xt7d513tvv89 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7d513tvv89/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1937 journals kaes_circulars_292 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 292 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 292 1937 2014 true xt7d513tvv89 section xt7d513tvv89 = COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean und Director
— Soybeans and Cowpeas in Kentucky
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Lexin ton Ky.
March, 1937
U Published in connection with the Agricultural Extension Work carried on by ciwpezwij
On ofthe College of A riculture Universitv of Kentuck , with the U. S. Departinem nl
A¤r1 1 · ~ g ` ` y · · ·
O? \¥?\“g*<‘1gl1d distributed in 1‘m—t1wi·¤iwe of the work provided for in the Act 0fCm¤;1r=*S>
~ *.‘ , 14.

A (Z(A)N'l`EN'l`S ‘
-—_t Puyr
lntportance ol` soybeans and cowpeas in lientueky ...V..... A, 1
` Place in the cropping system .........,.................‘_, 5
liilliect on yield ol succeeding crops ...,..............,.... AA A3
' \t'a1`ieties ol` soybeans lor Kentucky .......,.......,.....,,,_ ti V ¥
\·'a1‘ieties ol cowpeas lor Kentucky .......... A ......,,..4., IH il
Cultural methods .,...................................... ll [
l Stage ol` tnatutity to harvest lor hay ................,..... A. 13  
Curing soybean hay ...,.....,........................... A ll} [
Curing cowpea hay ...................,................. A. Ii  
lialing cowpea and soybean hay .........................., A IN H
Ielarvesting soybean seed ......,.......,.................. A I5 ll
Harvesting cowpea seed .............,.................,.. A lil
'lhreshing soybeans .....A.A.AAAAA A .AA.A.A_AAA.AA.A...... . Yll  
`l`ht‘eshing eowlneas .A..A.A.,.AAAA..A..A.AAAA.AA.AA.,..... . Yll y l;
Storing soybean and cowpea seed .A.A..A......,..AA..,A,AA A Bl  
\'iabili.tyol'cow1>ea and soybean seed .....A....AAAA.AA..A.. .. YY
Yields ol soybean and cowpea hay ...A.AAA.....,..,AAAAAAA A. YY ]’
(Alowpeas and soybeans in corn AAAAA,AAA_,A,A,,_A,AAA,.A.   Yi yy
Hay ntixtutes including soybeans and cowpeas ......,,.AA   fl ll
Eltelnies ol soybeans and eoyylyeas A A __A,_,A_____,,AAA..., .- Sl (4
4 1x

my Soybeans and Cowpeas in Kentucky
_ __ l By E. J. KINNEY
.... ll ‘ 
···· Jl Soybeans and cowpeas are valuable in Kentucky chiefly as einer- ·
A Ii gency hay crops. They yield well, are very dependable and the hays
i i V are of high feeding value. However, the forage is extremely difficult
···· lll to cure, a decided disadvantage, and the cost of production is rela-
I P U ll tively high; hence they are not so desirable for general use as alfalfa,
_ retl clover and lespedeza. The production of soybean seed is fairly
···· ll profitable where high average yields can be obtained, but this is
_'4' lt; possible only on fertile soil that retains moisture well; as. for ex-
_ ample. on the better bottom lands in the State. Because soybean
``‘` li wil is coming into use in the manufacture of varnish and lacquer,
. , ,. IH andthe press cake for making plastics, it is likely that production of
IS the seed may become more important, in localities where conditions
```' are favorable for this industry.
,... lll Both soybeans and cowpeas, especially the former, are good crops
U', l<>l‘ hogging down in connection with corn and are excellent green-
```i — manure crops for tl1e quick improvement of worn soil. ;\s explained
.... ffl later. when soybeans or cowpeas are harvested, there is a loss in soil
gl nitrogen unless the manure made by feeding the hay or straw, or
in H tlie straw itself is returned to the soil.
···‘ Li ` l11 lllitny respects soybeans are more desirable for hay than t‘t>\\'-
I·>·_ jj ttws. On soil of fair proclttctivity they both yield al)O1lt the $2111lC
W; l'*111121g‘e of hay and the hays are very similar in feeding \’£1l11C. Soy
‘‘‘‘` " l)V?111S are easier to harvest, however, than (f()\\'l)C1lS. They (2111 l)U
___,. il liandled with less dilhculty and cure more quickly. Soybeans grow
U,) lllllfll lletler than most other legumes on poorly-tlraitletl l21l1(l, \\'l1ilC
``°'' _. ("“`|>€21S require \\'Qll—(l]`§lil](j(l l;t11(l_ _-\t, the same time St>}"l>C2U1$ £11`C
. more drouth resistant than cowpeas.
()n badly depleted soil cowpeas make a much better growth
lllilll 5t>1"l>eans and where it is necessary to prutlttce hay till \`L’1`§` llllll
land with a minimum expenditure for soil treatment. they should
ahrays be grown in preference to soybeans. ln fact. there is no other

4 Ken/ricky Extension Circrzlar N0. 292
crop, legume or non—legu1ne, that equals cowpeas as a hay crop tm ol red cl
unproductive land. Their superior growth on thin land also makes grasses.
{ them a better green-manure crop than soybeans. Cowpeas holtl
weeds in check nruch better than soybeans, particularly in the
C?ll`ly SUIQQCS ol gl`()\\'lll; (j()l]sC(lL1Q]](ly’ they arg l)rg|`C]·;l\)lC for VCU \\']]t
weedy lzlntl. i—\ (lCllSC stand ol eowpeas is very eileetive in smotlmt most lo;
ing such perennial weeds as tluack grass, nut grass, etc. t°<>\`1l t>l`
Soybeans are much more productive ol seed than cowpeas excepr W1"] hcl
on the most unproductive soils, and the seed crop can be harvestetl l`€?1"· W
t by machinery much more readily. Hence the cost o1` production is “l€?¤l<>‘l
]CSS_ mm 11121
· in malac
· ;\ccording to the United States Census ol Agriculture, soybeans €Nl€U$l\
were grown on 19,454 larnrs in Kentucky, in l9?»—I, and cowpeas tm 1¤¤¤}‘ l>C
18,459 [arms. Soybeans grown alone occupied 94,510 acres; aml ~1H4ill—gr
gl`0Wl1 with other Crops, 9,101 acres. Cowpeas alone occupied SU.- slillll lil
881 acres, while 3,788 acres were grown with other crops. The (i1`*>|>» l
quantity ol soybean seed harvested was 90,954 bushels and ol cttw- l‘*`*’$l<>¤§
peas, 65,636 bushels. Compared with the agricultural census figures l’lV HUC
1`or 1929, the soybean acreage was about 3 percent larger in lllill '“ll"’S€1
and the cowpea acreage 166 percent larger. Approxirnately fill [><‘¤·
cent. more ol both soybean and cowpea seed was harvested in lllill _\]t r
than in I929. It is difhcult to explain why the cowpea il(`l`Cil§C Wi" lrttm th
so much larger in 193--1, especially since the soybean acreage was but ttmtaint
little larger. ln certain parts ol` the State cowpeas are still llllltll tltirtl is
more popular than soybeans and possibly the large use ol c<>\\‘[>Ui\‘ tate t,[,
lll 1934was the result ol a shortage ol other hay crops in these 1\1`€?**· ll1e mot
Prices ol cowpea and soybean seed were about the same in both amount
years. l trop is r
In view of the tremendous increase in the use of lespetleza m user. in
recent years it might be expected that some decline in cowpea and the Iirst
soybean acreage would have occurred. Instead, as shown, not tml} ltmtl. 4
by the census Hgures but also by the yearly crop reports ol tliv tt»mt·t·x
United States Departntent ol .·\griculture, there has been some m- lu tt
crease. This indicates the perennial need in lientuclay lor t·mt·1- lt;ut· a
gency hay crops. taken ut
Tl1€ C011ll)il1e(l acreage ol` soybeans and eowpeas in l{el1lU(`l*l l` Im"' lll
1ll><>llL one and one-tlrirtl times that (yr ;l]t`ult`u‘ and Hbom |y;tl|`1l1:ll 1`\pl;ttttt

 S())’f}(’(l}I.\` and Cowjzeus 1`21 Keri/iutky 5 ,
11 ofred clover, including clover grown alone and in combination with
cs grasses. It is about one-fifteenth as large as the lespedeza acreage.
.\. \\lllCll grown regularly, either for l1ay or seed production, the
IQ lllt)Sf logical place i11 the rotation for cowpeas and soybeans is after
t`t)l`ll or other cultivated crop. The rotation generally used in tl1e
H torn belt is: first year, corn; second year, soybeans or cowpeas; third
(I rear, wheat or other fall·sown grain; fourth year, pasture and I
i` iiieztdow crops, generally a timothy—clover mixture. The same l`<)t21-
lftlll may be employed in Kentucky, but it is usually advantageous
to make it longer by leaving fields in pasture two or three years
before plowing again for corn. Since these two legumes are most
H extensively used as emergency hay crops, they occupy any land that
H lllily be available. They are often sown after tl1e removal of a
,1 \lllilll—g`l`ZliI1 crop where tl1e hay or pasture crops sown witl1 the small
,__ grain fail, or perhaps are grown the next year after the Slll2lll·gl`Hill
IC rrop. Both cowpeas Zlll(l soybeans leave soil loose and subject to
`·. erosion; hence a cover crop should always be sown as S()()ll as possi—
5 ble after peas or beans are harvested. This also prevents loss of
;.{ nitrogen.
lf .\ll legumes obtain Zll)()llf the same proportion of their nitrogen
~" fftml the air, which is estimated as two—thirds of tl1e total amount
if toiitained in tl1e mature plants, including tl1e roots. The other
ill flllftl is obtained from the soil. lf the root growth is extellsiye, as is
i" WC of clover, alfalfa and 1ll()sl legumes, the amount of nitrogen in
l”· lll€ roots and stubble, taken from the air, just about equals llle
ll llllltllllll in the top growth taken from the soil; hence, when a hay
, nop is removed, there is 11either loss nor gain in soil nitrogen. How-
'“ UWT. in many instances a gain in nitrogen results from pasturing
ttl lllC first year's growth of clover or similar crop or leaving it on the
ll lilllif .\lso clover fields are usually pasturetl Ille SC(`Ull(l }"CIl1` it)
lf ""'l<‘ t‘\lent. partictilarly after fllC first crop is harvested.
11- lll(`t)ll]l)1ll`lS()ll \\'ifll most other leguines, soybcaiis 1lll(l rowpeas
'l‘ f'*"*` if lnuth less extensive root system Zllltl more soil llill`UgCll is A
t;tlit·11 up by tl1e top growth than the Zlllltilllll ill tl1e roots obtained
it |"’lll|l1<3air. (ioiisetlueutly there is a loss of soil |lil1`<>g°ClI. llillls
ill f\l’lillll5 Wil}, as previously statetl, tliese two leg11111es CXll1lll>l Ill?

6 Kezzlttc/ty Exlensiort Circtt/ar N0. 292
i soil nitrogen, unless the manure made by feeding the hay is te antl 0
turned to the soil or the straw returned when a seed crop is grott·n_ consid
· lt also explains why crop yields following cowpeas and soybeans varier
are often lower than after clover, alfalfa and lespedeza. tliflictt
At the Kentucky Experiment Station the yields of corn and t wise v
wheat in a rotation of corn, wheat and clover, have been compared always
to the yields in a corn-wheat—soybeans rotation. The rotation was scrupt
not fully established until 1923 and since then 13 crops each ol corn and tl
and wheat have been harvested. The clover and soybean crops chased
_ A were removed for hay and no manure or crop residues was retttrnetl seeds.
to the land. A small-grain cover crop was sown after harvesting Mt
V the soybeans. The average yield of corn following clover was 62.3 thtctio
bushels per acre and, following soybeans, 51.8 bushels » a dil1`erent·e grown
I of 10.5 bushels an acre. \\’heat in the corn-wheat-clover rotatinn soil of
yielded 22.0 bushels an acre and 19.2 bushels in the corn—wheat-sny- since t
bean rotation. ttntil l
.-\ceording to Morse*‘, more than 2000 different lots of S<>yhe¤111 "1"h"
seed have been brought to this country from eastern ,·\sia by the l1'¥h€1`
U. S. Department of .»\gricttlture. ln addition, seedsmen and ey Fol
periment stations have made numerous introductions. Certainly llC11f1l<
over 1000 distinct varieties have been obtained from these \`2\1`l011‘ [,0,
lots of seed. lt is doubtful if varieties of any other crop display rich ];l
such wide differences in plant characteristics as occur among ~¤>\· yltmg  
bean varieties. ln length of time required f`or maturity, the rztnat This is
is 80 days to 175 days. Some of the earliest-maturing varieties gttllf well at-
only 15 to 18 inches tall, while very late varieties often reach li lC<‘1~ that of
Great differences also occur in size, shape and color of seed. 11,1111 I hay. I
some of the largest—seeded varieties, 1500 to 2000 seeds weigh 1* T Seed In
pound, while as many as 10000 seeds are required to make it ]><>1111'l Westerr
of one or more of the stnallest-seeded sorts. Between these extretnt‘~ seed se
all graduations in size occur. ln shape. the seeds vary frotn ti<‘1t1`l‘ Oftheg
round to much flattened. 'l`he seeds of one variety resctttl>le~1l1F'll than ty
l1111i1 1)(`i111$. i1il1L' 111051 ((1111111011 S(`(‘(1 (()1()]`$ §l]`(f 1'(Tllf)\\'. tQ1`f'f’lll‘lf Iif)1`CX{
yellow, brown, black and green. There are also varieties llllll hht on]
banded or ntottled seeds. ttf the]
Fortunately. perhaps. only a litnited ntttnber til varietieslttt 1`irgini
lltlllly lltvl <>\‘t?l` lll t>1` Bl) —l1il\`t‘ lyetonte commercigtllyi itttp01lill1l‘ f’11<'t‘an
T-T-FTartners` bulletin 1520.

 Soybeans and C0zujJecis in Kentucky 7 l
t and only part of these are very extensively grown. Despite this,
L considerable confusion exists in regard to varietal names, the same
lt variety often being known under several different names. Another
difficulty arises from the fact that the seeds of several varieties, other-
tt wise very different, are so similar in appearance that they cannot
rt always be distinguished even by experts. This has permitted un-
,, scrupulous seedsmen to substitute seed of a less desirable variety,
U and therefore cheaper, for the variety wanted. Seed should be pur-
N, chased only from reputable dealers or varieties used with distinctive .
xl seeds.
M Medium late varieties are best adapted to Kentucky for the pro-
;_;; duction of hay. They yield much better than the early varieties
(C grown so extensively in the North for the seed crop, especially on
m soil of only moderate productivity. Later varieties yield well but
,\. since the beans do not reach the proper stage to harvest for hay
4 until late it is often diflicult to get the forage properly cured. The
medium late varieties are also more prohtable to raise for seed than
lm early varieties. They yield equally well and the seed commands a
hc higher price, as a rule.
L., Following is a brief description of the most popular varieties in
lly Kentucky:
an Laredo. Plants tall, slender. leafy. Lodges considerably on
lay ricl1 land. Seeds ripen lflth to l5th of October from May or early
or lime seeding. Seeds small, flat, black, about SOOO to the pound.
me This is perhaps the most desirable of all varieties for hay. It yields
on irell and because the stems are so fine, the forage cures faster than
:ct. that of most other varieties and there is less waste in feeding the
iili ’ hay. Laredo is a little later maturing than is desirable, but it ripens
la seed before frost, as a rule. and is grown successfully for seed in
nal western Kentucky. Laredo is not a heavy seed producer; hence the
nt·~ , Steel sells at a relatively high price. Because of the very small size
nh ofthe seeds, however, a much lower rate of seeding can be practiced
tall than with most other varieties, so that seeding costs are no higher.
i~li· . for example, 5 or 6 pecks of Virginia are required to sow an acre,
Mllll lllll Ollly half ag nittqh good Of Laredo is Heeessétry l>C(TilllSC fl lJU$llCl y
Ovlllm l?illCt` contains more than twice as many seeds its il l)llSll€l of
lll lllmllllil ftlid the individual plants grow as large or larger. :\(Tlll2lll§'
ant one can afford to pay twice as much for seed of Laredo as for seed of

8 Kentucky Extension. Circular N0. 292
Virginia. The seeds of Laredo are very resistant to rotting and H
frequently germinate after lying in the ground thruout the winter; mini.
The seeds of several other varieties of soybeans are similar in 5000
A size, shape and color to those of Laredo, and are frequently sold for M
the latter. The most common of these are Peking, often known gu about
Sable, \tVilson 5 and Kingwa. Peking is sometimes sold in Kentutkv large,
, as Indiana Laredo. These varieties are very good but are not av mm,
Une-stemmed as Laredo nor do they yield as much hay. 01.00,].
Virginia. Plants tall, fairly slender with twining tips. Seetlv inqun
ripen September 15 to 20 from May or early june seeding. Seeds Ou th
‘ brown, flattened, medium small, about 3500 per pound. It is easy Mmm
to distinguish seed of Virginia from that of any other connnercial lm;.] J
variety. Virginia is an excellent hay bean, particularly on soil el [O0 la
- moderate productivity, and it is very popular in Kentucky. lt is M
also a heavy seed producer and adapted for seed production in all septal
parts of the State. than w
Wilson. Often called \Vilson Black. Plants tall, fairly slender, the po
erect. Seeds ripen a few days earlier than Virginia; seeds blatk. Southt
medium large, about 2500 to 3000 per pound. \Vilson is one of the Corn l
older varieties but still popular in Kentucky for hay. A heavy seed lmwev
producer and adapted for seed production in all parts of the State. name
It should be noted that seeds of \Vilson are much larger than those seeded
of Virginia and a higher rate of seeding is required to give equally Nlancl
thick stands. \\’hen prices are about the same Virginia is a better Mz
buy. for see
Ebony. Sometimes called Black Beauty. Quite similar to \\`il- bean a
son but does not grow as tall and lodges more on rich land. Yieltb l·urel1:
less hay than Wilson, as a rule. Seeds glossy blaek, rather plump. ,  llflrlict
about 5500 to the pound, or considerably smaller than Wilson. I/Ii
Often sold for the latter. beau ti
Pe/ting. Also known as Sable, and as noted previously, seed ir attr tt
0ffCll S(>l(l f()l` l,2ll`(j(l(), Plants Ygry bushy, uigtlitiru l](jig]lf, l`illlll'l of lbc
stout, erect. Seeds small, black, much flattened, Slightly li¤1`%<" ln
than Laredo but difficult to distinguish frtnn the latter. l’ekl1l§l` ll' "'i` 0lle tin
ume. Very similar to Peking. A lille-1

Soybeans rmrl Cowpcns in Kcnlucky 9 t
ttl Wilson, 5. Plants taller and more slender than Peking. Tips
`· twining. Matures with Ulilson. Seeds larger than Peking, about
lll 5000 to the pound. A very good hay bean for Kentucky.
OY ilf(l}ll}Ii()l/I Yellow. Plants tall, rather coarse, erect. Ripens
in about October 15 from May or early june seeding. Seeds rather
kl large, straw yellow, almost round; about 2200 to 2500 seeds per
ih pound. Until recent years Mammoth was the most extensively
grown of all varieties in Kentucky and it is still popular in the
tls mountain region. Farmers in that region claim it gives better yields ·
ds on thin land than any other variety. In many parts of the State,
tsr Mammoth is greatly injured by leaf hoppers which probably has
ial been an important reason for its waning popularity. Mammoth is
ol too late for seed production in Kentucky.
is illidwes/. Plants stout, medium tall, erect, seeds ripen about
all September l5, from May and early _]une seeding, or a few days earlier
than Virginia. Seeds straw yellow, slightly oblong, about 3500 to
my the pound. Midwest is usually sold in Kentucky under the name ol
tk. Southern Hollybrook. lt was formerly grown extensively in the
lic Corn Belt and was well liked by Kentucky farmers. ln recent years,
·t·tl however, much of the seed shipped to this State and sold under the
[0 name of Midwest and Southern I-Iollybrook was of other yellow-
isc Wtletl varieties now extensively grown in the North. particularly
{li blitnchu, which is not a desirable hay bean.
ter tllanclnz. This is an early-maturing bean, particularly adapted
for seed production in the Central Corn Belt. It is not a good hay
[il- bean and farmers are advised not to use it even if the seed can be
ltls purchased at a niuch lower price than that of other varieties. lt is
ap.   particularly disappointing on thin land.
tm. Illini. This is another Corn Belt variety but :1 much better hay
bean than Manchu. Seeds pale yellow, almost round, glossy, about
lis 3000 to the pound. In the writer’s opinion, this is the best for hay
bo ttl the early varieties grown in the North.
Qfl lll addition to those deseribed, there are a mnnber of other very
1** · (lC*ll`i|l)l€ varieties but seed of these is not often a\’2tilHl)lC. Lexing-
alt ton is an excellent hay bean. Haberlandt and Morse are especially _
*"l‘ llctllable for hegging (lowly Sogty is zi vining variety with YUSIY
lim bli“`l€ SCC(l$ [ll)OLl[ [h(j Si[Q Qf PQki]]g`_     CXCCllCl`l[ l`()l` hay and at
nl- Gite time was quite popular in parts of western Kentucky. Tokio is
a late-maturing bean, only slightly earlier than Mammoth. It is

10 Kentizcky Extension Circular N0. 292
desirable for hogging down. Other late varieties, seed of which is Y
sometimes offered for sale in Kentucky, are Tar Heel Black, Biloxi wh,.
. , and Otootan. All are fairly desirable for hay. Willi
YVhi1e there are numerous varieties of cowpeas, only a few are ol (rpm,
commercial importance. By far the most important is the \\’hip- B
poorwill and nearly all of the seed produced in Kentucky is of this thc h
variety. A considerable proportion of the cowpea seed sold in lieu- WO",]
tucky is obtained from the Cotton Belt. Much of this is \\'hippo<>r- D M
_ I will, but some seed of New Era, Groit, and a few other varieties is grow
also brought in. In addition, considerable mixed seed is sold. mmm
l’V}zi]2]100rwi/I. In speaking of this variety, the name is usually
shortened to “\\’hips." Occasionally farmers call it Speckled. lt is
U so popular that seed of other varieties is sometimes designated as rt pl
certain kind of \\'hips; as, for example, Blue \\’hips, Black Whips, for S,.
etc. The \Vhippoorwill was so named because the markings on the towel.,
seed resemble those on the eggs of the l\’hippoorwill; buff inarketl often
with brown. The \\’hippoorwill is a medium-early semi-bushy Vivi- my \
ety maturing its hrst pods in about 90 days when planted in May or sown
early june, and the majority of the pods in 120 days. Like all C0l\`· NWS
peas, growth continues until the plants are killed by frost. Perhaps stnoot
no other variety is so well adapted to Kentucky as the lVl1ippoorwill. gpm
New Era. This is the earliest of the cowpeas, the 0rst petlt get tls
ripening in from 75 to 80 days. It is more bushy and less incliurll made
to vine than XtVhippoorwill and does not grow quite so rank; lt0¤<€ ihyjyc
not so productive of hay, as a rule. The seeds are small and of zt il disk
buff color densely speckled with blue. I,}
(72*011/. A cross between \Vhippoorwill and New Era. lt glt*ll‘ , [mili
almost as large as \\’hippoorwill and as bushy as New Era. rlillf mul
seeds are similar in size to those of the latter, 'Tlie markings of lllt all mi
seeds show the characteristics of both plants. The seeds can ltr uml [
distinguished from New Era without difficulty as the general wlttl Hm"
is brown instead of blue. Groit is regarded as one of tlte l><‘>l <"“” aiiil 5,
peas for regions north of the Cotton Belt. ` ltsrtili
Iron. This variety is of great value because immune to r<>¤¤l· lniate
knot caused by mematodes, and to cowpea wilt. However, these super]
SCl(lO11l CHUSC [1`Olll)lC in Kentucky. lron is not a heavy p1‘Otlll<`l`l"’l of HI),
seed and the seed is not abundant on the market. The seemls an ltxnei
solid buff color and very angular. oease

Soybcmtx (md Cotujzetts in Kwttztcky l I t
ll Taylor. This is semi—busl1y in habit of growth and moderately
fl early. Seeds are somewhat larger than those of \Vhippoorwill and
with bluish markings. This variety is often sold under the name
"Blne Whips." It is not a vigorous grower and therefore not so
af desirable as the true \Vhippoorwill.
l." Blac/ccye. Several varieties with white seeds and blaek spots at
" the hilum or eye are known as "blaek-eyed peas." They are ehiefly
“` grown for the table.
’l" Mixed seed consists chiefly of later maturing, vining varieties ·
l> grown in the South. They are quite satisfactory for hay and green
7* Prcjmm/ion of I/te seed bet!. Fairly deep plowing is desirable
li for soybeans and eowpeas so that trash and stubble may be well
llc covered. Trash on the surface interferes with drilling, resulting
ml often in an irregular stand. It also interferes with cultivation neces-
fl sary where the crops are grown in rows and with soybeans, when
lll sown broadeast or drilled solid. Early plowing is desirable as it
“" saves moisture and makes conditioning of the seed bed easier. A
l" 51ll0O[l1, well-pulverized seed bed is desirable for both these crops,
lll C$peCially soybeans. ln rough, eloddy ground it is impossible to
"ll gtil the seed covered evenly and at the proper depth. Drilling is
ffl llmde easier if a roller or cultipaeker preeedes the drill. Cowpeas
M llll`l\'C fairly well after small grain on a seed bed prepared with
li' il disk harrow or eultivator but this is not satisfactory for soybeans.
W I Fertifi;er.s. lf only a limited amount of money is available for
yhli · l9l`lll1ZC1`S, rt tan be inost. profitably spent for Sl-ll)Cl`l)ll()Sl)llillC yVllCl`—
hl,   l.llC.S()1l IS deficient rn phosphorus, which 1S.Ll`llC of l)l`2l(`UCZlll}l
IW   l Sllllf lll lxentueky outside of the Bluegrass region. One llundteil
M ·—lNl filly to two hundred pounds per aere usually stlppllCS Cl`0]>
U nteds fairly well. It may be drilled in with the seed safely. Liming
mi illltl soil greatly int;re;tst—s the yield of soybeans and rowpea hay. lll
ml- ;*`l`llll/lfl` tests on the soil fertility fields of the EXl)Cl`fIllCl}l Slilllwll
A otated on the various soil types outside of the Bluegrass region, V
my *'ll’Ul`]>lllll tiflf) pounds nn dere, while limestone and Stl]>Cl`[>ll<>S]>llillC
IH llllle lllCl`<5:tse(l the yield l§()() pounds an Z1(`I`(‘. fTlll(‘ 9(lfl ]N>llll(l$ lll·
llease from limestone would pay for at least a ton of ground li1ne—

12 Kentucky Ex/crzsimi Circular N0. 292
sto11e per acre Zllld succeeding crops would beneht [10111 its use for IMS;
several years. Cowpeas respond to tl1e use of limestone as well as 15, in
. 1 soybeans. HS mu
y Inoculrt/[oz:. Soybeans lllltl cowpeas can take nitrogen [l`()1l\ tl1e it is H
air o11ly \\’llCll tl1e lll[l`t)g(3l1-g2llllC1`lllg bacteria are l)l`CSCllL on tl1e cms;
roots of the plants as indicated by the developnient of nodules. 011 uhm),
‘ very [ertile land tl1e plants often make a good growth in the absence mlm
of nodules but obviously at the expense of soil nitrogen. O11 thin M
land inoculation is absolutely esse11tial [or a satisfactory growth. (h.i11C(
` ' Moreover the llily a11d seeds front innoculated ])llllllS are richer i11 mgm
protein Z`ll](l consequently have greater feeding value. The cowpeii SWIM-
11odule organisin seems to be present i11 inost Kentucky soils but Cm·Cd_
artihcial inoculation is always IICCCSSLII"` when S()yl)(j2lllS are gl`t1\\`ll U, lm
' o11 land for tl1e first ti111e. 'l`o be o11 1l.e safe side, inoculation |`·11‘ 1,,%
cowpeas is also advisable. {[1,-CC
lt is 11ot easy to get thoro inoculation of soybeans lllltl cowptrzn Smlu
by seed inoculation, especially o11 tl1in llllltl. At tl1e Keiitucky lix- 1llCfll<
l)Cl`llllCllL Station it has bee11 found that sowing a s111all anrount nl alway:
soil f`ro111 a well-i11oct1lated field witl1 tl1e seed is by far tl1e 1110st lutrves
reliable 1]lCll1()tl for inoculation. This can be do11e either by 111ix- are us
ing tl1e soil with tl1e seed or preferably by sowing it thru tl1e [U1'- T4
tilizer attachment of the grain drill. Less soil is required by llllf gmm
first niethod, but it is not quite so reliable. The inoculated soil lypsm
should be dried and put thru a fine screen. A piece of \\'lll(lUl\` Togo.
screen is ideal. To niix with tl1e seed, spread the seed out on a fl<><11‘ the lh
or tarpaulin and 1noiste11 slightly. Then si[t the soil over ll1C $@*1 Rmys
111eanwl1ile shoveling over Zll](l over as i11 mixing (j()\](j1`Cl,(j until czltll Pmpc
seed is coated. Dry sufhciently to drill readily. About a gallon of   l‘·()l` p
soil to each bushel of seed is required. 111 sowing thrn ll](j l`e1‘tili/tfl (H SPO
1lttZltTl1111CI1t, tl1e drill should be set to sow as Slllilll an ;1111t>1111t ih In
possible which will be about IOO pot111ds an acre. [anne
Clomniercial cultures, if used strictly {l(j(j()l`(lll]g to tli1·etiti<>11*· ,1.,1 M
usually give [air inoculation, especially when the soil is ]>111lll(l 11ot be sown 11111il the midrlle ol May 11* fl"’ We of
seed will rot in tl1e ground if lllC soil is cold and tlllllll). Both t·o1~‘-

Soybeans and Cowpeas in Kentucky 13 A
r Peas and soybeans make fair yields of hay when sown as late as july
5 15, in most seasons. Seedings up to the middle of june usually yield
as much hay as crops sown earlier. In raising a seed crop, however,
C it is not advisable to sow much later than june l unless early vari-
C eties are used. For very late seeding, medium late varieties should
it always be chosen for hay because early varieties when sown late
`C make little plant growth.
11 tlleilzotls of seeding. Cowpeas and soybeans for hay should be
l- drilled solid. Less seed is required when sown in rows but the sav- ‘
ll ing does not compensate for the cost of cultivation necessary in row
it seeding. Besides, when seeded solid, the hay is hner and more easily
tl cured. Soybeans grown in rows on rich land are often very diihcult
ll to mow, especially if the rows have been hilled slightly in cultivat·
tl ing. For seed production cowpeas are often sown in rows about
three feet apart as they are more productive of seed than when
it seeded solid. The method of sowing soybeans depends upon the
<· method to be followed in harvesting. ln the Corn Belt they are
tl always drilled solid like wheat, and either cut with the binder or
Sl harvested with the combine. In the South, where row harvesters
~· are used, it is necessary to sow in rather wide rows.
li To sow in rows for cultivation, corn planters, cotton drills and
lll grain drills are used. The grain drill is desirable because the depth
tl ofseeding can be regulated and the soil is DOL packed over the seed.
ll T0 Sow rows 35 inches apart with a l()-disk 7—inch drill, stop all but
ll il10 third and seventh feed cups and proceed as in drilling wheat.
ll R<>\\’s of various desired widths may be obtained b