretching out in both directions, for many leagues almost to the Arctic and Antarctic poles.

Omitting a description of the wonderful adventures which ensued, we can only mention that two years after this, the southern extremity of the North American continent was discovered by Sebastian Cabot. It was in the spring of the year and the whole surface of the soil seemed carpeted with the most brilliant flowers. The country consequently received the beautiful name of Florida. It, of course, had no boundaries, for no one knew with certainty whether it were an island or a continent, or how far its limits might extend.

f The years rolled on and gradually exploring excursions crept along the coast towards the north, various provinces were mapped out with pretty distinct boundaries upon the Atlantic coast, extending indefinitely into the vast and unknown interior. Expeditions J from France had entered the St. Lawrence and established settlements in Canada. For a time the whole Atlantic coast, from its extreme southern point to 

Canada, was called Florida In the year 15 39, Ferdinand de Soto, an unprincipled Spanish warrior, who had obtained renown by the conquest of Peru in South America, fitted out by permission of the king of Spain, an expedition of nearly a thousand men to conquer and take possession of that vast and indefinite realm called Florida.

We have no space here to enter upon a description of the fiendlike cruelties practiced by these Spaniards. They robbed and enslaved without mercy. In pursuit of gold they wandered as far north as the present boundary of South Carolina. Then turning to the west, they traversed the vast region to the Mississippi river. The forests were full of game. The granaries of the simple-hearted natives were well stored with corn ; vast prairies spreading in all directions around them, waving with grass and blooming with flowers, presented ample forage for the three hundred horses which accompanied the expedition. Th'-y were also provided with fierce bloodhounds to hunt down the terrified natives. Thus invincible and armed with the " thunder and lightning " of their guns, they swept the country, perpetrating every conceivabh outrage upon the helpless natives.

After long and unavailing wanderings in search of gold, having lost by sickness and the casualties of such an expedition nearly half their number, the 
   14 daniel boone.

remainder built boats upon the Mississippi, descended that rapid stream five hundred miles to its mouth, and then skirting the coast of Texas, finally disappeared on the plains of Mexico. De Soto, the leader of this conquering band, died miserably on the Mississippi, and was buried beneath its waves.

The whole country which these adventurers traversed, they found to be quite densely populated with numerous small tribes of natives, each generally wandering within circumscribed limits. Though these tribes spoke different languages, or perhaps different dialects of the same language, they were essentially the same in appearance, manners and customs. They were of a dark-red color, well formed and always disposed to receive the pale face strangers with kindliness, until exasperated by ill-treatment. They lived in fragile huts called wigwams, so simple in their structure that one could easily be erected in a few hours. These huts were generally formed by setting long and slender poles in the ground, inclosing an area of from ten to eighteen feet in diameter, according to the size of the family. The tops were tied together, leaving a hole for the escape of smoke from the central fire. The sides were thatched with coarse grass, or so covered with the bark of trees, as quite effectually to exclude both wind and rain. There were no windows, light entering only through the almost 

always open door. The ground floor was covered with dried grass, or the skins of animals, or with the soft and fragrant twigs of some evergreen tree.

The inmates, men, women and children, seated] upon these cushions, presented a very attractive and cheerful aspect. Several hundred of these wigwams were frequently clustered upon some soft meadow by the side of a flowing stream, fringed with a gigantic forest, and exhibited a spectacle of picturesque loveliness quite charming to the beholder. The furniture of these humble abodes was extremely simple. They had no pots or kettles which would stand the fire. They had no knives nor forks; no tab.i_s nor chairs. Sharp flints, such as they could find served for knives, with which, with incredible labor, they sawed down small trees and fashioned their bows and arrows They had no roads except foot paths through the wilderness, which for generations their ancestors had traversed, called " trails." They had no beasts of burden, no cows, no flocks nor herds of any kind. They generally had not even salt, but cured their meat by drying it in the sun. They had no ploughs, hoes, spades, consequently they lou Id only cultivate the lightest soil. With a sharp stick, women loosened the earth, and then depositing their corn or maize, cultivated it in the rudest manner. 

These Indians acquired the reputation of being very faithful friends, but very bitter enemies. It was said they never forgot a favor, and never forgave an insult They were cunning rather than brave. It was seldom that an Indian could be induced to meet a foe in an open hand-to-hand fight But he would track him for years, hoping to take him unawares and to brain him with the tomahawk, or pierce his heart with the flint-pointed arrow.

About the year 1565, a company of French Protestants repaired to Florida, hoping there to find the liberty to worship God in accordance with their interpretation of the teachings of the Bible. They established quite a flourishing colony, at a place which they named St Marys, near the coast. This was the first European settlement on the continent of North America. The fanatic Spaniards, learning that Protestants had taken possession of the country, sent out an expedition and utterly annihilated the settlement, putting men, women and children to the sword. Many of these unfortunate Protestants were hung in chains from trees under the inscription, " Not as Frenchmen but as Heretics? The blood-stained Spaniards then established themselves at a spot near by, which thoy called St. Augustine. A French gentleman of wealth fitted out a well-manned and well-armed expedition of three ships attacked the murderers by surprise and 

put them to death. Several corpses were suspended from trees, under the inscription, " Not as Spaniards^ but as Murderers!'

There was an understanding among the powers of Europe, that any portion of the New World discovered by expeditions from European courts, should be recognised as belonging to that court. The Spaniards had taken possession in Florida. Far away a thousand leagues to the North, the French had entered the gulf of St Lawrence. But little was known of the vast region between. A young English gentleman, Sir Walter Raleigh, an earnest Protestant, and one who had fought with the French Protestants in their religious wars, roused by the massacre of his friends in Florida, applied to the British court to fit out a colony to take possession of the intermediate country. He hoped thus to prevent the Spanish monarchy, and the equally intolerant French court, from spreading their principles over the whole continent. The Protestant Queen Elisabeth then occupied the throne of Great Britain. Raleigh was young, rich, handsome and mar-velously fascinating in his address. He became a great favorite of the maiden queen, and she gave him a commission, making him lord of all the continent of North America, between Florida and Canada.

The whole of this vast region without any accurate boundaries, was called Virginia.   Several ships were 

sent to exploie the country. They reached the coast of what is now called North Carolina, and the adventurers landed at Roanoke Island. They were charmed with the climate, with the friendliness of the natives and with the majestic growth of the forest trees, far surpassing anything they had witnessed in the Old World. Grapes in rich clusters hung in profusion on the vines, and birds of every variety of song \nd plumage filled the groves. The expedition retur d to England with such glowing accounts of the realm they had discovered, that seven ships were fitted out, conveying one hundred and eight men, to colonic the island. It is quite remarkable that no womtn accompanied the expedition. Many of these men were reckless adventurers. Bitter hostility soon sprang up between them and the Indians, who at first had received them with the greatest kindness.

Most of these colonists were men unaccustomed to work, and who insanely expected that in the New World, in some unknown way, wealth was to flow in upon them like a flood. Disheartened, homesick and appalled by the hostile attitude which the much oppressed Indians were beginning to assume, they were all anxious to return home. When, soon after some ships came bringing them abundant supplies, they with one accord abandoned the colony, and crowding the vessels returned to England. Fifteen men however 

consented to remain, to await the arrival of fresh colonists from the Mother Country.

Sir Walter Raleigh, still undiscouraged, in the next year 1587 sent out another fleet containing a number of families as emigrants, with women and children. When they arrived, they found Roanoke deserted. The fifteen men had been murdered by the Indians in retaliation for the murder of their chief and several of his warriors by the English. With fear and trembling the new settlers decided to remain, urging the friends who had accompanied them to hasten back to England with the ships and bring them reinforcements and supplies. Scarcely had they spread their sails on the return voyage ere war broke out with Spain. It was three years before another ship crossed the ocean, to see what had become of the colony. It had utterly disappeared. Though many attempts were made to ascertain its tragic fate, all were unavailing. It is probable that many were put to death by the Indians, and perhaps the children were carried far back into the interior and incorporated into their tribes. This bitter disappointment seemed to paralyse the energies of colonization. For more than seventy years the Carolinas remained a wilderness, with no attempt to transfer to them the civilization of the Old World. Still English ships continued occasionally to visit the coast Some came to fish, some to purchase furs of the 


Indians, and some for timber for shipbuilding, The stories which those uoyagers told on their return, kept up an interest in the New World. It was indeed an attractive picture which .r.ould be truthfully painted. The climate was mild, g  ?i)Jal and salubrious. The atmosphere surpassed the Lu-famed transparency of Italian skies. The forests were of gigantic growth, more picturesquely beautiful than any ever planted by man's hand, and they were fiLVI with game. The lakes and streams swarmed with fish. A wilderness of flowers, of every variety of Iovelines", Ucomed over the wide meadows and the broad savannah;;, which the forest had not yet invaded. Berries and fruits were abundant. In many places the soil was surpassingly rich, and easily tilled; and all this was open, without money and without price, to the first comer.

Still more than a hundred years elapsed after the discovery of these realms, ere any permanent settlement was effected upon them. Most of the bays, harbors and rivers were unexplored, and reposed as 'it were in the solemn silence of eternity. From the everglades of Florida to the firclad hills of Nova Scotia, not a settlement of white men could be found.

At length in the year 1607, a number of wealthy gentlemen in London formed a company to make a new attempt for the settlement of America. It wai their plan to send out hardy colonists, abundantly 

provided with arms, tools and provisions. King James I., who had succeeded his cousin Queen Elizabeth, granted them a charter, by which, wherever they might effect a landing, they were to be the undisputed lords of a territory extending a hundred miles along the coast, and running back one hundred miles into the interior. Soon after, a similar grant was conferred upon another association, for the region of North Virginia, now called New England.

Under the protection of this London Company, one hundred and five men, with no women or children, embarked in three small ships for the Southern Atlantic coast of North America. Apparently by accident, they entered Chesapeake Bay, where they found a broad and deep stream, wh.<.u they named after their sovereign, James River. As they ascended this beautiful stream, they were charmed with the loveliness which nature had spread so profusely around (   hem Upon the northern banks of the nver, about fifty miles from its entrance into the bay, they selected a spot for their settlement, which they named Jamestown Here they commenced cutting down trees and raising their huts.

In an enterprise of this kind, muscles inured to work and determined spirits ready to grapple with difficulties, are essential. In such labors, the most useless of all beings is the gentleman with soft hands and 

luxurious habits. Unfortunately quite a number of pampered sons of wealth had joined the colony. Being indolent, selfish and dissolute, they could do absolutely nothing for the prosperity of the settlement, but were only an obstacle in the way of its growth.

Troubles soon began to multiply, and but for the energies of a remarkable man, Capt. John Smith, the colony must soon have perished through anarchy. But even Capt. John Smith with all his commanding powers, and love of justice and of law, could not prevent the idle and profligate young men from insulting the natives, and robbing them of their corn. With the autumnal rains sickness came, and many died. The hand of well-organised industry might have raised an ample supply of corn to meet all their wants through the short winter. But this had been neglected, and famine was added to sickness. Capt. Smith had so won the confidence of the Indian chieftains, that notwithstanding the gross irregularities of his young men, they brought him supplies of corn and game, which they freely gave to the English in their destitution.

Captain Smith having thus provided for the necessities of the greatly diminished colony, set out with a small party of men on an exploring expedition into the interior. He was waylayed by Indians, who with arrows ai?d tomahawks speed:ly put all the men to 

death, excepting the leader, who was taken captive. There was something in the demeanor of tin's brave man which overawed them. He showed them his pocket compass, upon which they gazed with wonder. He then told them that if they would send to the fort a leaf from his pocket-book, upon which he had made several marks with his pencil, they would find the next day, at any spot they might designate, a certain number of axes, blankets, and other articles of great value to them. Their cariosity was exceedingly aroused ; the paper was sent, and the next day the articles were found as promised. The Indians looked upon Captain Smith as a magician, and treated him with great respect. Still the more thoughtful of the natives regarded him as a more formidable foe. They could not be blind to the vastly superior power of the English in their majestic ships, with their long swords, and terrible fire-arms, and all the developments, astounding to them, of a higher civilization. They were very anxious in view of encroachments which might eventually give the English the supremacy in their land.

Powhatan, the king of the powerful tribe who had at first been very friendly to the English, surr Tioned a council of war of his chieftains, and after long deliberation, it was decided that Captain Smith was too powerful a man to be allowed to live, and that he 

must die. He was accordingly led out to execution, but without any of the ordinary accompaniments of torture. His hands were bound behind him, he was laid upon the ground, and his head was placed upon a stone. An Indian warrior of herculean strength stood by, with a massive club, to give the death blow by crushing in the scull. Just as the fatal stroke was about to descend, a beautiful Indian girl, Pocahontas, the daughter of the king, rushed forward and throwing her arms around the neck of Captain Smith, placed her head upon his. The Indians regarded this as an indication from the Great Spirit that the life of Captain Smith was to be spared, and they set their prisoner at liberty, who, being thus miraculously rescued, returned to Jamestown.

By his wisdom Captain Smith preserved for some time friendly relations with the Indians, and the colony rapidly increased, until there were five hundred Europeans assembled at Jamestown. Capt. Smith being severely wounded by an accidental explosion of gunpowder, returned to England for surgical aid. The colony, thus divested of his vigorous sway, speedily lapsed into anarchy. The bitter hostility o   the Indians was aroused, and, within a few months the colony dwindled away beneath the ravages of sickness, famine, and the arrows of the Indians, to but sixty men.   Despair reigned ir> all hearts, and this 

starving remnant of Europeans was preparing to abandon the colony and return to the Old World, when Lord Delaware arrived with several ships loaded with provisions and with a reinforcement of hardy laborers. Most of the idle and profligate young men who had brought such calamity upon the colony, had died. Those who remained took fresh courage, and affairs began to be more prosperous.

The organization of the colony had thus far been effected with very little regard to the wants of human nature. There were no women there. Without the honored wife there cannot be the happy home ; and without the home there can be no contentment. To herd together five hundred men upon the banks of a foreign stream, three thousand miles from their native land, without women and children, and to expect them to lay the foundation of a happy and prosperous colony, seems almost unpardonable folly.

Emigrants began to arrive with their families, and

in the year 1620, one hundred and fifty poor, but

virtuous young women, were induced to join the

Company.   Each young man who came received one

hundred acres of land.   Eagerly these young planters,

in short courtship, selected wives from such of these

women as they could induce to lister, to them Each

man paid one hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco to

defray the expenses of his wife's voyage.   But the a 


wickedness of man will everywhere, and under all circumstances, make fearful development of its power, Many desperadoes joined the colony. The poor Indians with no weapons of war but arrows, clubs and stone tomahawks, were quite at the mercy of the English with their keen swords, and death-dealing muskets. Fifteen Europeans could easily drive several hundred Indians in panic over the plains. Unprincipled men perpetrated the grossest outrages upon the families of the Indians, often insulting the proudest chiefs.

The colonists were taking up lands in all directions. Before their unerring rifles, game was rapidly disappearing. The Indians became fully awake to their danger. The chiefs met in council, and a conspiracy was formed, to put, at an appointed hour, all the English to death, every man, woman and child. Every house was marked. Two or three Indians were appointed to make the massacre sure in each dwelling. They were to spread over the settlement, enter the widely scattered log-huts, as friends, and at a certain moment were to spring upon their unsuspecting victims, and kill them instantly. The plot was fearfully successful in all the dwellings outside the little village of Jamestown. In one hour, on the 22nd of March, 1622, three hundred and forty-seven men, women and children were massacred in cold blood 

The colony would have been annihilated, but for a Christian Indian who, just before the massacre commenced, gave warning to a friend in Jamestown. The Europeans rallied with their fire-arms, and easily drove off their foes, and then commenced the unrelenting extermination of the Indians. An arrow can be thrown a few hundred feet, a musket ball more than as many yards. The Indians were consequently helpless. The English shot down both sexes, young and old, as mercilessly as if they had b