xt7dr785mm4g https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7dr785mm4g/data/mets.xml Arkansas Historical Records Survey (Ark.) United States. Work Projects Administration. Division of Community Service Programs 1941 xv, 113 p.: ill.; 27 cm. UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries. Call Number FW 4.14:Ar 4k/no.13 books English Little Rock, Ark.: the Survey This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Arkansas Works Progress Administration Publications Archives -- Arkansas -- Cleveland County -- Catalogs Cleveland County (Ark.) -- History -- Sources -- Bibliography -- Catalogs Inventory of the County Archives of Arkansas. No. 13. Cleveland County (Rison) text Inventory of the County Archives of Arkansas. No. 13. Cleveland County (Rison) 1941 1941 2019 true xt7dr785mm4g section xt7dr785mm4g \lmumuflmirjifljmjiwflm‘iflflujfiflmm\[mw
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No. 15 Cleveland County (Rison)
, '" Prepared by ‘
The Arkansas Historical Records Survey ‘
‘ Division of Community Service Program
work Projects Administration

' Little Rock, Arkansas
I The Arkansas Historical Records Survey
' April 1941
l .

Sargent B. Child, Director I
John C. L. Andreassen, Regional Supervisor 1
Raymond Foster, State Supervisor ‘
Harvey E. Becknell, Director
W. B. Hazelton, Regional Supervisor ,
Howard H. Jacoway, State Supervisor
Florence Kerr, Assistant Commissioner E
Lee G. Spofford, Chief Regional Supervisor
may Bevens, State Director
Howard 0. Hunter, Acting Commissioner
Chas. B. Braun, Regional Director
Floyd Sharp, State Administrator
* * * * * * *
University of Arkansas
College of Arts and Sciences ‘
Judge James G. Mosley :
County Judge of Cleveland County f

{ The Inventorv 2: the County Archives 23 Arkansas is one of a number
I , of guides to historical materials prepared throughout the united States
by workers on Historical Records Survey Projects of the Work Projects
Administration. The publication herewith presented, an inventory of the
archives of Cleveland County, is number 13 of the Arkansas series.
/ The Historical Records Survey program was undertaken in the winter
of 1955-36 for the ’purpose of providing useful employment for needy un-
. employed historians, lawyers, teachers, and research and clerical work—
ers. In carrying out this objective, the project was organized to com—
, pile inventories of historical materials, particularly the unpublished
government documents and records which are basic in the administration
of local government, and which provide invaluable data for students of
political, economic, and social history. The archival guide herewith
; presented is intended to meet the requirements of day-to—day administra-
' tion by the officials of the county, and also the needs of lawyers,
, businessmen,and other citizens who require facts from the public records
, for the proper conduct of their affairs. The volume is so designed that
y it can be used by the historian in his research in unprinted sources in
g the same way he uses the library card catalog for printed sources.

The inventories produced by the Historical Records Survey projects
attempt to do more than give merely a list of records -— they attempt
further to sketch in the historical background of the county or other
unit of government, and to describe precisely and in detail the organi—

, zation and functions of the government agencies whose records they list.
The county,town,and other local inventories for the entire country will,
when completed, constitute an encyclopedia of local government as well
as a bibliography of local archives.

The successful conclusion of the work of the Historical Records
Survey projects, even in a single county, would not be possible without

, the support of public officials, historical and legal specialists, and

‘ many other groups in the community. Their cooperation is gratefully ac-

, knowledged.

The Survey program was organized by Luther K. Evans, who served as
Director until March 1, 1940, when he was succeeded by Sargent B. Child.
The survey operates as a Nation—wide series of locally sponsored pro-

. jects in the Division of Community Service Programs, of which Mrs. Flor-
ence Kerr, Assistant Commissioner, is in charge.


9 Acting Commissioner of

Work Projects

‘ The Historical Records Survey was organized in Arkansas in March
1 1936 as a part of the Federal writers' Project. In November of the same
year the Survey became an independent unit of Federal Project No. l and
functioned until September 1, 1939 under Federal sponsorship. The Ark—
ansas unit, on September 5, 1959, became a State-wide, locally sponsor-
ed project, with Howard H. Jacoway as State Supervisor. Mr. Jacoway
resigned on September 5, 1940 to become State Supervisor of the Research
and Records Programs section, and was succeeded by Raymond Foster, who
: had served on the supervisory staff since December 5, 1958.
The Survey is sponsored by the College of Arts and Sciences of the
’ University of .eransas and ce-sponsored by the county judges of the
State. It operates under the general rules applicable to those projects
composing the Research and Records Program section of the Division of
Community Service Programs of the Work Projects Administration, subject
to technical and editorial supervision of the central office in washing-
: ton, D. C.
The chief objective of the project in Arkansas has been the publi—
' cation of county inventories, but it is now engaged in making a survey
of State, municipal, and church archives; early American imprints; manu-
script depositories, and in preparing a check list of newspapers. A
, list of publications of the Survey will be found on the last page of
this volume.
The Survey is also preparing a volume which will contain detailed
discussions of the organization, structure, and evolution of county gov-
! ernment in Arkansas. The basic material for this volume will be assem-
bled from the State's codes and constitutions, and from acts of the Gen-
eral Assembly of a general nature that have governed and are governing
county offices. It is believed that the publication of this volume will
make it unnecessary to repeat certain items of general information in
the various county inventories. Accordingly, the office essays in the
volume herewith presented and the essays in forthcoming county inven—
tories are limited to the creation of the office; its present status;
I manner of selection and term of office, and the chief function of the
‘ office or agency. Pending issuance of the general volume on county gov-
v ernment, is is suggested that the reader consult the Inventor of the
County Archives of Arkansas, No. 23, Faulkner County (Conway) rOF'hEFE
‘ . detailed disoussiBHs_thEn_those—found in_thi§—invent3ry._——_—‘
This volume is divided into two parts. In the first part is an
, historical sketch of Cleveland County; a discussion of the governmental
3 organization of the county; an essay on the housing and care of the
records, and an explanation of the abbreviations and symbols used
1 throughout the inventory. The second part of the volume contains essays
‘ on the county offices and a listing of the records of those offices.
5 The arrangement by functions is as follows: 1) General administration:
2) recording; 3) administration of justice; 4) finance; 5) elections; 6)
education; 7) health and welfare, and 8) miscellaneous functions. The
. records are segregated under subject headings, according to office of

' Preface
origin or final deposit, unless other classification of the records is
, directed by law. Under agencies, records have been classified,so far as
possible, according to the subjects with which they deal. They are des-
‘ cribed in entries whose style is formalized to give the following in-
} formation: Title of record, dates for which available, quantity, label-
; ing of volumes or containers, variant titles, description of record con-
tents, manner of arrangement, indexing, nature of recording, size of
V volumes or containers, and location.

The inventory of the Cleveland County archives was begun December

8, 1959,and was finished in November 1940. Rachel Harrison was the field
: worker and she worked under the supervision of Col. Charles S. Garret,

District Supervisor. A recheck of the records was made under the super—
. vision of Thomas H. Pope, Jr., District Supervisor.

Work done in the State Office includes the editing of forms, writ-
ing of entries, historical and legal research, writing and editing of
essays, and the publication of the volume. The historical sketch was
written by Irene Thibault, the governmental organization essay by Maida
Arnold. For the completeness and accuracy of the technical work, credit

‘ is due Albert A. Condray,forms editor; Mary H. Winburne, entries editor,
and Virginia Farley, essay editor. The indexes were compiled by Carl E.
Ott and publication of the volume was under the supervision of Evelyn
Jones. -

Mable S. Brodie, editor in charge of public records inventories, in
the central office, examined the volume in manuscript form and offered
helpful editorial criticism. John C. L. Andreassen, Regional Supervisor
of Historical Records Survey, the administrative personnel of Wbrk Pro—

, jects Administration, of Community Service Programs, and of the Research
and Records Programs section, have, at all times,facilitated the work of
the Survey by their friendly cooperation in all phases of the program.

The Survey's official sponsor; its State-wide Advisory Board, and
the Community Advisory Board of Cleveland County each contributed valu-
able assistance to the project in the compilation and publication of
this volume. Mr. Frank C. Chowning, a Little Rock attorney and former
citizen of Cleveland County,assisted the editorial department in the re-
search for the historical sketch. Other contributing agencies are: The
Arkansas History Commission; the Arkansas Supreme Court Library; the
Little Rock Public Library; the Library of the Secretary of State; the
Arkansas Library Commission; Arkansas writer's Project, WPA, and the
county officials of Cleveland County.

7 The Inventory of the County Archives of Arkansas, when completed,
will consist of 76 volumes, one volume for each of the 75 counties and
the volume on county government. The inventories are numbered according
to an alphabetical list of the counties. Thus, the volume herewith pre-
sented, Cleveland County, is No. 15.

Former publications of the Survey have been distributed to State
and local libraries; to a limited number of agencies outside the State,

J and to each county judge in Arkansas. Requests for information concern-
! DIV-

ing any of the publications should be addressed to the State Supervisor,
or to Dean H. M. Hosford, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville,Arkansas.
.|.‘r ’
war Memorial Building
Little Rock, Arkansas
_ April 25, 1941
- vi .-

 Abbreviations, Symbols, and
‘ Explanatory Notes
x 0.0-...IOOII0'0Inoouccllouooocoloocoooaoolo'uuoo. by (in dimensions)
" Explanatory Notes
’ Title 32 Records
“ - Exact titles of records are written in solid capitals without pa-
-' , rentheses. In the absence of titles, descriptive titles have been as-
signed, which are written in solid capitals and enclosed in parentheses.
If a record title is not descriptive of the contents of the record, an
assigned explanatory title (or explanatory words), written with initial
. capitals and enclosed in parentheses, has been added. The current or
most recent title of a record is used as the entry title and title vari-
ation is indicated.
Dates ' .
All dates used are inclusive. Missing records are indicated by
broken dates.
‘ Quantity '
When two or more types of containers are considered in a single en-
try, the quantity is shown in chronological order, insofar as possible.
' Labeling
- Figures or letters in parentheses, following the number of volumes,
file boxes, or other types of containers, indicate the labeling. If no
labeling is indicated, it may be assumed that there is none.
1 Where no statement is made that the record was discontinued at the
last date shown in the entry, it could not be definitely established
_ that such was the case. Where no comment is made on the absence of
prior, subsequent, or intermediate records, no definite information
. - could be obtained.
a Description 2E Records
The description of the contents of a record applies only to the
current or most recent record unless change in contents is actually '
shown in a record entry.
‘ All indexes to records,unless otherwise stated, are self-contained.
' -viii -

 , Abbreviations, Symbols, and
Explanatory Notes
Condition 2: Records
Records are in good condition unless otherwise indicated. 1
Dimensions are always given in inches, unless otherwise indicated,
and, therefore, the symbol for inches (") has been omitted.
4 Location 23 Records
When all or the majority of the records of an office have a common
location, the location is indicated in the last sentence of the office
essay instead of in each individual entry.
Cross References
I Title-line cross references are used to show the continuity of a
_ record series which has been kept separately for a period of time and
with other records for different periods of time. An example is that in
entry 120: "1911-24 in County Court Record, entry 12". They are also
used in artificial entries which are set up to show records separately
under the office of origin as in entry 7, to distinguish from each other
two or more types of records that are kept together as in entry 111, or
those set up for a record which is not kept separately but is found in
two or more records, such as entry 39. In both instances, the descrip-
‘ tion of the master entry shows the title and the entry number of the
record from which the cross reference is made as, for example, these
words in entry 12: "Also contains: Juvenile court proceedings, 1911-
24, entry 106." Dates shown in the description of the master entry or
entry of miscellaneous content are only for the part or parts of the re-
cord contained therein, and are shown only when they vary from those of
the master entry.
Separate third-paragraph cross references from entry to entry, and
’ See also references with subject headings or subheadings are used to
Show prior, subsequent, or closely related records which are not parts
‘ of the same series.
Citations ~
3 A citation to an act of the Legislature of the Territory of Arkan-
sas, or the General Assembly of the State of Arkansas, or an act of a
legislative body of another Territory or State, refer to the page number
of the official publication of the laws.
A citation to a decision of the Arkansas Supreme Court gives the
style of the case, the volume and page numbers, and year of decision.
A citation to any other published volume is shown in full the first
time used,and in short title form subsequently throughout the inventory.
_ ix -

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AND JAIL - 1939--

Foreword .oooouoonnooI-ncucc-ocoooaoo-ucoo-ole...-o-noo-Ioooo-ouocou iii
Preface one...a0.0u.onuonae-Oocnocooounoccnoo-o-auoonoooQoOQIQQOOIoo iv
Abbreviations, Symbols, and Explanatory Notes ...................... Vii
2. Governmental Organization 15
3. Housing, Care, and Accessibility of the Records ................ 20
Floor Plans Of courthouse unset...nono...Innocent-coc-ooooo-u 25
County Offices and Their Records
Papers. Municipalities. Schools. Settlements. Proceedings.
III. Internal Improvement Commissioner (Defunct) .................... 33
IV. Circuit Clerk as Recorder . 35
Reception record. Real property conveyances: Documents;
deeds; leases; mortgages; mortgage releases; liens and lie
pendens; surveys and plats; miscellaneous real property con-
veyances. Personal property: Conveyances; mortgages. Bonds,
commissions and credentials. Miscellaneous.
Case papers. Inquests. Grand and petit juries. Indictments
and informations. Bonds. Proceedings. Appeals.Judgments and
executions. Financial.

Case papers. Proceedings. Delinquent taxes. Financial.

' - xiii -

 Table of Contents
Case papers. Wills. Bonds and letters. Inventories, ap—
praisements and sales bills. Claims. Accounts current. Pro— ,
ceedings. Financial.
XI. Justice Of the Peace.‘00....CIOOIIOICII.IOIOOCIIO....I....QOOOIII 56
XIII. County Attorney (Defm1Ct) 0.....OIII'.IIDOODOOIOOICIOI0.0.0.0.... 57
XVI. consta'ble CQOIOIIIIOO0......03......IO...DIOOIOIICI..I"IIICODIDC 58
Financial: Accounts; audits; warrants. AsseSSment and tax—
ation. Tax collections. Delinquent taxes and tax sales.
. . Elections. Marriage. Corporations. Professional licenses,
Livestock. Firearms. School Lands. Roads. Appointments.
XXZII. COU-nty Treasurer'coo-onucouoiloolosolococo-loouuccoatcclolouoeclo 71
Financial: Receipts; accounts; warrants. School contracts.
X31111. Dirac-tor of comlty Audits .QllIOII'ICOIIIOOOODIIOOOICOOOII'OOOIII 73
. XXIV. County Board of Election Commissioners .......................... 74
, ‘ XXV. Board of Registration. (Defunct) 74
XXVI. county Examiner Of SChOOlS OOIIUconcoct-ocuocooIOlooiale-00010.00 74:
mIII' SChOOl DireCtorS OIIoooonnooocooccocooaoucoooIoooiecoooolooccoool 76
. “IX. Library- (VVOI‘k Projects Administration) coo-Iunouuoooooooalo-Icnco 76
- xiv -

 Table of Contents
‘ Page
. XXX. County Board of Medical Examiners (Defunct) ..................... 77
XXXI. Health Unit ..................................................... 77
XXXII. County Department of Public welfare ............................. 79
Applications. Visitation. Grants. Financial. Index.
, XXXIII. Confederate Pension Board ....................................... 81
XXXIV. County Surveyor ................................................. 82
. XXXV. Timber Inspector ................................................ 83
, XXXVI. Agricultural Extension Service Agents ...........................» 83
Correspondence. Reports. Agricultural Adjustment Administra-
, tion. Farm Security Administration. Activities.
List of County Officials......................................... 87
Bibliography .................................................... 93
Chronological Index ............................................. 98
Subject Index ................................................... 100
List of Survey Publications .......-............................. 113
I - xv - ‘

 (First entry, p. 29)
Physical Characteristics .

Cleveland County lies in the well-timbered red land of south cen-
tral Arkansas, near the edge of the west Gulf Coastal Plain, sloping
eastward from the hills of the Ouachitas to the alluvial plains of the

. - Mississippi Basin (1). It has an area of 603 square miles (2), bounded
on the north by Dallas, Grant, and Jefferson Counties; on the east by
Lincoln and Drew; on the south by Bradley, and on the west by Calhoun
and Dallas (3).

The topography of the county is one of low relief, consisting for
the most part of rolling hills, with an average elevation of 204 feet
(4). The gentle undulation is broken by neither mountains, prairies,
nor swamps, though along the Saline River the surface slopes to bottom
land (5). The greatest elevation, 275 feet, is found in the north cen-
tral part of the county, and from there the land slopes to 240 feet at
Rison and 149 feet on the sandy beach at Poole, some 5 miles southwest
of Risen (6).

The county is well-drained. The Saline River, one of the principal
streams of the Ouachita Basin, follows a circuitous course through the
county from northwest to southeast, emptying into the Ouachita River at

‘ the point where the Union, Bradley, and Ashley county lines meet. Its
tortuous channel is marked by long, deep pools separated by shoals which
are often heavily grown up in willows and other vegetation. Moro Creek,
fed by numerous smaller creeks, forms most of the western boundary line
of the county, and empties into the Ouachita near the southern tip of
Calhoun County. (7)

The soils had their origin in the Cretaceous period in the form of
(1) Arkansas State Planning manufactures and Agriculture,

Board, Arkansas water Re- Nineteenth Biennial Re ort

sources,m 85:— ~ mam Flo—gala-
(2) U. S. Bureau of the Census, (Hereinafter—Eit33_as Arkan-

Fifteenth Census of the Unit- sas Bureau of Mines, Biennial

ed States,—_T§§5,—Populatiofi, Report). _____——‘-

I: 103. (HEFEihafter—_Eit5d (5) STEEH_P. Hughes, Resources of

as, U. S. Bureau of the Cen- Arkansas, p. 61. —-----_—

sus, Fifteenth Census, 2227 (6) AFEEEEEE Geological Survey,

ulation). Elevations in Arkansas, III,
(3) Arkansas Geological Survey, 567—_——_—"—-'_-_—_n——

Topographic Map 2f the State (7) Arkansas State Planning

. 2£.Arkansas. ‘ Board, Arkansas water Re-
(4) Arkansas, Bureau of Mines, sources, EC-T2T__ '_-__- ‘—

 _ 2 -
Historical Sketch (First entry, p. 29)
sandy and clayey marine deposits (8). Subsequent erosion in the Terti-
. ary period produced the red lands which are characteristic of a large
‘ part of the county (9). Along the Saline and Moro valleys and in the
eastern part are highly productive bottom lands. In the remaining two-
_ . thirds of the county are hilly lands with sandy and silt loams contain—
ing clay or underlaid by a clay soil. (10)
- Pioneers in the region found heavy pine forests covering the hills
. in the coastal plain and vigorous growths of gum and oak in the bottoms
, (11). Much of this timber was removed by early settlers and mill owners;
however, there are still great quantities of these trees in the county
as well as hickory, walnut, elm, dogwood, and sassafras. The county now
has 262,000 acres of privately owned forests. (12)
Cleveland County is so situated that it has a mild climate with
. ample rainfall and a long growing season. The average annual tempera—
» ture at Rison is 65.5 degrees F., ranging during a period of 23 years
from the extreme maximum of 115 degrees to 11 degrees below zero. (13)
The rainfall is about 47 inches annually, averaging around 26 inches
during the summer. The long growing season of 213 days, conditioned by
relatively high summer temperatures and less summer rainfall than in
g . some other areas of the State, is an important factor in the production
-,= of cotton and sweet potatoes. (l4) Unusually healthful conditions pre~
: vail in the county with less malaria than is generally found in delta
. areas (15).
a . Historical Background
V Two of the earliest pioneers who explored the red hills between the
Saline and the Ouachita were John Harvie Marks II and his father—in—law,
(8) University of Arkansas, Col- WOoden Riches, Arkansas For-
lege of Agriculture, Soils of estry Facts, pp. 15-16. _~—
‘ Arkansas, Bulletin ER. 187: (13) fifiitEd States Department of
. p. ll. (Hereinafter cited—Es Agriculture, weather Bureau,
' University of Arkansas, Soils Climatic Summary of the Unit-
. of; Arkansas .) ._.._.._ ms, p. 21.‘ _ “'-
‘ ... (9) Arkansas Geological Survey, (14) 651763335y of Arkansas, Col-
' Bulletin No. 2, Oil and age of Agriculture, U. S. De-
- ' I933 Geology pf thE_ GET? partment of Agriculture Coop—
.4 Coastal‘"?lain gg‘fzskassast erating, Extension Service,
I955. Types of Farming in Arkansas,
(10) University of Arkansas, Soils Extension—Eircular_'fi3:_—§5T,
. 3£ Arkansas, pp, 59, 51;"EE§ 57—577—_—_——._——_- .- I———
" in appendix. (15) Arkansas State Board of
(11) Arkansas State Planning Health, Bureau of Vital Sta-
Board, Arkansas Water Re- tistics, Tabulation of Deaths
.- sources, p. 47. '_— from MaIEFIE"fiE?Ihgf"I§3§T
(12) Arkansas Forestry Commission, (EEK. EET:T_- _—~—

 - 3 _

Historical Sketch (First entry, p. 29)
. Nathaniel Barnett, who came into the Territory from Alabama in 1854.
l .” Marks was descended from a prominent family who had owned broad acres in
" Virginia, Georgia, and Alabama. (16) His great-grandfather, John Harvie
of Albermarle County, Virginia, was an executor of the will of Peter

. ' Jefferson and guardian of Thomas Jefferson (17).
While in the employ of the United States Government as an assistant

‘ _ surveyor of territory south of the Arkansas River, John Harvie marks was
attracted by the pleasant rolling land that has since become Cleveland
County and decided to make his home there (18). For himSelf and members
of his family, he is said to have intested $17,000, the price of his old

-' homestead in Alabama, in land in the then Union County (19). Records
- for 1855 and 1856 show that Marks‘ first purchase for himself was 5,520
acres, for some of which he paid $1.25 an acre (20). Relatives of his
soon followed including the Barnetts, McGehees, Meriwethers, Hudsons,
and Taliaferros, all of whom.were closely linked with the development of
south Arkansas. About 1844 came Dr. Thos. W. Chowning, a native of Lan-
caster County, Virginia, who married a daughter of Nathaniel Barnett.
. Most of the men of these families became owners of land and slaVes,
and as was the custom among southerners of their class, many of them
‘ eventually took up politics and law. Their names are found among the
,‘ early office holders in Bradley, Lincoln, Cleveland, and Jefferson Coun-
. ' ties as well as in the journals of the State Legislature. (22)

f‘ It is probable that the colonists came into Arkansas by way of the
Ouachita River, landing near the old Ecore a Fabre Landing, the present
site of Camden, and thence going east overland, a hazardous trip that
was accomplished sometimes at the rate of only 4 miles a day (25). With
the labor of slaves whom he brought into the Territory, Marks built near
the later site of New Edinburg a large home of cypress logs, fastened
with wooden pins, that stood for nearly 100 years. During the period

‘_ (16) marion DeWbody Pettigrew,ed., (21) Pettigrew, 2p. cit., p. 229.

Marks-Barnett Families 533 (22) Arkansasfiecreta—rfi'r—of State's

, j. Their EEE' pp. 5-42. Office, House Journal, 1852-

' z (17) Rev. Edgar woods, History of 55, p. 12; ibid., 1875, p.

‘ Albermarle Comma, ”Virginia? 20; ibid., lesi'f‘p. 4; ibid.,

. p. 251. 1925, p. 6; ibid., 1925, p.

J (18) Arkansas Gazette, Nov. 26, 6; Arkansas:_—§ecretary of

_ - 1955. State's Office, Senate Jour-

(19) Pettigrew, 22. cit., p. nal, 1929, p. 6; ibid., 1951,

. ... ' . 42. p. 117; Arkansas,Secretary of

_ , (20) Arkansas, State Land Office, State, Biennial Report . . .
Tract Book, No. 87, pp. 67- , 1925-19257‘5737‘5’7‘377.

95; ibid., No. 88, pp. 121- (23) We?“ News, Centennial

. 123; ibid., No. 89, pp. 176- Efi‘c‘i‘é‘n "Tfii’ne 15, 1956;

180; ibid., No. 90, p. 215. Pettigrew, 22. cit., p. 96.

 - 4 -
Historical Sketch (First entry, p. 29)
from 1855 to 1860, the marks family bought thousands of acres in the
river bottoms principally along Moro Creek, extending from Kingsland as
‘ far south as More Bay. (24) Nicholas V. Barnett, a lawyer of unusual
ability, whose residence was used as the temporary courthouse, is said
to have owned at one time 9,000 acres of land. (25)

The self-sustaining life on the plantation of John Harvie Marks II
was typical of that on the larger plantations in this new land. Carpen-
ters, millers, cabinet makers, as well as field hands, were attached to
his place. Lumber, flour, and meal were produced not only for his own
plantation, but also for other pioneers in this section. Later, artis-
tic furniture was made of oak, cypress, maple, and black walnut; shoes
for the household were made from leather tanned on the plantation, and a
wide variety of vegetables and fruits was raised. Cotton, raised at
first for home needs, later became an important commercial crop, and a
large herd of sheep provided wool for home-spun clothing. (26)

In 1840 the land on which the Marks home was located became a part
of the new county of Bradley (27). marks donated 50 acres for the Brad-
ly County seat (28) and served as one of the first associate justices of
the county court of the new county. (29) In 1842 he represented this
county in the 4th Legislature. (50) Hastings marks, a brother, was the
first county treasurer of Bradley County. (51)

During the Civil war, two companies were recruited in this section
for Confederate service. Capt. Ben Taliaferro commanded one company,
joined later to the Second Arkansas Infantry;