xt7f1v5bcs9f https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7f1v5bcs9f/data/mets.xml Tower, Philo. 1856  books b92326t6546s2009 English H. Darrow  : Rochester, NY. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Slavery --United States. Southern States --Description and travel. Kansas --History --1854-1861. Slavery unmasked: being a truthful narrative of a three years  residence and journeying in eleven southern states, to which is added the invasion of Kansas, including the last chapter of her wrongs. text Slavery unmasked: being a truthful narrative of a three years  residence and journeying in eleven southern states, to which is added the invasion of Kansas, including the last chapter of her wrongs. 1856 2009 true xt7f1v5bcs9f section xt7f1v5bcs9f 














C H A P T E R I.
T he a uthor starts for the South     A r r i v a l at New Y o r k     Starting E xpedition     W e n t to the Park     Down Broadway     Barnum's M useum     T o the Methodist Book R o o m     Takes the cars tor W ashington     Pauses at Philadelphia for dinner        Starts again at three     Baltimore     A r r i v a l a t Washington     Stopped at t he National     Midnight Promenade     Senator Went to the AVhite H o u s e     I n t r o d u c t i o n to Walbridge     President F i l l -

m o r e     National G a l l e r y     F r a n k l i n ' s Press     Smithsonian Ins t i t u t e     Capitol H i l l     S enate B a l l     T o u r through the buildi n g s     Pictures on the W a l l     V i e w from roof of Capitol     P opulation o f Washington     General aspect of the City     P u b lic B uildings     Public Squares     Slavery     Solomon Northrup     E monson Family     Tragic Scene     Start for R i c h m o n d .

R ichmond     Its locality, institutions and business a spects     S ituation o f the city     I t s s treets     T he Capitol     City B a l l     M o n u m e n tal C hurch     Water-power     Articles of produce     Slave mart     S lave breeders     Rice grounds     Slave g irl flogged into c riminal i ntercourse with her master     P r e m i u m offered by a m aster to white men for improving the stock of his slaves, &c.     I nternal slave trade     Profits thence accruing     Isaac W illiams' t hrilling n arrative     Dullness of R i c h m o n d     Start for Wilmington, N . C .     P a s s large plantations     Scenes appear antiprogressive     N o r t h Carolina forests     A r r i v a l at W i l m i n g t o n .

W ilmington     Its site, locality and institutions     appearance from a d i s t a n c e     I t s population, commerce, hotels, churches     Sab-


CONTENTS. b aths here     W e n t to M . E . C hurch S outh     Sacraments     N o c olored pastors here     Number of colored communicants     S abbath desecration     I nhumanity of slave holders     Frightened f ugitive     Hounds upon his track     They tree him     Hounds taught to regard the slave as his natural enemy     Puppies taught to hunt slaves     Torture of young H arry     N egro in the creek     D ogs attack J ohn L ittle. him     Drowned h i m s e l f     T h r i l l i n g narrative of

C harleston     Its locality, institutions of blood, groans, &c.     A r r i v a l at Charleston     Promenade through the market     Large commercial c ity     Fort Moultrie     Nullifiers     South Carolina Arsen a l     E arly h istory of Charleston     Shade trees     Dwellings     C hurches     Hotels     scarcity of southern Artists     Classes of s ociety     P o o r whites     Dined with a slaveholder     Slaves let out     M unicipal r egulations     Slave mother's b abe s old from h e r -     S l a v e with an i ron c ollar o n     Lower law inquisition     B eautiful Q uadroon tortured by the inquisitors     Old Austrian l l . i v i i . M I o utdone        Torture of a captured fugitive     Murder of p oor Pompey     B l a c k J e d in the stocks     City gossip     Slave A uction     B oarding with an ex-clergyman     Lady inquisitor     Slaves chief wealth of the south     Dialogue with the slave of a c lergyman     N o St. Clair's or little Eva's     I maginary life of the southerner     The martyred slave     Item of black code Improved inquisitorial tortue     human head stuck upon a pole     T he Charlestonians.

C olumbia     Its situation, institutions, &c.     Start for Columbia     C ountry t hrough which we passed     Carolina s wamps     C olumbia a fine appearing town     The state house     Hotels     Sell m en and women here     No prospect of escape f or the poor slave     Torture of a poor slave woman in the public s treets     R amble to the wooden bridge     B rick y ard     Southern hatred o f Abolitionists     Negro fishing     Dialogue with old M aster came up     Dialogue with a slave mother     fisherman    Incredulity

CONTENTS. o f the nah,


old woman     Return to Charleston     Start for Savanfields on Savannah river    

G eorgia     Passage     Rice

S outherners read Uncle Tom's Cabin.

S avannah     Its history, locality, institutions, &c.     Situation of Savannah     Its streets a nd p a r k s     Pulaski House     Old F o r t or b attle ground     The writer's reflections on this field     H essian descendants Anglo     Soldier in the Mexican war     Visited

the garrison with him     Georgia colony and slavery     W esley a nd Whitelield     Patriotic Georgians     C ruel t orture of a slave w oman     Public whipping of a y oung mulatto man     Slavery a nd its apologists     Slaves treated worse here than dumb brutes     F ood of slaves in Georgia     Plantation side view of slavery     S lave huts     Exposure to the beating storms     Wearing a pparel     Master slave     Manner in the midst of his slaves with pistol in one of whipping slaves     Sometimes die under

h and and long knife in the other     Unmerciful flogging of a the lash     Negro sermon     Cathauling     Negro shot down     A frico-American r ace springing up here     Plantation life continued     Jesuits of slavery willing northern apologists     b eastly, b arbarous conduct towards a slave woman     Man tied to a tree and received three hundred lashes     Poor Ike flogged a lmost to death     Business a spects o f Savannah     Slaves have n o b eds     J o h n and the northerner     Col. H.'s plantation     B lood and murder     Murder of Cuffee     Slave burning     R eturn n orth     Storm at sea     Saw a w hale     A r r i v a l at New Y o r k     Take the cars for Cincinnati     A rrival t here.

C incinnati     Its progress, locality, Fugitive Slave Scenes, &c. &c.     A c hapter on Cincinnati called for     Underground railroads h ere     Liberty and slavery m eet i n open combat     C i n c i n n a t i t he great metropolis of the west     Its situation     Its s treets     I ts Levee     Its public buildings     Cincinnati College     cantile L ibrary     M elodeon H all     M asonic MerH all     B urnet

H o u s e     T h e Cincinnati Observatory     Great Equatorial Tele-


CONTENTS. scope     C hurches     Institutions     Western R oom     Commerce     Trade of the city     Methodist Book


P opulation     U nderground railroad     Stock increasing     The w riter's stand here     Underground railroad company     k indness o f F riend O badiah, the superintendent     conversation with the fugitives     Rev. Mrs. II. one of the conductors     H e r escape from the blood-hounds of Kentucky     Rebecca, Obadiah's c ompanion     Colored orphan asylum     Slave hunters all round     B lack Robert begging for the freedom of his wife     Missis" s ippi slave woman     B o w she escaped     Introduction to the f ugitives     Dialogue with them     Arrest of five fugitives and m urder of a c hild     T he inquest on the c hild     T he o bject o f t he habseas c orpus     The slave mother Margaret     The slave m other Margaret taken down south again     Slave case     c urious developments    The mail boat for Louisville     A r r i v a l t here.

L o u i s v i l l e     I t s position, locality, and institutions     Landing s cene     F inding a b oarding house     Louisville a large city     Has a g reat business aspect     Many eastern men here     Cassius M . droviers C lay a mong the Kentuckiaus     Slavery here     Negro

    R ev. Mr. K i n g     A n apostate m inister     Colored church     H eard a n egro sermon     Dialogue with black S a m     Cassius M . C lay's opinion of slavery     Kentucky chivalry     U . S. AustrioAmerican d espotism.

Passage to New Orleans     The Ohio     New A l b a n y     S a l t River     F irst e vening in the saloon     Slavery on one side and freedom o n the other     Get upon the shoals     Religious tracts     H a d s acred music on Sundays     Cairo and the Mississippi     Southerners aboard     Northerner going m erchant M emphis     Fugitive sold here d rowned     Vicksburg     to Texas     Presbyterian of A l a b a m a     N e w Y o r k e r     F u g i t i v e in irons     on the auction block     Casper church     Gamblers hung    

H auser     Chickasaw bluffs     Slave camp     Arkansas     Man Slave

CONTENTS. G rand G u l f     I r i s h m a n B aton Rouge     B a y o u drowned     N a t c h e z     R o d

vii River    

Placquemine     B a y o u L a Fouchie    

D onaldsonville     B r o a d Mississippi     Pass a large ship     Carrollton     F irst s ight of rotunda of the St. Charles     A forest of masts     A forest of s moke p ipes     Enter New Orleans.

N ew Orleans     Its ment     mixed

Levee     Its panoramic proper        

masses     T he

scenes     S ituation of the city     Its length     Levee embankOld s treets     P ublic Squares     Old city T hree municipalities     Its boat navigation     Its commerce

P ublic b uildings     De Soto     Character of New Orleans a century a go     Its character now     Algiers     Marine Bospital     Y ellow Fever     Cypress Grove Cemetery     Marks of the stroyer     Population     New L ouisiana s old to the United S tates     S ources of disease de    Orleans under the Spaniards    

R eign of Terror     Black Bob sent off to starve     Slave auction     H arry H i l l     M urder of stubborn B i l l     F ollow the gang to t heir quarters     E n t e r the y oung Quadroon     Sale s cene b etween J a c k and his large room     Sir H y e n a     The     of J a c k to a clergyman     Parting

wife     Anniversary of battle

B attle F ield     M ysteries of New Orleans     Southern amalgamation     S lave girls as bed companions     A father hires a white y oung man to marry his quadroon daughter     M a n sold his w hole family     Free colored people     Intelligent colored ladies     F andango ball     Seven slaves hung     Old man chained     o n his k n e e s     W o m a n m aster     Miss J ulia Iv., d eath at the whipped to death     B o b killed by his of Kentucky     W o m a n whipped to

stake g ave b irth to child at same t ime     Chain whipping     down whipping    

g ang of women     Pious slaveholding l a d i e s     W o m a n     S lave marriage     iron collar     Break S lave barracoons     Quadroons bought

for bed companions

H ouses of assignation     Low brothels     Kept mistresses.

P oor whites     Number of slaveholders     B e Bow     Maryland, V i r g i n i a a nd the District of Columbia     Non-slaveholding whites


CONTENTS.     H ow r egarded south     M . T raver     D istressing picture     W hite l a b o r     M r . Taylor's views     W m . Gregg, E s q .     W hite p opulation o f S outh Carolina     G ov. Hammond     N o m anufacturies South     L ow wages S outh     R ichmond Dispatch     I gnorance o f S outhern whites     S outhern Agriculture rude a nd s hiftl e s s     Poor whites are h unters     M r. Montgomery o n C otton     E migrants from slave to free states     W hite population o f free states d ouble to that o f slave states     E xtension o f a rea o f s lavery n o benefit to the s laves.

T he effects o f s lavery o n l abor     F ree labor v s. slave labor     C e n B U S o f 1850     S lavery stagnates p rogress     C ontrast     P e n n sylvania a nd V irginia     O hio and Kentucky     D e B ow's compendium     S lavery retards natural increase o f p opulation     B epreeiates value o f l and     W astes t he r esources o f a c ommunity        I n fifty years V irginia s unk four d egrees     O hio accumulates wealth     K entucky remains poor     N ine northern states h ave a t otal area o f o nly 134,556 s quare miles     T e n s outhern states a n a rea 42*7,979.

S outhern morality and ruffianism     B lood, blood, blood     F earful r evelations, & c.     B urning o f a h uman being     N egro burned to death     A n e ditor killed     D uel fought     S hooting o f R ees S lurry     F ather shot h is d aughter     M urder o f F r a n k H yatt     P . C. B uthell stabbed     B owie knife fight     M r. H a r ris b utchered     A son c ut his father's head open with a n axe    Brother m urdered h is sister     W ife s tabbed     F ive slaves hung     D uel i n N orth Carolina     L y n c h law     B r u t a l Murder     T . J ones killed b y his own son     A trocious Murder     N egro w oman killed b y her s on-in-law     D ouble murder     A M onster     B loody d e e d     D u e l fought b y two b oys     J o h n Casena killed b y h is wife     B loody fight v s. s outhern chivalry     M urder a nd n egro hanging     M a n a nd wife murdered b y a slave     H orrible t ragedy     M urder o f an o verseer     B urning o f a N egro     S lave whipped to death     S lave g irl m urdered b y h er mistress



    L ynch law in V irginia     D esperate affray     Murder in Memplus     F atal affair     Negro fight     Suieide of a slave mother a nd h er two children     Brutality of a slave g irl     A p lanter k illed b y his negro overseer     H o r r i d A ffair in Missouri     F . D embriski s hot     N egro killed by an Overseer     N egress m urdered her O rleans. Master     Duellist     B l o o d and rulfinism in New

S lavery and the Sabbath     Southern Sabbath desecration     Shocking to a New Englander     Sabbath in Charleston     Sabbath a h oliday     S abbath in New Orleans     Horse racing on Sunday     T heatres open Authorities sanction it     Washington Society B all     M asked Balls     G r a n d Balloon Ascension     P o n chartraiu b all room for white persons Sunday and Quadroons M ondays, &c.     A ssemblage o f lewd women     Prostitutes m asked     W omen a dmitted free     Masked wives and husbands     B ull F ight     B ull f ight described     Appearance in the r ing     C onsumptive g amester d ied in a cock pit     Sabbath working     P u b l i c Market.


N umber of s laves o wned

S lavery and Religion     Physical cruelties of slavery     Social evils     R eligious instructions of s laves     _ b y c l e r g y     V a l u a t i o n of this c leric.il h uman s t o c k     P a g a n Rome o utdone     Object of slave culture     Extent of slave culture     Slave privileges a mockery     Slave piety vs. auction block Albert Barns         S lave Missionary     Southern ecclessiastical report     Slaveholders piety     Preaching to s l a v e s     R e v . Slave L ooseness of Slave holding churches     Intemperance south     communion at Savannah     Slave religion     Butler's Island     B aptizing slaves     D r . Nelson     Synod of South Carolina     S ome s laves r eally pious.

S pirit o f slavery     Its influence upon 1* the slave holders     Influence o f institutions upon the people     S lavery a state o f war


CONTENTS.         Type of southern manners     S o u t h e r n politeness the polished     c overing of slavery     Aristocratic bearing of slaveholders     C ross his path and he is a tiger     Bully Brooks     r ich s outherners n ever hung    Southerners almost universally carry arms     Often s hoot e ach other     D r . Graham     Improvidence of southerners     S outhern profusion vs. generosity     Southern penuriousncss     S outherners anii-progressive     Southern idleness     Slaveholders lack energy     Slavery despots     S outherners ignorant     S outhern hospitality hollow hearted     Southern gambling     D runkenness     Colored gamblers     Tarty politics.

S outhern tourists versus slavery Apologists     Free states k nowledge o f slavery through northern tourists     Of pleasure whom are three Third, classes     F irst, 11 i nvalids     Second, takers    

A gents, Artists, &c.     Jlr. II

,     The writer's talk with Mr.

, after his return North     C lerical a pologists for slavery

    H is pay for it     His relation to author of South side view of s lavery     Southern hospitality a chain-gang plea     Fallacy o f s uch pleas     J ohn the Baptist     Alexander the tyrant     Chief J ustice Henderson     N . P. Rogers     S tage d river     T hompson     Judge Durells     Apologists of slavery George would'nt and

b e a slave     Epps, Lagree & Co.,     Slaves have feelings affections like other men.



S lavery in Free States     E cclesiastical and political slavery     Great O utrage     The letter of a clergyman respecting himself     Rev. T . B . McCormick     A m eeting     native Kentuckian minister Brown     of a C u m Indignation berland Presbyterian church     Thomas

$500 B ribe to an Indiana Sheriff     Under-ground of Kentucky     Said Rev. Mc-

r ailroad business a grave offence     U nchurched a minister for e ngaging in it     Gov. Powell Cormick n ot only expelled from the church, but driven out of his state b y the slave power     Quaker bottom Virginians cross over i nto Ohio and break up an an anti-slavery meeting     Clubs and axes u sed     Several quiet people wounded.



K ansas, its invasion     The


last chapter of her wrongs     Missouri

ruffians     Law and order men     Depredations by the law

o rder radians     Twelve pound Howitzer     Shrewdness of Mr. B uffum     F ree state l adies of Lawrence, patriotism of seventysix     Ladies carrying powder into Lawrence     Gen. Robinson's l aconic reply to a s ummons to surrender     Take them by instalments     M urder of Mr. Barber     F ranklin     M arshal Jones 700 armed     Sent into a Ruffian camp     Gov. Shannon         men in c a m p     D i s a r m i n g s t r a n g e r s     N o r t h e r n editor disWestern

M issourian lire     Abolitionists     Blue bellied Yankee     Gen. P omeroy attacked     Dialogue with the ruffians     Judge J o h n son lynched     Odd Fellowship     Rev. Gentleman g oes to K a n pas     Mobbed and sent d own the Mississippi on a raft     T arred a nd Feathered     Sacking of Lawrence     F ranklin B eginning of the end     Rein turn to Kansas     Mobbed by South Carolinians     Gen. T u t     d anger     The Cox h oax     Jefferson     yet

o n the bench     A n a r c h y and Revolution     Henry W a r d Beecher's rifles     $ 150,000 p lundered and destroyed at Lawrence J enkins     J effrey's Lecompte     Old revolutionary spirit A rrest of G. W . B r o w n     D r . Cutler     Mrs. B r o w n and Mrs. a live     Beecher's bibles     Record of Kansas ruffianism     Illegal

v oters     P rinting offices d estroyed     Murders     Unlawful arrests     P retended laws     I ncidents of the glorious victory     L etter from a grand J u r o r     N o e xcuse f or destroying Lawrence     Rapes     Stringfellow     M urder and in a s tore     H orses e xodus stolen     R e d F lag o f the pirates     Mr. C h a p i n     A ppeal of Mr. B r o w n Robberies     The s topped     United States t roops at Topeka     Pro-slavery men ordered to l eave the t erritory     V olunteers for Kansas.

T H E a uthor i s a c lergyman o f one of the E vangelical N orthern Churches. Being somewhat disabled b y t wenty years' pulpit labor, h e s ought t he s outhern c limate i n w hich t o recuperate h is w asted energies. T o accomplish which h e engaged i n s everal light agencies leading h i m through portions o f e leven slave states, keeping h i m south nearly three years. U n l i k e h is b rother tourist, author o f S O U T H S I D E
"VIEW O P S L A V E R Y , " h e was a colonizationist, and

o ccupied strong pro-slavery grounds previous t o his s outhern tour. Indeed, t o t hat degree d i d he c arry h is p ro-slavery sentiments, that many worthy members o f h is c hurch were deeply grieved i n consequence thereof, while others for the same reason declared h i m u nworthy to p reach the g ospel. E ntertaining these opinions, he s tarted south, a nd p ublicly p roclaimed them immediately o n a rriving at C harleston, S . C. H e h ad not been long there, however, before h is c onvictions o n the subject became g reatly modified, b y m atter o f fact occurrences which L I F E I N T H E S O U T H f orced upon h is o bservations.



H a v i n g been solicited b y a n orthern editor to become a w eekly contributor to his paper, h e c omplied, a nd w rote some s ixty numbers, which appeared i n his c olumns under t he c aption o f " S O U T H E R N CORRESP O N D E N T " a nd over the s ignature o f " A R G U S . "

O n a rriving n orth from N e w Orleans, through the a dvice o f s everal clerical friends, t he a uthor was i n duced to t hrow the whole into b ook f orm and give i t to the public. I n a ccomplishing this design, the numhave been r ebers constituting said correspondence

duced to chapters w ith a n a ddition o f e ight new ones, a ll c arefully revised, thus embracing nearly twice the a mount o f r eading matter contained i n the o riginal n umbers. A few selections have been made from the

S L A V E R Y , f rom the S L A V E

t he mouth o f two or three witnesses every word m ay be established. T he author would b eg to .assure a l l those who may h onor his b ook w ith a p erusal, that they s hall not have been indulging i n fictions; but i n facts, i n r ealities, i n h istory, w ritten o ut i n blood a nd stereotyped w ith tears a nd groans. T hose o f his s outhern friends into whose h ands i t m ay chance to f all, h e w ould assure that h e t akes pleasure i n acknowledging their k i n d attentions to h i m



w hile i n their midst, andrfurtkermore, that no personal a nimosity o r i l l t reatment from any person of persons i n the slave-holding states has influenced his pen i n the least. W ere the plan of this work to allow it, many things m ight be said in favor of southerners and the south, w hich i n these pages w ould appear i ll-timed a nd out o f place. This ground being occupied by S O U T H S I D E V I E W E R S a nd Northern Apologists, i t is not d eemed meet t hat any intrusion should be made upon it. A n d finally, i n as much as the author lays no special churn to l iterary m erit, he would request his readers to be indulgent i n their c riticisms, a nd also to make a l . lowance for the circumstances of time, place, and i l l h ealth o f the author while bringing out the
A vork

; all

of which presented obstacles to be o vercome the reader
k n o w s n ot of.

T H E a bility o f nations for self-government, we need s carcely state, is one of the great questions of the nineteenth century. The frequent and stormy discussions o f this subject are prompted by events which follow each other i n such rapid and awful succession as to resemble the tragic scenes o f some c omplicated drama. I n l ooking at the old world, we find governments w hich h ad subsisted undisturbed through long, long c enturies of despotism, now fallen into a state of decrepitude; and i n some instances, their foundations h ave been d estroyed by convulsions, requiring but a s ingle hour comparatively to effect t heir overthrow. C ircumstances of such a character are fearfully ominous to statesmen of the school of Montesquieu, Guizot, a nd M etternich w ho have elaborated upon the philosophy of Monarchy, Republics, and Revolutions, who s agely maintain that republican institutions are only adapted to p oor a nd t hinly i nhabited countries, and that, as the United States of A m e r i c a become r ich a nd p opulous, d emocracy w i l l d ie out and be superceded b y aristocracy and monarchy. To t his, i t is only necessary to remark, that the States of Massachusetts, C onnecticut, and Rhode Island, portions of the U n i o n the wealthiest and most thickly populated,   portions c ompared w ith w hich few districts of Europe stand



v ery greatly ahead, are, at the same t ime, the most t horoughly democratic; having grown so just i n pro. p ortion as wealth has increased, and population m ultiplied   a p henomenon b y no means p eculiar to them, b ut one of which the operation may be traced i n all t he free States of the American U n i o n . T o this fair prospect, h owever, e very freeman is f orced to admit a painful drawback, viz : the unfortunate introduction of A F R I C A N S L A V E R Y . A t first a m ere excrescence u pon the original plan, it has grown i n s everal of the Southern States, both new and old, u ntil i t has become t he most m arked feature and predominating influence i n their social system; introducing into that portion of the American Union, and i ndeed into the administration of the national government, a strange and most i ncongruous mixture of the r epublican system of equal rights, backed by the metaphysical t heory of the natural equality of man, with t he miserable spirit of caste a nd hereditary aristocracy o f birth and race   a state of s ociety e ngendering a l l t hat spirit of c ontempt f or manual labor ; all that spirit o f plunder and domineering insolence and cruelty w hich distinguished the haughty republics of a ntiquity, w ithout their taste, eloquence, a nd artistical a nd warlike renown; and at the same t ime all the h uckstering trickery, sharpness and meanness o f modern m unicipal system, without its equality, industry, w ealth and comfort. N o r can any man yet t ell w hat, as to the entire American Union, the result is to be of t his most d iscordant and incongruous mixture. T he following fact is well known by every histori-



c al student, v i z ; that i n all nations i n which republican government has either not been t ried, o r has u ltimately been overthrown, there has been some r igorous organization of the privileged part which has p roved too strong for the liberty of the whole. Our ancestors, who drew up the Federal C onstitution, w ere n ot only great and wise men, but also w e l l read i n p olitical h istory, and when they inquired for the antagonists t o f reedom against which it would be prudent t o erect safe-guards, they found two to be largely treated of i n the books, v i z : an order of priesthood, a nd a n order of hereditary nobles. Thus instructed, t hey t ook g ood care to provide that no t itle o f " nobility s hall be granted by the U n i t e d States," [Constitution, A r t . 1,    9,] and that Congress " shall m ake no law r especting an establishment of r eligion," [ Amendments, A r t . I.] Unfortunatelj'- for us, however, history g ave t hem no warning i n respect to the subversion of free i nstitutions b y an aristocracy constituted and organized o n the basis of ownership of slaves. Such a revolution was without precedent, and against it accordingly t hey failed t o set up any express constitutional defence. A s a result, A ve are noAV, to s ay the least, i n the last stage of a vigorous attempt at a revolution of that k ind. T he slave-holding oligarchy of these U n i t e d States, c onsisting a ccording to the late census of but three hundred thousand i n a population of twenty-five millions, ( while others on apparently g ood g rounds, believe them to amount to not more than one-third that number,) is a iming to confirm and consolidate beyond recall, that



c ontrol over the government of the country, which, f rom an early period, has been passing more and more r apidly i nto its hands. Hence the Reign of Terror n ow desecrating w ith b lood the v irgin s oil of Kansas, a nd the rattle of chains amid the strongholds of freedom at the north, as the captured fugitive is forced b ack into perpetual bondage b y the minions of this despicable oligarchy. Hence the cruel infanticide by f ugitive slave mothers i n northern cities, and the i m prisonment of northern freemen by south-side northern j udges i n northern prisons. There is a tremendous issue to be met i n this country between the descendants o f its revolutionary sires, between the north and the s outh, i n short between republicanism and despotism; a nd the nations of the world are interested sjjectators of the approaching contest. The struggle has a lready commenced, the combatants are i n the field, a nd i t is i n v ain w e at the north cry out that the contest is unseasonable and premature. A d m i t that over zealous and fanatical haste may have precipitated a s truggle which we would gladly have deferred, and, s lumbering out our own time i n quiet, have thrust upon t he days of our children. N o matter. There is no b locking the wheels of destiny i n this t h i n g ; we cannot have our w ay. The trumpet has sounded, and o pposing forces are wheeling into position on the gory f ield. " W e may cry peace, peace, b ut there is no peace." F ight we must, upon one side or the other. A s a bove r emarked, the contest is already begun, and w ill soon become g eneral. I n s uch a struggle it is clearly seen there can be no



n eutrality, a nd it is time to be choosing under what b anner we w i l l m arshal ourselves: whether the ensign o f freedom, or the dark flag of s l a v e y , drenched i n the blood' of murdered bondmen. Republicanism, d emocracy, freedom, & c , are meaning terms i n the N orth, p erfectly familiar to all classes ; a l l have a correct knowledge of their import, or suppose t hey have. B ut despotism, southern despotism, or the despotism o f the slave states, is a thing known at the N o r t h o nly by name, and i n general. Few have seen it and g azed upon it, face to face, i n its own blood-stained l and o f tears and groans; fewer s till h ave studied i t ; w hile the great mass are totally ignorant of its real d ebasing character. B ut w hat is southern despotism, or American s lavery, this curse and incubus of our common country, t his stench i n the nostrils of C hristendom, a nd by-word o f reproach among the heathen? S outhern s lavery can, probably, be best d efined by i ts o wn statute b ook. A t least, we s hall attempt to show it up in this light first, a nd then illustrate by our p ersonal observations made i n eleven slave states. S laveholders cannot, surely, complain of this mode o f t reating i t   cannot complain that the system should be taken to be the very thing which the law of the s lavcholding states have declared it to be, laws framed b y themselves for the very purpose of defending and p rotecting their claims. N o laws were ever framed b y a iry people for the sole p urpose of restraining specific a nd enumerated crimes, unless the instances of s uch crimes had become a ggravated and general



a mong them. The laws of the slave states, therefore, w hich f ix the condition of slavery, for the most part d escribe that condition. A n d even the laws made to r estrain i ts cruelties, bear testimony to their existence. F o r a n i llustration, u nder the item last mentioned: W h e n the laws of South Carolina gravely forbid the masters, under a petty pecuniary penalty, to " cut out the tongues, put out the eyes, or cruelly scald, burn o r deprive any slave of any limb, or murder," and w hen they specify other enormities too gross for the p ublic eye, they proclaim to the world the fac