xt7fbg2h8856 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7fbg2h8856/data/mets.xml The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc. 1989 bulletins  English The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Frontier Nursing Service Quarterly Bulletins Frontier Nursing Service Quarterly Bulletin, Vol. 65, No. 1, Summer 1989 text Frontier Nursing Service Quarterly Bulletin, Vol. 65, No. 1, Summer 1989 1989 2014 true xt7fbg2h8856 section xt7fbg2h8856 , , A   `
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 US ISSN 0016-2116
Table of Contents
CNEP - A Pilot Community-Based Nurse-Midwifery
Education Program -by Kitty Ernst 1 ,
Mrs. Jefferson Patters0n's FNS Photographs to be Exhibited 5  
Reflections on a Friend -by Kate Ireland, David and Sharon Hatfield 6 ,
Hello! From the New Editor -by Angela Todd 9 i"
A Letter from Two "Senior" Couriers -by Norma Johnson and June Kohl 10
Frontier School Graduates 99th Class 12  
FNS Couriers Assist Local Literacy Program -by Jane Schneider 14  
Beyond the Mountains -by Deanna Severance 18  
Field Notes -by Cari Michaels 20 I
Courier News -by Cari Michaels 23 1
In Memoriam —by Ruth Morgan 24  
Memorial Gifts -by Ruth Morgan 26  
Report of the Frontier Nursing Service Annual Meeting 28 i_
for the Fiscal Year May 1, 1988 to April 30, 1989 31-50 i
Urgent Needs 51 1
COVER: CNEP student, Lisa Janssen, takes a "leap of faith" as she and her  
fellow class-mates experience"rock-repellin g" during the pro gram's orientation weekend ,
at Unami Creek, PA.  
Photo Credit: Pictures on page 21 were provided courtesy of the Leslie County News, Hyden, KY. l
Us ISSN 0016-2116
Published at the end ofeaeh quarter by the Frontier Nursing Service, Inc. 1
wanacm, xemueiry 41775
Subscription Price $5.00 a Year (
Eutmrw omu, vvmuow, Kmnucky 41775
Second-class postage paid at Wendovcr, Ky. 41775 and at additional mailing offices.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Frontier Nursing Service, Wendover, Ky. 41775.
Copyright 1986, Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.

A Pilot Community-Based
Nurse-Midwifery Education Program
Kitty Ernst, a well-known person in the nurse—midwg'ery field,
earned her C ertdicate in N urse-M idwhfery in 1951 from the Fron-
  tier Graduate School of M idwnfery ( as it was then known), and her
i Master of Public Health degree in 1 959 from Columbia University.
§ Mrs. Ernst is currently Director of the National Association of
l C hildbearing Centers located in Pennsylvania and recently under-
took Directorship ofthe new Community—Based Nurse-Midwgfery
Education Program.
.· _/_, ~_ i_       t Once again the Frontier Nursing Service
i r  Y * ~   "    g ’   (FNS) has taken abold leap totryto meet
L   H X ,   I  ‘    _;  the needs of underserved women and
n  P i-     f_; r   ‘‘irt\` gg families. The idea for a community-
Q:. `           A    é  based program of education came from
  [ L .‘  ..  W j*__ .t;_' `    I  ·  its · ¥,; lh€ hunch that there were hundreds,
 __ 4 ;.       ‘j ‘¥=_,; maybe thousands, of qualified nurses in
.$ lt;   ,   . communities across America who
     ·t \e wanted to be nurse-midwives. These
*5 `i·» I nurses would attend an educational pro-
MI D      6, gram if they didn’thave to leave theirjobs
l UR C —;_ T [ and families. One simple paragraph an-
!   L B U   Q ` ‘ nouncing the Community—Based Nurse-
—V _  .w   ’ ' Midwifery Education Program (CNEP)
Q;.}  C   °   in The Childbirth Graphics Ltd., cata-
. F gé j ‘ A t ....r  "   logue proved that hunch to be right. The
  e   —   excitement that has rippled through the
  * ii?.   . nursing and medical communities across
Student! Lisa Janssgrfs pshm gpm,- thenation since the firstannouncementof
mizes the spirit of the program. the Pfogmm is withvut Dmccdcm in my
* 35 ears as a nurse-midwife.
l I only wish all of the FNS Board mlémbers, trustees, and city committees
could hear some of the comments from the more than 700 nurses who have
called in for information and applications over the past six months. They say, "I
can’t believe that you are doing this. Is it really true that I can study to be a
midwife in my own community? I don’t have to leave my husband and
children?"..."All my life I have wanted to be a nurse-midwife butl have kids and
the family depends on my working." Also, some overworked physicians re-
sponded, "This is great. I have been trying to hire a nurse-midwife for over a year.

My practice is over 70% Medicaid. What do I have to do?"... "Well, I have to
tell you thatlnever thoughtl would see the day when I’dbe looking fora midwife I
but here I am. I think that midwives are the future and I have a little gal here who  
wants to go into your program. Is this the same nursing service in the Kentucky
mountains? Well, I’ll be damed."
Yes, Frontier Nursing Service is helping to pioneer a new program for ’
the education of nurse—midwives. The program is a joint effort of four leaders g,.
in the development of innovative services and education: the Maternity Center  
Association (MCA) in New York; the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing ,
(FPB) Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland; the National Association   ,
of Childbearing Centers (N ACC) in Perkiomenville, Pennsylvania, and the Q
Frontier Nursing Service (FNS). Planning began about five years ago when it l
became clear thatthe numbers of nurse-midwives needed to be expanded to meet  
the growing demand for their services in birth centers as well as hospitals and  °
clinics for underserved women and families. It is estimated today that there are  S
35 positions to be filled by each new graduate. Mary Breckinridge would be  r
pleased. All the FNS city committees, trustees, and board members should be *·
proud. Because of their years of support for the nursing model pioneered at FNS ,
that model for care is being sought to solve some of the major problems relating I
to access and availability of services in health care delivery that we face as a
nation. A standing ovation for all of you!  
Two critical prerequisites had to be met for the CNEP program to start.
The first was the affiliation between Case Western Reserve University and I
Frontier Nursing Service negotiated by Kate Ireland, FNS National Chairman, A
Ruth Beeman, former Dean of the Frontier School of Midwifery and Family t
Nursing (FSMFN), and Joyce Fitzpatrick, Dean of the Frances Payne Bolton I
School of Nursing. It somehow seems appropriate that these two institutions  
would come together to address such crises in matemity care as the reduction in
availability services due to physicians leaving the practice of obstetrics, and the ,
inability of hospitals to meet growing costs. You may recall that Frances Payne I
Bolton sponsored the Bolton Act which enabled thousands of young women to ‘
enter nursing to address the nursing care crisis during World War II. The second 4
prerequisite was approval by the American College of Nurse—Midwives
(ACNM) obtained by Ruth Beeman before she stepped down from the first
endowed Chair of Midwifery, the Mary Breckinridge Chair, and Deanship of i
Fsrvn=N.  ‘
Two grants were awarded by the Pew Memorial Trust to the MCA , first  J
to adjust the curriculum for off—campus study and second, to locate and imple- (
mentthe program. The CNEP center was first located in Philadelphia with a plan
to use the Frontier Nursing Associates practice for part of the clinical training
site. When that didn’t work out as planned, the program was moved in October,

1988, to Perkiomenville, PA. Experienced faculty were selected and began to
meet weekly the following January to get the program up and running. By the
end of April, thirty-five highly qualified nurses had put forth the effort to
complete the requirements for admission and of these sixteen were selected for
the first group.
N An important need of an off-campus education program is to be able to
ii. bond the students to one another and to the faculty; to provide them with a student
· identity and faculty support. To accomplish this two experts from Adventure
Education who had training and experience in the Outward Bound School were
1. hired. They planned an orientation weekend, "Midwifery Bound," which was
i held in a camp lodge, a simple log structure not unlike the buildin gs at Wendover,
; on the Unami Creek in Eastem Pennsylvania. We arranged to have the students
picked up at the airport in a big yellow school bus and they were each given a
 ‘ bright blue sweatshirt and school bag imprinted with, "CNEP - I’m Midwifery
i Bound with the Frontier Nursing Service, Frances Payne Bolton School of
F Nursing, Matemity Center Association, and the National Association of Child-
` bearing Centers." We had a collage of photographs of Wendover, showed the
, video "Forgotten Frontier" and, quite on their own, the Adventure Education
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r' Students and faculty of the CNEP program pose on the
__ steps of the camp lodge during their orientation week-
7 end.
instructors selected passages from Wide Neighborhoods for readings before
meals. The students were oriented to the program, met with their faculty
advisors, slept in camp bunk beds, and set-up and cleaned up before and after
meals. They also experienced adventures such as rock repelling (jumping
backwards off a cliff while wearing a support harness) and quiet walks in the

woods. Words are inadequate to describe the "building of a community" that
occurred. Students described it as "a magical weekend"... "I thinkl finally under-
stand sisterhood"... "Most supportive and honest group I have ever been with."
The needed bonds were formed.
Now we are into the hard part of the program - trying to keep ahead of I
the students. CNEP is divided into six levels: Level l and 2 is the theoretical ,
foundation for clinical practice. It is done at home while the student continues f
     .r_   ..     ·  .
.   3,. ,  f    ~    ( t. X  
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Susan Stapleton (left) Education Coordinator and Kitty Ernst .
(center) Director of the CNEP program, confer with Adventure .
Education consultant Rosie Ernst (right). S
her employment and/or care of her family. Level 3 is an intensive 2 weeks of I
seminars and beginning skills development at the CNEP center in Perkiomen- T
ville. Levels 4 and 5 are spent developing clinical practice skills with the nurse-
midwives in service in the student’s community. Level 6 is the summary a
evaluation and examination in Perkiomenville. `
I believe that the program has great potential for preparing nurse-  
midwives to care for women and childbearing families. The nurse-midwives in I ,
practice who have signed on to be the clinical preceptors are enthusiastic. For
example, the nurse-midwives at the Indian Health Service in Phoenix, Arizona,
see it as a program for training Native American nurses who are reluctant to _ ·
relocate for their education. Hospital administrators see it as a way to educate .,
the nurses that are indigenous to the community and more apt to remain in the —
community on the hospital staff. All practitioners see it as a way to hand pick
their future staff and groom them for service.
The faculty is enthusiastic, the students are enthusiastic, and the nurses
across America are still calling in the rate of 100 a month. There will be
challenging times ahead but I am confident we have a winner.
- Kitty Ernst

Mrs. Jefferson Patterson‘s
FNS Photographs to be Exhibited
Frontier Nursing Service’s Honorary National Chairman, Mrs. Jefferson Patter-
son will have some 40 b/w photographs displayed at the Museum of Women in
If the Arts, Washington, D.C., September 19 through November 26, 1989. The
i exhibition entitled, "Mary Marvin Patterson: Photographs of the Frontier
_ Nursing Sewice," will show pictures of Frontier Nursing Service (FNS) nurses
` and their patients taken in 1930.
A It was at the request of her cousin, Mary Breckinrid ge, that Mrs. Patterson
studied 35mm photography in New York so she could document through
photographs and motion pictures the operations and activities of the Frontier
Nursing Service during 1930. She made three visits to eastem Kentucky and
rode over 600 miles on horseback, with camera and lighting, recording events
, in the everyday life of the nurse-midwives. In addition to the many wonderful
photographs, Mrs. Patterson also made the famous FNS documentary, "The
K. Forgotten Frontier," a copy of which is housed at the Smithsonian Institute in
‘ Washington, D.C.
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Mrs. Jefferson Patterson poses in front of a previous exhibition of her works.

Reflections on a Friend,.
Eddie J. Moore
1921 - 1989
The reality that Eddie J. has so tragically and unexpectedly gone from us is hard (
to believe, or accept. Although he was killed on June 30th--only a few days after l
our 64th annual meeting——there still remains the warmth of his friendship, the joy i
of his humor and a feeling of gratitude for his many acts of kindness to help our ‘
community. He was a true friend ofthe F rontierN ursing Service and was always ’
there when we needed him — in a crisis or just to help with simple everyday prob- I
lems. He served on the Frontier Nursing Service (FNS) Board of Governors g
‘ since 1970, and, as an active board member, voiced deep concern for the health ,
care crisis faced by Leslie County, Kentucky, as well as the nation. He devoted  S
considerable time and resources to FNS, and much of his personal energy went
toward strengthening our special "Friends Fund," begun many years ago by an  I
anonymous donor. Dividends from this fund help pay for indigent health care. ’
In rememberance of Eddie J., we have dedicated this fund in his memory. }
Helping neighbors was always one of Eddie J .’s missions. May this fund be a  ·
living memorial to his love for, and service to, his community. r
- Kate Ireland { 
National Chairman i
I first met Eddie J. Moore in March, 1982, when I was interviewing for the  
position of Director of the Frontier Nursing Service (FNS). Over the next seven  I
years, my association with him, professionally and personally, developed into  
one of respect and friendship. His keen business sense and knowledge of local U
personalities and issues were helpful to me and the organization. Eddie J. and .
his wife Cloma’ s openhess to Sharon and me made us feel welcome and accepted
into our new community. Through their generous hospitality we met most of the e
folks who became our friends and who remain very important to us.  I
Lunch at the Appalachian Motel with Eddie J. and the other "regulars" E
was almost a daily ritual where conversation went from friendly banter to
attempts at serious discussion and usually reverted to lighthearted topics, jokes
and local issues. Wednesday night’s "on the hill" for delicious cook-outs and
friendly poker games hold very special memories for me. It was here I had my

firsttaste of steamed oysters, fried   _ '   %   I I gr  
squirrel and rabbit. Out of this I  V,  ..   ._ j  v~-   *    
camaraderie Eddie J. peaked my     _ ;      \_  
interest in fishing. He taught me   .    N    L    ‘’'          VV if
its joys at Lake Cumberland in   »      V  yzya , VV dy  
Kentucky and Lake Marion in  i r      ,    
I Florida. Eddie and I often lished ti i j  j jj? _V V= , V     ,   `,.§,» 
alone and, for me, those were the t,.      A   V   l.._ 5      I 
bestof times. We talked for hours, I I       .    
I sharing our thoughts about every-     __h_ V, V   _,,_    
* thing from FNS business to his- e I L-   f‘   
tory, theology and travel, ’ t   t·ii   ·.»=  ;  ..·.V  
I can hear his special way ~  
I of laughing - a rapid "heh—heh- .4 , V,,,_
I heh" — and his particular emission   VV .,  V,
of "heh-@h_" (accent on the last 'l``“i V   , 
- heh) whenever he had a nibble A .  4 
. and pulled hard on his fishing rod L    `
t to set the hook. Shortly before I _   l
leftFNS,EddieJ.hadafish—fry at V V I  V V   t`V’   Q
{ his home and on that occasion he   nlfnl       ,   nfnfi
presented me with my very own °“   `''li  
 V fishing rod and reel. This touched me deeply. He also gave me a fillet knife for
"my woman" (wife Sharon) so she could clean the fish I would be catching when
5 I retired to Utah. He knew full well that my feminist wife Sharon took a very dim
' view of such language and Eddie]. thoroughly enjoyed teasing herby calling out,
"I-Iere comes David and his woman," when we entered the room — "just to rile her
up some" to use his words.
I have many wonderful memories of Eddie J. which I will always
treasure. I, like so many others, will miss him in his many and varied capacities
. — as FNS board member, community leader and most especially as a friend.
’ - David Ha$eld
. Every now and again, someone comes along and touches your life in a very
 j special way. You know something significant has happened when you find the
j encounter has changed you somehow and you find yourself richer and wiser for
= having known that person. Eddie I . touched me in that special way and I know
I am a better person for our meeting.
I guess most of us expect events powerful enough to change us to be
accompanied by claps of thunder and bolts of lightening! In actual fact, however,
most of mine have happened quietly and in very ordinary ways. One day I just

look back and realize I have changed and often have no idea what set that change  
in motion within me. i
Eddie J. triggered such a change in me during a sunny afternoon nature i
walk through the forested land surrounding his home. He had discovered thatl I
had an interest in learning about the trees in the area, many of which were L
unfamiliar to me. He knew a lot about trees and offered to share his knowledge, p
which I soon learned was considerable. i··
I was a tree lover and also, I admit, one of those intense, self—righteous, I
ecology types. Eddie I . was in the lumber business. My bias (at that time) said, p
"People who are into cutting down trees cannot possibly love and respect the M
earth and its growing things as I do!" Imagine my surprise when I found myself  
walking and talking with a man who spoke with great sensitivity of the land — who L
not only loved, respected and understood it, but knew he needed it and that it was i
important to his well being. We shared our thoughts. We did not always agree, l
but we listened to each other with respect and I learned a great deal about a point  
of view I had not considered before. I came away that day with my nature I
scrapbook full of pressed leaves and copious notes. Most important, however,
I had made a friend who, though I didn’t realize it at the time, had, by being
himself, made mincemeat of my bias.
Looking back, I now realize that since that day I have worked hard to kick
the nasty habit of pre-judging people. As a result, I have become a more open
and tolerant person — hopefully, a kinder one. This is a wonderful gift for one per-
son to have given another. I am grateful.
- S haron Hagield V
i I

  Hello! From the New Editor
E As I sit back now and review the last   2 V 4 _ { I ` r V; · I  
l Quarterly Bulletin I realize that the   " I   ._
{ name of the editor may have changedin _ · -   it ` ` Q      
I the staff listings, but that means noth- U ., , ‘   V ·» _  »·_·   ·
Q. ing to the reader - except a different     . t  
name. As the time approached for  ' ,    
l Sharon Hatfield to retire I was asked to     , - _·
L` take on the editorship of the Quarterly · Q , A 
Q Bulletin. I did so gladly. Sharon, a very    
{ creative editor, was only too willing to `     ,,
{ share her experiences and knowledge - _   »    K iwi?  
g and for that I will always be extremely   `4r_ A    
[ grateful. Ron Hallman, former Vice- A ri·‘    
  President for Development, also   ” °
guided me through with many words of 1 g_’_,% v _ i A _
encouragement. _. _ V     ’   `
However, before I was able to l l   ’ <  Vi *2.)
take on the full effort of writing, edit- A ‘ `
ing, and coordinating articles there was one other important task that had to be
undertaken - learning the intricacies of desk—top publishing. It was in this area
i I came to know, and appreciate, our current Director of Public Relations, Sheila
Allen. It was her task to teach me "Mac logic." We spent many hours together .
V huddled around the Macintosh computer until finally the penny dropped and I
· could operate the "Mac" on my own. Sheila and I still work together on the
" Bulletin - writing and editing, not always agreeing, but working as a team!
- To date I have only worked on two Quarterly Bulletins - the March and
S June issues - and I am beginning to feel more comfortable in my role as editor.
I'am lucky to be able to work a flexible schedule as much of my time and energies
' are involved with my family and their different activities. I am married to Dr.
V Tim Todd, the district physician written about in the June issue (see District
· Doctor Makes Difference), and mother of two children - Melissa who is nine
_ _ years old and mad about horses, and Matthew an energetic and inquisitive seven
5 year old!
2 I look forward to each new issue as it slowly takes shape. Ideas for articles
A come from different sources and any suggestions you, the reader, may have are
‘ welcomed. They can be sent to: Frontier Nursing Service, Editor Quarterly
Bulletin, Wendover, KY 41775. My thanks are extended to those I have
contacted for information and help - their patience with me is very much
I appreciated. I hope to continue to learn and enjoy my experience as editor.
- Angela Todd

A Letter from Two "Senior" Couriers
As we wind our way home to Minnesota from Wendover, Norma and I recall `
happy memories of the two months we spent as courier/volunteers at the
Frontier Nursing Service (FNS). "We" are Norma Johnson from Ivanhoe,
Minnesota and June Kohl from Cass Lake, Minnesota, both retired nurses and I ·»
a young 67 years of age! Our stay was a very fulfilling experience - especially  
satisfying because we were able to do every assignment given us. 5
Our co—couriers, Brad Powers, Anne Knott and Ellen Mallory, who were i
each around 23 years of age, encouraged and accepted us as peers. Our lives ‘
have been enriched from working with these dedicated young people. There Y
were many warm, friendly people we met during our stay — especially the staff ·
at Wendover. It is more than probable to gain 10 pounds from Cassie’s superb
cooking! The smiling faces and friendly chatter of Marilyn, Hazel and Kenny
(Housekeeping) did so much to make our stay pleasant. David Lee, our coor- ‘
dinator, had told us he wanted our experience to be challenging, fulfilling, and
fun - it certainly was all of this and more. We learned - we relaxed - we laughed, ‘
and we always felt our services were needed and appreciated.
Our courier duties included making rounds to the four outlying district  .
nursing centers delivering and picking up mail, lab samples and reports, sterile
supplies, and equipment. We also worked as aides and general clerical help in »
these clinics and the Kate Ireland Women’s Health Care Center. At Wendover 1
we worked on the grounds, assisted in the kitchen during various functions, and
helped with some general clerical duties. We were able to do community work V
tutoring students in the Leslie County Library Literacy program. One of our g
more unusual assignments was to judge a 4-H cooking contest! l
While staying at Wendover Norma and I realized how persons in their l
middle and later years could contribute their time, talents and experience as I
courier/volunteers to FNS. Friends and former couriers have always encour- Y
aged their sons and daughters to become courier/volunteers. Now it could also  Q
work in reverse - that former couriers could encourage their parents and older '
friends to participate in this worthwhile helping experience, Many individuals l
could come with their own unique personalities - nurses, teachers, social
workers, "empty nesters," parents with some time on their hands, and retirees .`
of any profession or no profession to name just a few!  
During our leisure time Norma and I attended two concerts in Hazard, a Z
horse show at the Nixon Center, the Redbud Festival, and a ballet performance
at the local high school. We were entertained at Wendover by several string
bands and learned to do the blue-grass stomp! Several local craftsmen - makers
of quilts, furniture, and com husk dolls were kind enough to make time for us

to visit them. As we were in coal-mining country we also visited the site of a
coal—mine and numerous other points of interest.
One of the highlights of our stay was watching spring arrive in the
mountains. The transition from the bleak and brown of winter to the marvellous
spring colors of green, pink and white was truly outstanding. Two weeks before
. we left the new courier coordinator, Cari Michaels, arrived. She brings her own
  charming personality and talents to continue the traditions of FNS. Our
volunteer time was a marvellous experience and during our drive home to
Minnesota Norma said, "There is good news and bad news. The good news is
_` that were are really making good time - the bad news is that we are going in the
T wrong direction!"
We will do all we can to spread the word to older volunteers to participate
in the courier program. We encourage all who read this to do the same.
- Norma Johnson and June Kohl
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l Norma Johnson (left) and June Kohl sitting among the spring flowers at Wen-
1 doven

Frontier School Graduates 99th Class -
As the mist slowly lifted around Wendover, the Commencement Ceremonies for i
the 99th Class of the Frontier School of Midwifery and Family Nursing began. ’
After the welcome address and recognition of faculty and special guests one of 3
the graduating students, Kristy Higgs, gave the "Students Comments." The ,
purpose of her talk was to share some of the highlights of their joumey as students
at the Frontier School of Midwifery and Family Nursing. "We have all changed
as we traveled along this path. I hope to reassure our family and friends that as _
you experience our expanded and frequently foreign vocabulary, and those
various other changes we have been periodically bringing home - know that you _
are not alone in this readjustment process!"
. Kristy reflected on their first day in class, "We were told a story about `
carrying a sack of rocks on our backs. The sack was to serve as a symbol of our
joumey through the program. As we completed assignments — papers, exams, »
and clinical rotations - we were to take out a rock of appropriate size and throw .
it away. Gradually our load became lighter, until today when we can throw our
final stone to represent the end of our journey as FNS students." After some l
amusing highlights Kristy remarked " This has been a special place for us. We q
have grown personally and professionally. The spirit of nursing found here is _
unique in this country. Mary Breckinridge’s vision of health care still lives in .
these mountains. The system of administering it is now quite different- but the
philosophy for providing remains. To be called a nurse is an honor in these parts l
— and the nine of us are honored to participate in carrying the vision to places
beyond these mountains." ·
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Keynote Speaker, Kitty Ernst, giving herspeech at the Commence-
ment Ceremonies.  
Editor's Note: Due to lack of space in this issue it was not possible to reproduce .
K izzyErns1's K eynoze Address; however, it will be in the F all issue of the Bulletin. .

_ X" V il-   _ L-} , {-’¤*.§  
 f       , ,, . %· -
  r     if R: V ` R     V, The Helen E. Browne nurse-midwifery
  "   AAV;   ··   scholarship award was presented to
;:;;(_4;_ · rv;,r     Barbara Cauthen (left). Barbara plans
T- ».L-_.   _,__ __A, __L,-- to work at the Monroe Family Health
_ 2 A T   ,   Centerandthe Monroe MaternityCenter
{-;·}_·» ·       l i in Madisonville, Tennessee.
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or r  r »§f;x·r:4;v.,.x ..
. Qr’*‘·s in  
A Theresa Leipzig, (right), who received Q  2, ,   M   _` _  
the Minette Cracknellfamily nurse prac-   _ N,  *     
· titionerscholarship award, will return to   ' ‘   “   gi? `
her home town of Chicago to work in a       lg`-   r.__‘ ;`,f`_;'* V
Christian, inner-city medical clinic. She  __    
plensto eventually become anoverseas   *5   _f 5 ,
missionary.       \
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lg?   · ?   lfg`;  ;   r
  Graduating students (l—r): Laura Mann, nurse-midwife; Kristy
- Higgs, nurse-midwife; Genetta Fancher, nurse-midwife; Susan
Peeples, nurse-midwife; Tamara Krivit, family nurse-practitioner;
Jeri Lake, nurse-midwife; Theresa Leipzig, nurse-midwife; Bar-
bara Cauthen, nurse-midwife, and Marguerite Pike, family nurse
érr _ \

FNS Couriers Assist Local Literacy Program I
J ane Schneider came to the Frontier Nursing Service as  i
a courier and literacy volunteer shortly ajier graduating ·
from the University of Minnesota. Originally, she
planned to stay only eight weeks working with the local _ 
literacy program gaining experience as a tutor. How- l
ever, she nows plans to extend her "visit" for an addi-
tional three months continuing her literacy tutoring and
helping with the local GED program. She is currently _`
applying for monies to cover the start—up costs of a new _
program providing literacy tutoring to young mothers I
with preschoolers.
Because she couldn’t read, Mary, 33, used to shop for groceries by memorizing
food labels, James had to ask his teenage daughter, who only read at a third grade I
level herself, to fill out checks for him. When Frank worked as a cook in a V
restaurant he had to watch someone else cook a dish and memorize every detail
because he cou