xt7dv40jtc5x https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7dv40jtc5x/data/mets.xml Mason, Richard Lee, d. 1824. 1915  books b92-128-29188083 English Printed for C.F. Heartman, : New York : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. United States Description and travel. Narrative of Richard Lee Mason in the pioneer West, 1819 text Narrative of Richard Lee Mason in the pioneer West, 1819 1915 2002 true xt7dv40jtc5x section xt7dv40jtc5x 


      THE PIONEER WEST, 1819


Heartman's Historical Series No. 6

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One hundred and sixty copies printed for

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G. J. BARBER, Esq.
this book is dedicated
Chas. Fred. Hleartman


  Number          of 150 copies printed
on Fabriano hand-made paper.
  Also ten copies printed on Japan Vel-


  In the late fall and early winter of the year 1819
Dr. Richard Lee Mason made a journey from
Philadelphia to Illinois, through Pennsylvania,
Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana. Some of his adven-
tures were remarkable, and these, together with
his observations on the country, the towns and
the people whom he encountered, were recorded
in a diary kept by him, which is now in the pos-
session of his only surviving child, a daughter,
who resides in Jacksonville, Ill. Dr. Mason was
a remarkably intelligent observer, and his record
of the people whom he encountered in Illinois
more than three-quarters of a century ago, not
to mention his notes of travel in other states, is
unique and valuable.
  Richard Lee Mason, whose diary is being pub-
lished in THE RECORD, was born in Port Tobacco,
Md. In 1806 he was married to Mary Hodge
Cochrane. Seven children were born to them,
of whom five lived to maturity. Soon after his
marriage he was graduated from the medical
department of the University of Pennsylvania.
For a time he did military service in the war of
1812, belonging to a cavalry company called "The
White Horsemen." For this service he was
awarded a large tract of bounty land near Alton,
Ill. It was to locate and take possession of this
land that the long journey from Philadelphia to
St. Louis was taken.


  So pleased was Dr. Mason with his "promised
land" and the west country, that he determined
to send for his family and follow his profession
in St. Louis. This he did, and he was held in high
esteem, but he did not live long to enjoy the re-
union with his family, and the appreciation of
friends. The hardships of his trip and exposure
to malarial atmosphere had impaired his health,
and he died in 1824, having submitted gracefully
to the heroic treatment of the day, which admitted
of much bleeding and blistering.
  Dr. Mason was buried in a newly purchased
masonic cemetery, some distance beyond the St.
Louis city limits, in ground that is now Washing-
ton avenue, between Tenth and Eleventh streets.
Subsequently this ground was found too wet for
the purpose designed, and Dr. Mason's body was
removed. It is of interest to know that he was
the first mason interred with the honors of the
order in the state of Missouri. His funeral was
made the occasion of a grand procession, escorted
by Capt. Archibald Gamble's troop of cavalry.

This record was published some twenty years ago in
a newspaper from which this reprint is made Decoration
Day, 1915.




  Monday, Oct. 4, 1819.-Dr. Hall and myself left
Philadelphia at 1 o'clock p. m. after taking an
affectionate leave of friends and acquaintances.
Fair and pleasant weather, and the roads very
fine in consequence of a refreshing shower of
rain which fell on the night previous to our set-
ting out. After traveling twenty-two miles and
passing some rich and well-cultivated farms we
arrived at West Chester at 7 o'clock. West Ches-
ter contains about 600 inhabitants, several places
of worship, a gaol, etc., etc. A man named Dow-
ney is confined in the gaol of this place for debt.
He was once in affluence, but from misfortunes
and some imprudence he became reduced in cir-
cumstances. During his confinement he deter-
mined to starve himself to death, and for seven
days had refused nourishment of every descrip-
tion. Even the clergy waited on him and en-
deavored to dissuade him from his rash deter-
mination, offering him food of different kinds,
but all without avail. He was able to stand. No
doubt one or two more days will end his troubles.
How long, 0 my country, will your cheeks con-


tinue to be crimsoned by the blush that must fol-
low the plunging an innocent and unfortunate
being, a debtor, in a dungeon, amongst murderers
and cut-throats

  Tuesday, Oct. 5.-Left West Chester at 7 o'clock
a. m. Traveled a rough road. Passed some
travelers on foot migrating to the west who were
able to keep pace with us for a considerable dis-
tance. Breakfasted with an old Dutchman who,
for unpolished manners and even a want of com-
mon politeness, surpassed in expectation even the
wild men of Illinois. He had been a tavern-
keeper for forty years. Roads rough. Lands
tolerable, but so well farmed that the traveler
is compelled in many places to admire them. Ar-
rived in Strasburg at 6 o'clock p. m. Neat little
village. Distance twenty-eight miles. Lodged at
a private house near the village. Was treated
with great civility. I was extremely sore and
tired, riding on horseback. Saddlebags very
heavy. A refreshing sleep fitted me for the labors
of the next day.

  Wednesday, Oct. 6.-Left Mr.    at 6 o'clock
a. m. The day pleasant. Roads rough. Traveled
nine miles and arrived at Lancaster, a large and
handsome inland town. Inhabitants principally
German, very industrious and good farmers.


Buildings chiefly brick. Considerable business
done in this town. Left Lancaster, traveled ten
miles and arrived at Columbia, situated on the
bold Susquehanna, but placed without much taste
or beauty. The bridge over the Susquehanna is
the longest in the United States. It is placed
on regular pillars for one and a quarter miles.
Its beauty and strength reflect much credit on the
designer and those who executed the work. Its
erection has added much to the comfort and con-
venience of the public. Left Columbia 4 o'clock,
and arrived at Little York at 6 o'clock p. m. Here
the lands are rich, the inhabitants look healthy
and appear happy and independent. The village
is built with much taste and judgment and ap-
pears to be a place of business. No lands for sale
for many years past in the neighborhood, but
the supposed value about 200 per acre. The
eyes of the traveler light on this part of the
country with rapture. He would even venture
to barter all his fair prospects in the west country,
collected from travelers, for one of those beauti-
ful farms to be seen every mile.

  Thursday, Oct. 7.-Left Little York 6 o'clock
a. m., traveled twenty-nine miles and arrived at
Gettysburg, a small village, at 5 o'clock p. m. The
inhabitants very religious. Bad roads, owing to
their making a new turnpike. Nineteen miles to


be finished in six weeks. About 300 hands em-
ployed, principally Irishmen. Delightful weather
for traveling.

  Friday, Oct. 8.-Left Gettysburg 5 o'clock a. m.
Overtook and passed many travelers bound to the
east and west. The lands only tolerable. Here
we had the first view of the mountains, which
present a romantic and novel scene to all who
have never traveled out of the confines of large
cities-or have never seen an object higher than
a lamp-post or lower than a gutter. Traveled
fifteen miles to breakfast on the top of the moun-
tain. The landlord drunk, the fare bad and the
house filled with company who had more the ap-
pearance of penitentiary society than gentlemen.
Hard scuffle for breakfast. Ran an old hen down.
"Moll" cut off the head with an ax. An old sow
and a starved dog made a grab before the feathers
were stripped. One got the head, the other the
body. Then all hands were mustered to join in
the chase, landlord and "Moll" with the broom,
the hostler with his spade and all the boys with
sticks and stones. In about ten minutes after
hard fighting, the materials for breakfast were
recovered, and in fifteen minutes the old hen made
her appearance on the breakfast table, large as
life. Bad appetite. Made a light breakfast and
set out on our journey from the tavern at 10


o'clock a. m. Traveled over a rough, barren,
mountainous and poor country to McDowell's, a
distance of thirty-six miles. Every traveler must
be astonished to find persons settled on a barren
and mountainous country, whilst there are in the
United States so many million acres of land of
the first quality unoccupied and for sale at so low
a rate that a day laborer can in one year with
prudence lay up enough to purchase one quarter-
section-160 acres.

  Saturday, Oct. 9.-Left McDowell's 7 o'clock
a. m. Traveled over an extremely rugged, high
and uneven range of mountains. The lands gen-
erally so poor not worth cultivating. Arrived at
Dennis', on the old road, distance twenty-seven
miles, near the Juniata. Breakfasted at Camel
Town, a small village, one-half the houses taverns.
Crossed the dreary and lofty mountains at 4
o'clock. This is called Sideling hill, where a Mr.
McClennan was robbed on the 3d instant by the
notorious villain and robber, D. Lewis, lately par-
doned by Gov. Finley for forgery. McClennan
had no arms, nor did he make the least resistance,
yet one of Lewis' accomplices insisted on murder-
ing him. He was robbed about 9 o'clock in the
morning, and in sight of the house he breakfasted
at. He was conducted to their camp, a little way
from the road, threatened with death if he spoke.


Although the stage passed full of passengers and
several wagons in sight, he dared not give the
alarm. After keeping him in a state of suspense
for six hours and rifling his letters and pockets
of a large sum of money, they left him. On the
8th instant they were taken at a little village fifty
miles off, and a large amount of cash found on
them-42,800. The hardihood of this Lewis sur-
passes the boldness of most robbers of his day.
When he and his two companions were found
asleep they were handcuffed. One of the guards
laid his pistol on the table, whilst Lewis was sur-
rounded by twenty persons, and in a room. He
knocked out the candle, seized the pistol, flashed at
the nearest person, made his way through the
crowd, outran them for fifty yards, and, when
about to be overtaken, snapped a small pistol
which he had concealed at his nearest pursuer.
He knocked down the second with his handcuffs,
then fell and was retaken. The poverty, barren-
ness, unevenness of this part of the country per-
haps was never surpassed. But few homes on
the road. Met a number of travelers and over-
took some. About 4 o'clock it commenced rain-
ing. Unpleasant traveling. Wet to the skin.
Arrived at the crossing at dark on the old road
two miles from the turnpike. Tavern kept by
Dennis. Bad house; high charges. Rainy night.



  Sunday, Oct. 10.-Left Dennis' 6 o'clock a. m.
Breakfasted at a little village called Bloody Run.
Great many travelers. Poor country. Reached
Bedford at 2 o'clock. Whilst our horses were rest-
ing we walked to the celebrated springs, a dis-
tance of one and a half miles.
  These springs are romantically situated, gush-
ing from the foot of a mountain. They are fitted
up with great taste and beauty and offer to the
wearied citizen a treat of retirement and enjoy-
ment. Two of the houses are painted white. They
are two stories high and 150 feet long. These
springs are said to possess important medicinal
properties. Arrived at Shellsburg at 6 o'clock,
a distance of twenty-three miles. The road stony
and unpleasant. Well entertained and the charge

  Monday, Oct. 11.-Left Shellsburg at 6 o'clock.
Poor country, full of mountains. Crossed the
lofty Allegheny. High ridges, deep valleys and
steep precipices. Roads good for such steep moun-
tains. Here one of the most sublime and beauti-
ful scenes presented itself my eyes ever witnessed.
After ascending the Allegheny nearly to the top,
as far as human sight could reach, in every direc-
tion, there were chains of mountains, occasionally
checkered by small farms and low bottoms,
covered wth forest trees. The cleared or culti-


vated land has lost the agreeable green, owing
to the season, but we were amply compensated
by the variety of color, the beautiful tints from
the scarlet to the lighter shades, occasionally in-
terspersed with evergreens, which were to be
found on the sides of the mountains amongst
the great variety of trees. Yellow, blue, green,
orange, purple, black and all the shades be-
tween formed ornamental curtains to those
cloudlike heights. Poets and painters would have
envied us the sight. We continued our journey
to the top of the mountains. Breakfasted at
Stolter's. Arrived at Wray's log house at 6 o'clock,
a distahce of twenty-eight miles. Fare bad,
charges high, pretty females with glowing faces.
After resting and having supped, recollected that
it was this day week that we left home. Drew a
long sigh for those left behind and almost in-
voluntarily turned our heads to look for Phila-

  Tuesday, Oct. 12.-Left Wray's log house at 6
o'clock a. m. Country poor and mountainous.
Traveled thirty-five miles. Overtook some east-
ern and southern people, men, women and chil-
dren, all travelling to Illinois. The roads a little
improved, and the land a little better in quality.
The towering mountains disappearing and hills
substituted in their place. This being election


day, passed a great many people on the road. All
merry. Great contention between the Dutch and
Irish. Arrived at a small village called . . .
where the election was held. Saw a shocking
fight, which ended in murder. A small man
knocked down by his adversary and his intestines
literally stamped out.  I pressed through the
crowd, and insisted on bleeding the unfortunate
young man. Just as I was about to open a vein his
senses returned. He begged I would not bleed
him, as he had never been bled. I declined the
operation. He died on the 14th instant. Left the
election and arrived at a trifling village called
Adams Town, where we overtook a number of
travelers for the west. Left Adams Town 6
o'clock a. m., and arrived at Pittsburg at 11
o'clock, Hunters' tavern. In approaching this
dirty hole I felt the height of disappointment.
Pittsburg is situated in a valley surrounded by
hills and mountains. It is placed a short distance
above the junction of the Allegheny and Mononga-
hela rivers, to form the Ohio, over which there
are two neat and lengthy bridges, built on Wern-
wag's plan. In approaching Pittsburg the trav-
eler would suppose the town was laid in ashes by
fire. The surrounding heights, its low situation,
the fogs from the rivers, together with the uni-
versal use of stone coal for fires, added to the
smoke and dust from the large number of mills


and manufactories, form a cloud which almost
amounts to night, and overspreads Pittsburg with
the appearance of gloom and melancholy. At this
place we met a number of travelers, rich and
poor, Gen. Miller and suite, straggling play
actors, and others. Coal dust was well ground
in until I might say with much truth that I did
not see a white man or woman in the place. The
more you wash, the blacker you get. I am con-
fident that I carried some of this coal dust
1,000 miles in spite of my efforts to get rid
of it. Convenient place for performing "Zanga"
or "The Moor of Venice." Visited all the manu-
factories and curiosities of the place. Their glass
manufactories seem to excel all others-a great
treat to those who never saw a bottle blown.
Pittsburg in appearance suggests the idea of
Moscow smoking and in ruins. It is a town of
considerable manufacturing importance. Its in-
habitants deserve fortune and a more salubrious
atmosphere to spend it in.

  Thursday, Oct. 14.-Remained this day at
Hunters'. Had my good little horse shod. Care-
less smith pricked him and produced temporary

  Friday, Oct. 15.-Left Pittsburg at 7 o'clock.
Traveled over a poor and hilly country for thirty-


six miles. Passed a few travelers bound to Ohio.
Remarkable fact: About eight miles from Steu-
benville passed out of Pennsylvania into Virginia,
out of Virginia into Ohio in the short space of
two hours. Crossed the Ohio river after night
at Steubenville. Stopped at Jenkinson's, an in-
telligent, gentlemanly, hospitable man. Visited
the market. Beef, good, 61/4, cents a pound.

  Saturday, Oct. 16.-I omitted to mention that
we, on the mountains, fell in with Mr. Cooper
of Philadelphia, who has been our companion for
several days. We had to part with him today,
which we did with much reluctance, as he proved
a very agreeable companion. Rainy day, fatigued
by the broken country, determined to spend this
day in Steubenville, a busy little village on the
bank of the Ohio. Purchased a plain Jersey
wagon and harness for 60.


  Sunday, Oct. 18.-Myself and friend proceeded
on our journey. We arrived at Siers, a distance
of thirty miles, at dusk, much relieved by the
change from our horses to the wagon. The roads
were muddy, the weather drizzly and the country
hilly. Buildings indifferent. The land very fer-


tile and black. Trees uncommonly tall. Passed
the little village of Cadis. In this country a
tavern, a store, a smith shop and two or three
cabins make a town. Passed ten or fifteen travel-
ers. Great contrast between the quality of the
land from Chambersburg to Pittsburg, and that
which we have already traveled over from Steu-
benville in Ohio.

  Monday, Oct. 19.-Left Siers at 6 o'clock a. m.
The morning fair and cold. Roads extremely
rough. Country fertile, but hilly. Log cabins,
ugly women and tall timber. Passed a little flour-
ishing village called Freeport, settled by foreign-
ers. Yankee Quakers and mechanics. Remark-
able, with two taverns in the village, there was
nothing fit to drink, not even good water. The
corn fields in the woods among dead trees and
the corn very fine. We arrived at Adairs, a dis-
tance of twenty-seven miles, at 6 o'clock p. m.
Passed some peddlers and a few travelers. Value
of land from Steubenville to Adairs from 2 to
30 per acre. Lots in Freeport, eighteen months
old, from 30 to 100. This day being Monday
and the end of the second week since leaving
home, our feelings were warm and our hearts beat
high for those that are dear and behind us.



  Tuesday, Oct. 20.-Left Adairs at 6 o'clock
a. m. The country extremely hilly and not quite
so fertile. Independent people in log cabins.
They make their own clothes, sugar and salt, and
paint their own signs. They picture a lion like
a dove, a cat like a terrapin, and Gen. Washing-
ton like a bird's nest. Salt wells and sugar
orchards are common in this country. Steep
hills, frightful precipices, little or no water, and
even a scarcity of new whisky. Ragged and ig-
norant children and but little appearance of in-
dustry. Met a number of travelers inclining to
the east, and overtook a larger number than usual
bound to the land of promise. The evening being
rainy, the roads soon became muddy. We ar-
rived at Silver's Travelers' Rest at 6 o'clock.
Distance twenty-nine miles. Passed a little vil-
lage called Cambridge.

  Wednesday, Oct. 21-Left Silver's at 7 o'clock
and breakfasted at Zanesville, a very growing
and flourishing village. It is situated on the
Muskingum river, which is navigable for flat-
bottomed boats. Zanesville is a lively and busy
little town. There are several mills and manu-
factories in and at the place. Neat bridges and a
canal cut at great labor and expense through a
solid rock for a considerable distance, by which
very important water power is gained. Left


Zanesville and traveled twenty-three miles to a
village called Somerset. The country very hilly
and the lands not so fertile as those met with
near Cadis. Rain continues. Roads extremely
slippery. Met and overtook about sixty travelers,
many on foot-Scotch, Irish, and Yankees. Oats,
25 cents; butter, 122 cents; brandy, 50 cents
a half-pint; hay, 8 a ton.

  Thursday, Oct. 22.-Left Somerset at 7 o'clock
a. m. Dull, drizzly weather. Deep roads. Horse
lame in consequence of bad shoeing in Pittsburg.
Heart a little heavy. Thought of home. Rallied
again and arrived at a neat little town at the
foot of a hill. It is called New Lancaster. Dis-
tance, eighteen miles. Stopped on the road for
refreshment and found a Pennsylvania family
whose kindness and hospitality deserve mention,
as we had been denied water and sometimes other
refreshments by the almost wild inhabitants west
of Pittsburg to this place. Some brick houses
and a few neat frame dwellings to be seen in the
last two days' ride.

  Friday, Oct. 23-Left New Lancaster at 8
o'clock and arrived at Chillicothe, a distance of
thirty-four miles. Passed some elegant farms
and some neat dwellings. The people appear
more polite and better educated. Chillicothe is


situated on the Sciota, a stream navigable for
flat-bottomed boats. The bridge over the Sciota
is long, substantial and handsome. Chillicothe
is a town of considerable business for its size.
One of the branches of the United States bank is
at this place. The bank was entered lately by a
man named Harper, acting under the authority
of the state, and a large amount of money was
taken out. Harper and his attendants in gaol.
Mob threatens to release them. Bank of the
United States and all its branches are much
abused by the inhabitants and some very impu-
dent threats made. When the bank was entered
by Harper no resistance was made by its officers.
Passed Tarlton and Kingston, two inconsiderable
  Saturday, Oct. 24-Left Chillicothe at 7 o'clock
a. m. Arrived at Sinking Springs, a little
village, after traveling a distance of thirty-three
miles. Passed over some rich bottoms, neat farms
and very fertile prairies. A few poor ridges,
part level, part mountainous. People look healthy,
but are extremely impudent and lazy. Game is
abundant deer, turkeys, partridges and squirrels.
  Sunday, Oct. 25.-Left Sinking Springs at 7
o'clock a. m. Traveled to West Union, a little
village. Distance twenty-three miles. Lands of
three qualities, broken, barren and mountainous.


Miserable log huts. Inhabitants more polite and
civil. Crossed Brush creek at the foot of a small
mountain. At this place met some travelers,
among them some Philadelphians. The inhabi-
tants in this part of the country generally emi-
grants. Real Ohios, real savages in appearance
and manners, destitute of every degree of polite-
ness. Not uncommon for a man to follow three
or four occupations. For example, John Noble
follows both tailoring and saddlering. My bar-
ber is also a waiter on the table, assistant cook
and hostler. In this town one man is a lawyer, a
merchant and an apothecary.

  Monday, Oct. 26.-Left West Union at 10
o'clock a. m. My friend having business here, we
lost one day. Traveled over a poor, hilly and
mountainous country for seventeen miles and ar-
rived at Limestone. Crossed the Ohio in a horse-
boat and landed at Maysville, Ky., at 5 o'clock
p. m., bidding a willing adieu to Ohio, not leaving
behind a single individual whom we ever wished
to see again. I must confess from the many
favorable representations made of the habits,
manners and state of society and quality of the
lands in the state of Ohio, I was prepared to meet
a different soil and a different people from those
just left. Before I take a final leave of Ohio I
must mention an occurrence that transpired a


few days previous to our arrival in New Lan-
caster. Ten or fifteen friendly Indians were
traveling from near New York to visit their red
brethren in the west. They were poor, but peace-
able and well behaved. When they were within
about twenty-five miles of New Lancaster three
of the Indians were unable to keep up with the
leading party, a man, a young squaw and a child.
Those unoffending and unfortunate people were
waylaid by three monsters in human shape, ruf-
fians belonging to the neighborhood. They lay
hid until those three Indians got in a rake, and
then fired upon them, intending to kill all at the
same shot. The child and man escaped unhurt,
but the unfortunate female had her thigh broken
and received a ball in the abdomen. No hope was
entertained of her recovery. The villains were
taken and committed to prison. The only reason
given by them for committing this extraordinary
outrage was that during the war the Indians
had murdered in battle some of their connections
or relatives.

  Tuesday, Oct. 27.-Maysville is a growing lit-
tle village, situated on the Ohio and reaching in
a southerly direction to the foot of a small moun-
tain. Left Maysville at 6 o'clock a. m. and ar-
rived four miles beyond the Blue Licks at 5
o'clock, a distance of thirty miles. Passed Wash-


ington, May Licks and some smaller villages.
Some good land, some very poor. Country moun-
tainous and stony. Great difficulty in obtaining
meat or drink during the day, although taverns
are plenty. The Blue Licks are rude, unculti-
vated, stony barrens, poor beyond description
and extremely difficult to travel over. Passed
several dead horses on the road. An infectious
disease called the sore tongue had produced their
deaths, and was to be found at every stable for
hundreds of miles. Men, cows, hogs and sheep
were subject to it. Being tired, hungry and dis-
appointed in the appearance of the country, I
retired to bed early. On the 25th inst. the ground
was covered with snow. Little or no rain had fal-
len in this part of the country for near six
months. Many creeks nearly dry. Great diffi-
culty in obtaining water to drink. Passed some
salt springs and wells. Salt 2.50 per bushel,
coffee 50 cents per pound. Those prices will sound
very high to the merchants of Philadelphia.

  Wednesday, Oct. 28.-Left Artis' tavern, thirty
miles from Maysville, at 7 o'clock a. m. Traveled
over a very fertile country, a distance of seven-
teen miles, and arrived at a neat little town called
Paris. Passed some handsome houses. Saw
many negroes. They were ragged, foolish, and,
in appearance, miserable. Paris, as a town, has


some claim to beauty. It is placed on an emi-
nence. Many of the houses are brick and of
handsome shape. There is constantly that stir
and bustle which denotes a place of business.
The country around is fertile, and, although there
is no navigable stream near, the eye is prevented
from falling too heavily on the neighboring fields
and valleys by the winding of a small stream,
upon which there is a busy-looking mill.
"How often have I paused on every charm-
The sheltered cot, the cultivated farm,
The never-failing brook, the busy mill,
The decent church that topped the neighboring
  In this little town we met a hearty welcome.
The inhabitants are polite and hospitable. The
singular variety which is to be found in the
human family by a traveler is difficult to be de-
scribed. Indeed, every hundred miles would take
a small volume. Straggling play-actors and tight-
rope dancers had found their way to Paris, be-
sides other amusements which were to be found
in this sprightly little town, which had a tendency
to make our time pass very agreeably. On Wed-
nesday night at 11 o'clock, I was called to visit
Miss Craughan, sister of Col. Craughan, an old
acquaintance. I found her dangerously ill with
quinsy. Large bleedings and some other medi-


cines gave relief. Was compelled to leave her
and proceed on my journey. Heard of her re-
covery. Interesting lady.

  Thursday, Oct. 29.-Left Thorgmorton's tavern
at 9 o'clock a. m. Good roads; fair weather; gen-
erous people; good land and neat dwellings.
Dined in Lexington, a town of considerable size,
and a place of great business. Saw large num-
bers of country people dealing in stores. Met
and overtook but few travelers the last three or
four days. Traveled this day thirty-two miles to
Cole's. The lands not so fertile and a little hilly.

  Friday, Oct. 30.-Left Cole's at 6 o'clock a. m.
Breakfasted at Frankfort, the seat of the gov-
ernment of Kentucky. It is situated in a deep
valley near a stream, surrounded with high and
uneven hills, and at a distance, from its shape
and situation, it resembles a garden laid off in
squares.  A   very  handsome bridge, neatly
painted, is thrown across the Kentucky river,
which, together with some public buildings
erected with considerable taste, assist much in
enlivening and adding beauty and elegance to
the appearance of the town. Left Frankfort at
9 o'clock. Crossed the Kentucky river, which was
only three feet wide, owing to the uncommon
drought. Foot passengers were crossing on a rail.


Passed through Shelbyville, a small village.
Many creeks, rivers and branches entirely dry.
Every animal suffering for water. The farmers
compelled to cart a sufficient quantity to support
life, many miles. No water to be obtained in the
village for our horses. Fortunately we were
enabled to purchase some on the road. Traveled
twenty-nine miles to Smith's. Lands rich.
Country broken on the old road. Deep valleys.
Frightful precipices. Beech woods. Large trees.
Good corn. Warm and dry weather.

  Saturday, Oct. 31.-Left Smith's at 7 o'clock
a. m. Traveled over a very rich and flat country.
Passed through Middletown, and at 4 o'clock
arrived at Louisville, after traveling twenty-
eight miles. This day being Saturday, and hav-
ing met some old friends and acquaintances, a
party was made up to visit the Louisville theater.
Philadelphia being the theater for all great per-
formers, curiosity was on tip-toe to view the
players of Louisville. The theater is a neat little
building. It was but thinly attended, owing to
the pressure of the times. The play was "Wives
as They Were and Maids as They Are," Mr.
Drake and Mrs. Grochong supporting the princi-
pal characters. Their persons, features, voices
and gestures were fine, appearing to possess the
nicest feelings and tenderest sympathies, and,


in my opinion, they were well suited to a better
stage. The play better performed than expected.
Indeed, I may say well performed, if I may be
permitted to add there was more than one of the
actors who was unfeeling, unmeaning, made of
wood and more like a gate-post than an animated
being. This had the happiest of effects, for after
shedding tears of grief at interesting parts of
the play they were kept flowing with laughter
at those ridiculous performers making tragedy
into comedy. Louisville is a flourishing town
immediately on the banks of the Ohio. The town
and business principally confined to one street.
The inhabitants are polite, hospitable and live

  Sunday, Nov. 1.-This day was spent in visit-
ing a family near Louisville, friends of my youth-
ful days, whom I had not seen for eighteen years.
As I approached the dwelling, happy days that
are never to return, pleasant hours, youthful,
happy and blooming faces, joyous scenes and
many dear moments, flashed suddenly across my
mind. But judge of my disappointment on meet-
ing the remains of this amiable family. I will
not attempt to express feelings that in the human
language know no description. Mrs. M , a
truly good woman, had been borne to that shore
"from whence no traveler returns." Her daugh-


ter, who was the admiration of all that knew her,
soon followed. The remains of the family which
eighteen years ago was young and fashionable,
elegant and beautiful, had become sedate, crooked,
wrinkled and even gray. To witness the ravages
of time produced a gloom which lasted several
days. I took an affectionate leave