xt7dv40jv579 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7dv40jv579/data/mets.xml The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc. 1946 bulletins  English The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Frontier Nursing Service Quarterly Bulletins The Quarterly Bulletin of The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc., Vol. 22, No. 1, Summer 1946 text The Quarterly Bulletin of The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc., Vol. 22, No. 1, Summer 1946 1946 2014 true xt7dv40jv579 section xt7dv40jv579 .....1 —» .Q`,_._:,.-,_-.,.....r.....,.*-4..;-.*-..~—--»—-·-——~-----—-——-—-———4—-——·—r—~—— -—   - ——- 7- - 7- -- --
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gg VOLUME 22 SUMMER, 1946 NUMBER 1
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I
FRONTIER NURSE — NOLA BLAIR `
THE QUARTERLY BULLETIN of THE FRONTIER NURSING SERVICE, Inc.
Published Quarterly by the Frontier Nursing Service, Lexington, Ky.
Subscription Price $1.00 Per Year
VOLUME 22 SUMMER, 1946 NUMBER 1
"Entered as second class matter June 30, 1926, at the Post Office at Lexington, Ky.,
under Act of March 3, 1879."
Copyright 1946 Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.

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—: x_~  I .
    _ INDEX
  .__·¢V {1
;   4 ARTICLE AUTHOR PAGE
 ~* * /— ·   · A Cadet Nurse with the F.N.S. Hazel Fugate 45
  A Annual Report ` · 4 3
    At Port Huron, Michigan Betty Lester 47
  f Beyond the Mountains 49
4 Field Notes 54
· 4 Go, Lovely Rose (A Poem) Edmund Waller -16
Letter from a Soldier to His Unborn
__ Child ‘ 38
Old Courier News .- ‘ ·A 40
· Old StaffANews A ..21
On Retirement (A Poem) Florence Samson 4 A 32
4 Where Is Upper Spring Creek School? Doris Reid 17
AA (Illustrated by Jane Rainey)
Y Yarb Lore in the Kentucky Mountains 4 ~ . . 33
_ (Drawings) ‘
F · . BRIEF BITS 4
{ Calico’s Dream (A Drawing) Ann Pratt ‘ 20
,4 Contents of a Secretary’s Oiiice Lucille Knechtly 39
  Giving _The Prophet 31
{ I Do not Know Sir Isaac Newton 63
,   Just Jokes—Children 15
A Just Jokes—Graven Image 48
A Knowledge is Proud William Cowper 63
_; Unusual Epitaphs 46
 ,5% When as a Child A Clock in Chester Cathedral 44
lj,
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2
I

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l
2 THE QUARTERLY BULLETIN  
HIFNER AND FORTUNE l '
CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS
LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY
To the Officers and Directors,  
Frontier Nursing Service, Incorporated, Q
Lexington, Kentucky. .  
Ladies and Gentlemen: ”  
· We have made a detailed examination of your records and  
accounts for the fiscal year ended April 30th, 1946, with the _.
result as disclosed by the annexed Exhibits and supporting {
Schedules. _  
_ Endowment and Memorial Funds were certified to us by the _
I various Trustees therefor. ‘ ‘
. Contributions and gifts have been checked against the p
Trcasurer’s receipts and reports and traced into the bank. y
E Disbursements have been verified by means of canceled  
checks, and the bank accounts have been reconciled and found  
l correct.  
{ In our opinion, all monies have been duly and properly ac-  
S counted for.  
  . Respectfully submitted, `  
  ~ Q,
E Y R (Signed) HIFNER AND FORTUNE  
[ 1 Certified Public Accountants. *
  Lexington, Kentucky .
May Twenty-second, _
Nineteen Forty-six. § ‘
 

 l
 
l Fnoxvrmn Nonsmc; snnvicm s
  ANNUAL REPORT
I — of the
i'  FRONTIER NURSING SERVICE, Inc.
May 1, 1945, to April 30, 1946
- PREFACE '
In presenting the report of our twenty-first fiscal year,
  which closed April 30, 1946, we find it easy to call attention to
  the volume of work done, and to the generous support received,
§` but almost impossible to convey how difficult the year has been.
  The closing months of the war, and the months immediately
  following the war, have brought about an increase of work with
i- a continued staff shortage. Generous as our support has been
  from our thousands of old friends, this support has been strained
  to the utmost to meet the increased costs of everything we buy,
  from horses’ feed to hospital supplies. Two examples will suffice
  to illustrate this point. V V _
  In our preceding fiscal year we spent for dispensary sup-
E plies for the Hospital and centers $3,685.49. In the fiscal year
j just closed these same supplies cost $8,046.58. Several years
  ago when we had between forty and fifty horses it used to cost
  us between three and four thousand dollars annually to have
Q them fed and cared for. Now we are partly motorized and have
  only twenty-seven horses. ‘To feed and care for them last year
l cost us $10,087.64.
  These two examples suffice to show that we are going
  through a fiscal problem of staggering proportions.
Q I
  FISCAL REPORT
_ The fiscal statements in this annual report are taken from
the exhibits and schedules of the audit, which was duly made
x ‘ by Hifner and Fortune, certified public accountants; and the
. figures in the report of operations are supplied by the statistical
  department of the Frontier Nursing Service.
3 Our receipts this year from all sources for running ex-
  penses, retirement of debt and new endowment were $194,812.07
e
l

 ` i
K
4 THE QUARTERLQBULLETIN ___
(Exhibit B of the audit). Of this total the sum of $63,142.39 is _  
new endowment. This new endowment includes the legacy of _* 
the late Miss Louie A. Hall of $33,000.00 with accumulated in-  
come of $2,723.69 or a total of $35,723.69, to be used, when  '
feasible, for the construction and endowment of a new center T A
' in memory of Sophronia Brooks. Pending the possibility of l;
t building this center, the income from this legacy goes back into  
the fund and will increase the size of the eventual endowment  
of the center. New endowment, the income of which can be  
used at once for current expenses of the organization, is  
$27,418.70. ·
The total gifts and contributions to the Service for running a
expenses were $93,785.97 inclusive of $2,535.00 from the Alpha  
Omicron Pi National Sorority and its chapters for Social Service. . .j
Ourinvestment income from endowment for the year was $15,- g ,
709.90. The grant of Federal scholarships for the Frontier Grad-  
uate School of Midwifery was $5,000.00 and the income from the  
Wendover Post Oflice was $1,135.77. The revenue from benefits Q?
and from the Bargain Box in New York was $3,796.72. The 1
f total receipts from medical, hospital and nursing fees was $11,-  
, 044.02. These are the main sources of income for the past fiscal  
V year (Schedule B-1 of the audit). g
1 V ENDOWMENT. `  
  The total endowment funds of the Service at the close of  -
  the Hscal year are taken from Exhibit D of the audit and are  _
l as follows: -  
( Joan Glancy Memorial Baby Crib .................................. $ 5,000.00  
, Mary Ballard Morton Memorial ..........,.....................,..... 85,250.83  
» Jessie Preston Draper Memorial Fund No. 1 ................ 15,000.00  
Jessie Preston Draper Memorial Fund No. 2 ................ 50,000.00 t
Belle Barrett Hughitt Memorial ...................................... 15,000.00 '
“ Isabella George Jeffcott Memorial .................................. 2,500.00
’ Bettie Starks Rodes Memorial Baby Crib., .................. 5,000.00 · ·
John Price Starks Memorial Baby Crib .... r ................... 5,000.00  
Eliza Thackara Fund ........................................................ 1,118.87 ,_
Children’s Christmas Fund in Memory ·of Barbara E
Brown ................................... 4 .... J ............................... 1,000.00 ‘
Marion E. Taylor Memorial ............................................ 10,000.00 i
Fanny Norris Fund ........................,................................... 10,000.00 ,,
Marie L. Willard Legacy .................................................. 3,127.36  ·

 I
__ j FRoNT1ER NURSING smnvicic 5
{
[ William Nelson Fant, Jr. Memorial ............._................ 77,159.43
I Mrs. Charles H. Moorman Bonds ..................... _ ............... 5 00.00
  Lillian F. Eisaman Legacy .......,...................................... 3,250.00
. _ Donald R. McLennan Memorial Bed .............................. 12,750.00
 ’ Lt. John M. Atherton Memorial Fund ............................ 1,000.00
I ‘ Mrs. Morris B. Belknap Fund .......................................... 10,000.00
;_ Elisabeth Ireland Fund .................................................... 12,120.00
g . Louie A. Hall Legacy in Memory of Sophronia Brooks
if for a Center and Its Endowment ............................ 35,723.69
§ Margaret A. Pettet Legacy .............................................. 1,953.70
  Elizabeth Agnes Alexander Legacy .............................. 5,000.00
  Richard D. McMahon Legacy .......................................... 15,265.00
. Anonymous General Endowments .................................. 102,400.00
  Total .............................................. . ........................... $485,118.88
Note: Amounts shown represent values at the time the gifts were
g received.
  · CASH IN BANKS _
  The current accounts and salaries ofthe Service were paid
  up in full at the close of the fiscal year, and the cash on hand in
  banks and petty cash funds was $12,498.82. .
  , INDEBTEDNESS .
Y  The only indebtedness of the Frontier Nursing Service is
  $12,312.42 still owed certain older members of the old staff,
 T representing the amount, on a two-thirds salary basis, volun-
  tarily loaned the Service during the years 1930 to 1935 when
 - the Service did not receive a large enough income to pay salaries
 T on even a 2/3 basis. This sum is reduced annually and through
  the generosity of a trusteewas reduced by $2,000.00 during
  this past fiscal year.
  REAL ESTATE, BUILDINGS, AND EQUIPMENT `
F (From Exhibit C of the Audit)
I The Frontier Nursing Service owns realty, equipment, and
_ _ livestock conservatively estimated by our auditors, after adjust-
ments in values have been written down or up, at $266,516.45,
if all without lien. .
Y 1NvEN·1·oRY
  An inventory is taken every spring of the property of the
 A Service. Among its major holdings are the following:

 6 THE QUARTERLY BULLETIN _
Hyden %
A stone Hospital, one wing of which is the Mary Ballard  
Morton Memorial, one wing the Mary Parker Gill Memorial, V
and the frame Annex, a Memorial to. "Jackie" Rousmaniere; Joy · V
House, home of the Medical Director, gift of Mrs. Henry B. Joy; .
_ Aunt Hattie’s oak Barn, gift of Mrs. Henry Alvah Strong; _
7 Mardi Cottage, the Quarters for the Frontier Graduate School   s
of Midwifery; two water tanks; two tenant cottages; and out-  
buildings such as garages, work shop, pig house, forge, engine  
house, iire hose house, and the Wee Stone House. V ·
Wendover J 
Three log houses, as follows: the Old House ("in memory of 2;
Breckie and Po11y") ; the Old Cabin and the Ruth Draper Cabin;  
the Garden House; the Upper and the Lower Shelf; the Cou— {_
riers’ Log Barn and Aunt Jane’s Barn; numerous smaller build-  
ings such as the heifer barn, horse hospital barn, tool house, l`_
chicken houses, forge, apple house, smoke house, engine house,  
fire hose houses, water tanks, and the Pebble Work Shop.  
_ Georgia Wright Clearing V -·
4 A caretaker’s cottage and barns; extensive pasture land  R
C for horses and cows; a bull’s barn and stockade.  C
 Z Jessie Preston Draper Memo1·ial Nursing Center ' 
i (Beech Fork; Post Office, Asher, Leslie County) é
  Frame building and oak barn; water tank and engine house;  
> fenced acreage for pasture and gardens; deep well.  
` Y
Q Frances Bolton Nursing Center  
' (Possum Bend; Post Oifnce, Confluence, Leslie County) i
‘ Frame building and oak barn; pump and tank; fenced acre- A
, age for pasture and gardens; deep well. U 
Clara Ford Nursing Center  
(Red Bird River; Post Office, Peabody, Clay County)  
Log building and oak barn with electricity; engine house  T
and tire hose house; deep well; tank; fenced acreage for pasture ,
and gardens. I ,

 s
1
1¤·RoN·r1mR NURSING smnvicm *2
i Caroline Butler Atwood Memorial Nursing Center
  (Flat Creek; Post Oilice, Creekville, Clay County)
i Frame building and oak barn; tank and fire hose house;
C ‘ walled—in spring; fenced acreage for pasture and gardens.
_ Belle Barrett Hughitt Memorial Nursing Center
  . (Bullskin Creek; Post Oiiice, Brutus, Clay County)
  Frame building and oak barn; tank; iire hose house; walled-
  in spring; fenced acreage for pasture and gardens.
  .Margaret Durbin Harper Memorial Nu1·sing Center
  7 (Post Ofdce, Bowlingtown, Perry County)
Q Frame building and oak barn; tank; iire hose house; walled-
e in spring; fenced acreage for pasture and gardens.
  Subsidiary Clinics .
  Five small clinic buildings on the following streams: Bull
  Creek, Stinnett (Mary B. Willeford Memorial), Grassy Branch,
  Hell-for-Certain Creek, and the Nancy O’Driscoll Memorial on
3 Cutshin Creek. A _
V II
 . ` REPORT OF OPERATIONS
 · MEDICAL AND SURGICAL
 ; When our Medical Director of the preceding two years, Dr.
  James M. Fraser, left us in August, 1945 for private practice,
E we had no one in view to fill his place. Through the courtesy of
  a distinguished member of our National Medical Council, Dr.
  Karl M. Wilson of the University of Rochester, Rochester, New
? _ York, we got in touch with Dr. Henry S. Waters. It was our
rare good fortune to have the services of Dr. Waters as Medical
 U  Director from early September until the close of our fiscal year,
, ` ‘ April 30th, when he left us to prepare for his return to his own
l A badly wrecked hospital at Iloilo in the Philippines. Hence this
  report covers a brief period of something over three months
" during which Dr. Fraser was our Medical Director, a short
 Y » period during which we had no Medical Director, and a period
. of approximately eight months during which Dr. Waters was

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a THE QUARTERLY BULLETIN  
the Medical Director. During the weeks in late August we  
depended, as always, on Dr. R. L. Collins of Hazard, our life  
line, and his assistant at that time, Dr. C. S. Jackson. We also ,
had for two weeks a distinguished guest, the late Dr. Lucy Chao
of China, who consented as a courtesy to give her services to us. 4 
L · We could not pay her, but we presented her with an instrument  
` that she needed to take back to China with her. Under our "In li
Memoriam" column in a later issue of the Bulletin we will have  
something to say of the untimely death of this gracious lady.  
The months that Dr. Waters was with us stand out as a  .
period in which our medical _and surgical needs were covered A
magnificently. It is hard to realize how anyone released not long E
before from a Japanese concentration camp could accomplish  ·
the immense amount of work Dr. Waters carried during his stay  
with us. The appreciation of our patients for his abilities as  
physician and surgeon, his charming personality and his high  
principles as a man, equaled our own.  
Dr. Francis Massie came up again from Lexington in April, I 
for the surgical clinic he gives the Frontier Nursing Service each {Yi
year. With him came his assistant, Dr. Dodd. Dr. Massie, Dr. p l
, Dodd, and Dr. Waters examined 61 patients and Dr. Massie per- it
p formed 14 operations. There wasn’t time to perform nine of ;
V the operations and these are scheduled for another surgical fi,
  clinic in the current Hscal year. ji
  It was after the close of our iiscal year, in June, that we gf
  welcomed again after a long absence due to the war, Dr. F. W.  
  Urton of Louisville who performed 35 terribly needed tonsillec- 4Y
tomies on our children. With him came Dr. D. M. Dollar to give * 
i the anesthetics and also, as is his custom, to donate ice cream  
A for all of the young patients. We were delighted to welcome  H 
V with Dr. Urton and Dr. Dollar, young Dr. W. H. Pratt for his {
j first surgical visit to us. 1 _
HYDEN HOSPITAL  
No one who reads the iigures which follow in relation to the  ,
Hospital, the districts and the midwifery can have any concep- F
tion of the enormous task it was to get them totaled by the close  
of our fiscal year. Our statistician, Mrs. Arthur Byrne, left us Q
in March to join her husband just back from the Pacific. Months  

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‘ FnoNcr1E1¤. NURSING smnvxcm 9
F
E were to pass before we had another statistician. Our First As-
  sistant Director, Miss Dorothy F. Buck, who is a Wellesley
Y graduate as well as a nurse and a midwife and has a Master’s
i degree, took over the full statistical work in addition to her own
l department. This meant that all through April and May she
, _ was working at night and over the week-ends in order to have
  the report ready for the Annual Meeting of trustees.
E The Hospital at Hyden was occupied 6,317 days last year
I by 681 patients with a daily average of 17.3 patients. When you
  . stop to think that our Hospital has only 18 ward beds and one
 i isolation bed (in the Wee Stone House) and eight bassinets for
the new-born, one can easily see the dangerous over-crowding
Q_ represented by a daily average of 17.3 patients. Additional
  space for the Hospital is no longer merely desirable—it is an
  absolute necessity. Dr. R. Glen Spurling of_ Louisville is trying
 j to get us a Quonset Hut to tide over until building is possible
  again and we can make an appeal for a wing to be added to the
 ·  Hospital, and also for a house for the nurses outside the Hospital.
  Of the 681 patients cared for during the fiscal year, 142
T were adults, 261 were obstetrical patients, 88 were children, and
  190 were newborn. There were 14 deaths in the Hospital during
W the fiscal year, of which five were newborn, and none were
Y obstetrical. Eighty-six operations were performed. At the
ti? Medical Director’s clinics in the outpatient department of the
  Hospital there was a total of 6,042 visits received during the
  past fiscal year.
  DISTRICTS
  In the 13 districts carried by the Frontier Nursing Service
 n  from the Hospital, Wendover, and six outpost centers, we at-
  tended 8,286 people in 1,807 families. Of these 4,493 were chil-
‘ dren including 2,095 babies and toddlers. The district nurses
  paid 16,906 visits and received 17,594 visits at their nursing
1* centers and at their special clinics. Bedside nursing care was
F given to 695 sick people in their homes of whom 19 died. At the
  request of the State Board of Health, the Frontier Nursing
.  Service gave 7,100 inoculations and vaccines against typhoid,
  . diphtheria, smallpox, whooping cough, et cetera, and sent 2,036
  specimens for analysis.

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10 THE QUARTERLY BULLETIN .
This part of our report has reference to general district  
nursing only and does not include the midwifery carried day  
. and night by the nurse-midwives along with their district nurs-  
ing. The figures for midwifery are covered under the following  
section. .
* ‘ MIDWIFERY  
Registered Cases ,
The nurse-midwives and the midwifery students of the ` 
Frontier Graduate School of Midwifery (under supervision of  
their instructors) delivered 390 women in childbirth, and gave 2
them full prenatal and postpartum care. There were 392 live  
births and 4 stillbirths. There were 6 deliveries of twins. There ji
were 347 new cases admitted and 387 closed after postpartum Q
care. There were no miscarriages and no maternal deaths. 4  
Emergency Cases—Um·egistered  
In addition to these regular registered maternity cases, the  
nurse-midwives and midwifery students of the Graduate School  
5 were called in for 14 emergency deliveries, where the mother  
had not been registered or given prenatal care, which resulted if
’ in 13 live births and 1 stillbirth; for 17 emergency miscarriages  
é (14 early and 3 late); and for postpartum care to 4 other j
  mothers. There were no maternal deaths.  
5 Outside-Area Cases  
  There were 196 women from outside our area who were  
  carried for prenatal care. Of these 48 were closed before de- {
E livery. Although it is routine for our outside area patients to i
5 move into our districts or our Hospital for delivery, in which  l
Y case they are transferred to our regular midwifery service, the y
  nurse-midwives went outside our area to deliver one such patient ¢
‘ of a live baby in her own home.  
THE FRONTIER GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MIDWIFERY    \
During the past Hsoal year the School graduated nine regis- A
tered nurses in midwifery. One is a missionary nurse-midwife  
in Kentucky. Four are registered nurse-midwives in foreign  
fields (three in India and one in China) _and one is in charge j.

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 — Fnomunn NURSING SERVICE 11
  of the obstetrical department of a large American hospital. The
?c · remaining three are on the staff of the Frontier Nursing Service.
  Of the six students in the twelfth class at present in the
{ _ School there are two preparing for foreign mission fields; one is
~ a Puerto Rican nurse who returns to Puerto Rico for remotely
  rural work; two will remain with the Frontier Nursing Service.
  The sixth student is a returned veteran (an Army major), our
. first student to take the training under the G.I. Bill of Rights.
  cADE·rs
  During the past fiscal year two of The Johns Hopkins cadets
ji completed their six months’ afliliation with the Frontier Nursing
A. Service. One returned to The Johns Hopkins Hospital to work,
  and one has married and gone into the foreign mission field.
  Two cadets from the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit came for a
.  six months’ affiliation period, which did not terminate until after
g_ the close of our fiscal year. Two cadet nurses from the Nazareth
,; School of Nursing of St. Joseph’s Hospital in Lexington came
l` for a four months’ affiliation which terminated after the close
i of our fiscal year. r
  SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT
(Alpha Omicron Pi Fund)
9i During the past fiscal year the Social Service Department
  gave aid and care to six dependent children not eligible for State
Q Aid, and care to a number of dependent children who receive
§{ financial help under the Aid to Dependent Children Act; gave
 ’ aid and care to nine families (widows and wives of men unable
J to work) and provided twelve families with garden seeds, seed
, potatoes, potato fertilizer, onion sets, and sweet potato slips;
p bought cows for two families who repay the cost by monthly
i instalments; paid complete costs of hospitalization for five adult
i_ \ patients in Louisville, Lexington and Cincinnati, part of which
W is being refunded by the families; paid the charge for thirty
E. patients taken to dentists and oculists, some of which is being
  refunded to the Service; paid expenses in Hyden for three pre-
  natal patients waiting for delivery when there were no beds
x available in our Hospital for them; distributed hundreds of

 12 THE QUARTERLY BULLETIN I  
articles of clothing, books and toys; gave food and other assist-  
ance in several emergency situations; transported patients to °  
clinics; and, on 52 passes given by the Louisville and Nashville { 
railroad, transported patients and their attendants to Lexing-  
ton, Louisville and Cincinnati for specialized medical and hospi- _
_ tal care. lp
I We wish to express our grateful thanks again to the Chil- Q
dren’s Hospital, Cincinnati, for caring for a number of our  .
children free; to the medical profession of Louisville, Lexington  l
and Cincinnati for giving free care to patients sent out to them; ·
to the Louisville and Nashville railroad for its passes, and to —
the Kentucky Crippled Children’s Commission for giving free X
care to children sent out to them. Q
GUESTS V 
The Frontier Nursing Service entertained at Wendover 101 l 
overnight guests who stayed 311 days. In addition Wendover  
entertained for meals 175 guests for 442 meals. Included among  
i these guests are both outside and mountain friends.  *
, The Frontier Nursing Service entertained at the Hyden Hos- f ·
 _ pital overnight guests for a total of 192 days. In addition, the if
i Hospital entertained day guests for 1,257 meals. Meals served  
, to patients totaled 20,062.  E
i  I
  VOLUNTEER WORKERS T 
  Eighteen couriers and other volunteer workers worked for  I
  the Frontier Nursing Service a total of 1,562 days. Of these  I
I days, 208 were spent as nurse’s aides to the Hospital in Hyden. L
i During the time the volunteers were with the Service they lived `
· at Wendover, Hyden, and the Outpost Centers. ·
CHRISTMAS -
The Frontier Nursing Service gave toys, fruit and candy to r
more than 5,000 children at Christmas and clothing to those  _
that needed it. The Service also held Christmas parties at many l
different places for these children, with Santa Claus, Christmas
trees and Christmas carols. .
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 V FRONTIER NURSING sERv1cE 13
§ III
  BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 1946-1947
  The budget for the fiscal year, adopted by the Executive
Committee, and approved by the Board of Trustees at their
,  Twenty-second Annual Meeting in Louisville, Kentucky on May
 I 31, 1946, is set at $124,00000 Unless the prices of everything
  we buy should go down, and our essential repairs and upkeep
 I of property, equipment and livestock should be less this year
‘ than last, it will not be possible for us to operate wthin the
' limits of a budget of $124,00000 And yet we are not doing
I anything that we did not do when we set a budget of $104,000.00
; and lived within it.
‘·f It will be of interest to our members to know what our
{p expenditures were during the last fiscal year because it is upon
 ` , these expenditures that we base the budget for the current fiscal
 Q year. Our members will note that we have attempted to save
1; in this year’s expenditures on maintenance and replacement, but
  such saving must not be carried to an extent that allows dan-
 . gerous depreciation.
 A HYDEN HOSPITAL and
FRONTIER GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MIDWIFERY:
2  1945-1946 1946-1947
 Q 1. Salaries and Wages .......................... $ 19,682.00 $ 20,000.00
Q 2. Running Costs (food, cows, elec-
 _ tricity, fuel, laundry, freight,
{  haulage, et cetera) .......................... 9,993.00 10,000.00
°`