xt7f7m040r53 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7f7m040r53/data/mets.xml Alabama Alabama Museum of Natural History 1948 Other titles include: Alabama Museum of Natural History museum paper, Geological Survey of Alabama, Museum of the Geological Survey of Alabama. Other creators include: United States. Work Projects Administration, Geological Survey of Alabama, Tennessee Valley Authority. Issues for 1, 3 carry no series numbering. No. 2 also as Education papers no. 1. UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries. Call number  AS36 .A2. journals  English University, Ala. : Alabama Museum of Natural History, 1910-1960 This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Alabama Works Progress Administration Publications Museum Paper, no. 23, 1948 - including "The Flint River Site Ma 48" by Wm. S. Webb and David L. DeJarnette text Museum Paper, no. 23, 1948 - including "The Flint River Site Ma 48" by Wm. S. Webb and David L. DeJarnette 1948 2015 true xt7f7m040r53 section xt7f7m040r53   · L   fé
    ,  
3;%:;-iggféi, ;‘=;a5 * I  
"`  A E
· G3! '.:`·=·—* 'L: .
Q;   ?;;g;2;·   ge  z
  B B E1 LU B u::AL B u RVBY 1:1 F ALABAMA ;
L“¤i`;},,   WALTER B. JDNE5, STATE GEIZILDGIST 5
=;;ag§~§‘   :
 A.     :
;,.Z·!"?{‘f;?'   <$'*lf§/¤; ‘- E
     
i     =
M eww  .;,c:?;¤-  I
¥· ·_E     Z
Y   5 iéillip :
     
       
»,   M u B B L1 M PA »=· B R 2 B i
  ALABAMA MUSEUM ur- NATURAL 1-MBTD RY  
‘ i,,-Je  *·#=i»  -
l   Y
;   2
`* ',€?Y`€?饷· SFU:  ~
l   B‘L*   »i
  BLA,   E FLINT RIVER SITE, MA¤4B E
`      Hf} ?
l ,   , E
1   P
    ¥
A   Y i
"   Wm. S. WEBB •
A · ff       . §
I   5»  and 2
V   VIA 1`.,Y· .
  .  ’ :-Q  DAVID L. DeJARNETTE ;
. V i’§*9J;§$ f I =
l .~»;;¤=.` W   A .4
T ¤:`i1?l" #  · a·v `
; l :_   i
;i_ iiiiééjéw  E
~ ‘ &;=;£&+~M ih =  =
=      v~   5
<  gw, .$URVEk E
’>   W ey- Ox: 5
.i   $’ W v ‘
1 _#,w¥§{,"   lil"  é, (  
r R·.`   —· ‘ `€= E
  3 w ’£ §
  .;;»¢,é· •—? § r F- S
  B — ’ ` - "7 '
  <*g,6_  $9 $
' · , " >¤ “'~. $5 . •
  Q   ww ' ax.; ·   {
.  ·Y> l
,  r' A N §
` _;  , E
 { 3  A , _;   
  $3{"Y§;* pa1‘ed with the Assistance of the VVOrk Projects Adm1n1strat10u T
‘  1-.:;    . ·
  cl with the Cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authomty §
  Q
  UNIVERSITY, ALABAMA 3
  1948 e
:;§K’· Y•¥:;$·¤:—i'.l{*`?§Y·Z? :
7  z. -   ¢;;<;@§:§§§ ;g?;Qf :·
   
  ‘I‘’ 7 ,0:  M
¤#$f··:`   ·g gg.   =¤

 . ‘i
g .
  i
‘       .. .,.. , _ U . vm) > _! X ""
  L  ¤.=i=  `s W
`J      V?   ``»° Q   {Q} Q-   Y?  Ti*¢iZ¥{`
‘ i ._

 *::-..·" .
I
i
,
Z
J
,,,,4,. In ` `— *1 WALKERPRINTING CO. L
    ; ` Printing and Stationers »
_ MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA A
E

 I I’\" /\ MADISON COUNTY
.E!*”E?E¥iI V I
7 ··e{\/\ eg _  
IAILXBXMAVD KAVIO   I
I WHITEBURG BRIDGE I
  \\\
/%%` QL \ ax
/ ’   \ \ 7
/,//   TAYLOFISVILLE Q
/ M6 AIP
\ / //(V
\ E
. \ ,LU \ I ( `
\ \_// A   Q
  6* M. 4
¢-¤:;.m¤:w··4·::q   *9 O ·
R wx \\g"~ii;;; **$'F:I\$`•L$x•\WI»9;n\:
\\‘  
I SCALE
  MILES `
\ A v¤LL¤·;¤ mw NNDRGAN COUNTY \ IVIA-xr\;>i’1x—I;I__ pupmx · } .
E   FE   I

 GEDLCIGICAL SURVEY DF ALABAMA '
WALTER B. JEINE5, STATE GE¤1.¤G¤sT l
5 Musaum PAPER za  
3 ALABAMA Museum mr NATURAL »—usT¤PY Q
J E
{ P
5 THE FLINT RIVER SITE, MAD-4B 5
¤ E
I :
2 E
“ BY  
\Vm. 5. WEBB  
g .
/ and  
DAVID L. DeJARNETTE  
>· I 1
2 - A _ A
1 IV \ I — Q
C I ‘ "  
5 E %
nc .5\1RVE)e I
nz v\· gin Ox~ ;
Q $’ Q *7 <
/‘ (J ( :
2 S Y, 2
G l > 2
DJ T I z :
,, Q i z~ 2
; A rv {
Q @6, A 4 {{,\’ I2
* Y   M,.}   &  
E W" E
D J I
§ 5 Q
I0 J Q  
Prepared with the .—\ssistance of the \\'(Il`l{ l)l`O_lUL‘t$ ,-\ ‘

 16 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ALABAMA
deeper prepottery zones. Without exception, the majoi type) I _
of tempering material in order from the bottom upwz id gy. °m}Othm$
invariably fiber temper, grit temper, and shell temper Irl. blmals wu
easily demonstrated that in shell mounds, fiber tempered stm: f?r°mt_p€°]
occurs first, but always in small quantities. This sugge> s an fied with t_
while it was the first used, it may have been received ly ig. t1m€S‘ W1
shell mound dwellers as an article of trade. Its app iiuir. t°,gr0W m
marks the beginning of the time period "Pottery 1," aw il my falls to mv
indicate contact with other peoples who were not shell incur;
dwellers. Pottery (1) time period ends with the intro lucliqr ’ There
of grit tempered pottery. Ological SC;
stratigrapk
  <2> §.$;<;..f;.
How long fiber tempered pottery was in use befe ·e gf pressjon Oi
tempered ware was introduced is not determinable, but ‘ btw} pesited, Oi.
2" period began with the introduction of grit tempered utter; time pgyjod
After the first appearance of grit tempered pottery, tht e wer: the time T2
I quickly developed many and varied forms of vessels, ai lied interval ca:
, niques of surface finish, and the amount of pottery in usecf setting upt
shell mounds became relatively great, if one may judgr by ti diagnostic ·
number of sherds in the middens. The quantity, and ve ict}? band was d
grit tempered ware in the pottery zones seems to indie ie tit observablel
it was made, used, broken and discarded on the shell I idderz: exist in m;
This is probably the first pottery surely made by the uilclei briefly tabu
of shell middens. In "Pottery 2" time period, the cultu il CUP i ‘
plex corresponds to what is elsewhere sometimes desig lied  Archa. ,
. . . . . , IC (1
Woodland. This was an important manifestation in t ne iz *
evidences of it are widely spread over the Southeastern I` S.
Archaic (2)
Pottery (3) I
. . . . . . _ Archaic (3)
This period begins with the introduction of shell 1 mper:
pottery into the very top layer of shell midden where i occur:
i if at all. Complete vessels of such pottery are found for  Pottery (I)
` first time in quantity, accompanying burials in shell nouiri
The b1`Ok€ll· sherds of shell tempered pottery are relati 9lY   Pottery (2)
in number in the midden debris. Shell tempered potter Y $*9*; ,
~ Clklfly HOf to YIEIVQ been made by the dwellers gn the shell `llflilflii if
V but its occurence seems to be the result of the buriz. off P°tt€TY (3)
l dead; of a people who did not live on the middens but wb·F*
. sired that their dead be accompanied by mortuary vessel ·- TV
people, beside using the middens for cemeteries, cont1‘iblN€d lit
. p thy; 

 _ THE FLINT RIVER SITE 17  
  or nothing to the increase of the midden depth. These extended `P
'`nh burials with pottery accompanyment, definitely belong to a dif- ;
  ferent people from the shell mound folk. They are easily identi-  
{Q fied with the so-called Middle Mississippi occupancy of prehistoric  
Q1 times. With the advent of these people, the shell middens ceased  
`f' to grow in depth, and their archaeological record from then on 1
  fails to reveal additional stratigraphy. g
1;;  
V There has, thus, been set up an arbitrary six step chron-  
ological scale for the purpose of relating, in time, the various  
stratigraphic levels of the many shell middens on the Tennessee Q
River. It is quite impossible to determine the length of time  
involved in the individual time bands. One may gain an im- §
  pression of the passage of time by the amount of debris de-  
lil posited, or the change in material content of strata from one E
it time period to another, but since there is no way of measuring  
Fi the time rates of these changes, the actual length of any time g
l' interval cannot be known. It should be remembered that in  
if setting up this chronological scale no attempt was made to assign
r» diagnostic traits to any horizon. The beginning of each time
{ band was defined in terms of objective criteria which are easily  
J: observable by excavation, and have been repeatedly discovered to  
; exist in many sites. These time bands or horizons may be §
i briefly tabulated as follows: {
  Archaic (1) From the earliest occupancy of the shell middens on  
Tennessee River to Archaic (2) times.  
Archaic (2) Begins with the introduction of worked flint in the  
— . middens to Archaic (3) times.  
_ Archaic (3) Beginning with the introduction of sandstone and  
_ steatite vessels to Pottery (1) times.  
Pottery (1) Beginning with the introduction of fiber tempered  
~ pottery to Pottery (2) times.  
P0tl?€TY (2) Beginning with the introduction of grit tempered  
I . pottery to Pottery (3) times.
V P0tt€1`Y (3) Beginning with the introduction of shell tempered  
; pottery to the Historic Contact Period.   ,
_ i

 i
18 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ALABAMA · if
I _ Archa
CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH TIME ZONE
Flin
A Having defined objectively these six time bands, whi li my Flin
stitute a series of time intervals of unknown duration ( -ingi_, I Flin
~ short) through which the shell mound people have dvelope al
their complex cultural manifestation, it is necessary to ( insilie ‘
, the cultural content of each time band separately. In < der: Han
, understand any one of these periods or stages of devel pnieiit Bell
A one must know its material culture, i. e., the associated a lgifact
and also the habits and customs of the people of the p ind  Clay
revealed by excavation. Only by evaluating the total ulnnrg ` Ant]
content of each time zone separately can one appreciate lie lo:. ·
road traveled by these people in reaching their final ultuis » ATU
manifestation. In the following tabulation there is list il sony I ’ a“
of the outstanding observable traits in each time zone The- Crm
traits are not diagnostic of the zone in which found si; ·e the _
I are frequently found in diminishing numbers in later tin = zone ROW
Obviously the trait list for each zone is not complete, no zttem§‘ " Full,
has been made to make it so, the immediately purpo. ; bell. _
merely to point out outstanding trait associations in e: li tit EXW
band. After further study it is hoped that these trait istslll _ Gm`,
each time zone can be made reasonably complete. D
Og
f.
Archaic (I)
. . . . A Archail
Bone projectile points (double pointed), abundant
_ . Flint
Split bone awls, abundant A
. ntle
Antler section with transverse hole (shaft SlZ1'2lJ;‘llt€ll€.
g Antle
Fire pits Stone
{ Absence of worked flint, but abundant cut and W0< —<€