xt7fbg2hb387 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7fbg2hb387/data/mets.xml Kentucky Negro Education Association Kentucky Kentucky Negro Education Association 1947 The most complete set of originals are at Kentucky State University Library. Call Number 370.62 K4198k journals  English Kentucky Negro Educational Association: Louisville, Kentucky  Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal African Americans -- Education -- Kentucky -- Periodicals The Kentucky Negro Educational Association (K.N.E.A.) Journal v.19 n.1, November-December, 1947 text The Kentucky Negro Educational Association (K.N.E.A.) Journal v.19 n.1, November-December, 1947 1947 1947 2020 true xt7fbg2hb387 section xt7fbg2hb387  

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"An Equal Educational 0mm rtunltyo m- rEvery Ke entnnky cum"





The Kentucky
State College

1386 Framdort, Kentucky 1941
(Io-educational Class A College

Degrees Offered In
Arts and Sciences
Home Economics -— Agriculture
Business Administration

Engineering — Industrial A115





 The K. N. E. A. Journal

Official Organ oi the Kentucky Negro Education Assoclaflon



Published by me Kentucky Negro Education Association
Editorial Office at 2230 West Chestnut street

Louisville 11, Kentucky

W. H. Perry, In, Executive Secretary, Louisville, Managing Editor

Wr O. Nuckofls, Providence, President of K,N.E.A,

Membership in the K.N.E.A. includes subscription to the Journal.

Rates of advertising mailed on request.





Editorial Comment 3
K. N E. A. Outlook W. O Nuckolls 4
KHNEA. Legislative Program .. .. .. 5, 6
The Dawn of Abdommal Surgery, Mrs. A T McCormack 7, 8
A Newcomer Looks at Lincoln, Mrs Katherine Taylor 9


State Educational Association Officers Meet G. W Gore. Jr
Survey of Segregated Schools systems
Bradford New K s 0 Dean]
Faeulty Changes at K 5
Can West Kentucky Training School Make It?
Over the Editors Desk

Exchanges .
Improved Spelling, ’1‘ R Rowan .
K.N.E.A. Kullings





19, 20. 21
22, 23



 K.N.E.A. OFFICERS FOR 1947-1948



W. o Nuckolls, President .
Robert L Duwery, First Vicepreaident...

Elmer 0. David, Second Vice»1=resident.
w, H. Perry, Jr., Secretary-Treasurer





w, o. Nuckolls, President
0. B. Nuckolls
Victor K. Perry,
E. w. Whiteside
Whitney M. Yuun


Edward T. Buford, High School and College Department, BowlingGreen
Mayrne R. Morris, Elementau-y Education Department Louisville
Emma B, Bennett, Rural School Department ., . Louisville
a. L. Carpenter, Music Department.,,
E. w. Browne, Vocational Education Department
John v. Robinson, Frincipals‘ Conference
Beatrice 0. Willie, Primary Teachers’ Departmen
Hattie Figg Jackson, Art Teachers’ Conference...
G. w. Jackson, Social Science Teachers Conferene
Gertrude Sledd, Science Teacher-5‘ Conference.
Jewell R. Jackson, English Teachers' Conference.
c. Elizabeth Johnson, Librarians‘ Conference

w, L. Kean, Physical Education Department
w. H, Craig, Guidance Workers Conferenc
A, Richards, Foreign Language Teachers’ Conference
William T. Davidson, Adult Education Conference ,.









First District Associntion
Second District Association
Third District Association
Fourth District Association
Fifth District Association
Blue Grass District Association
7—H R. Merry, Covington . .Narthern District Association
S—E, M Kelly, Pike'vllle. ,. Eastern District Association
B—Esther R Ball Middlesboro Upper Cumberland District Association


l—Betfje C. Cox, Paducah
Z—Lester G. Mixnms, Earlingtan
37E. B. McClaskey, Russellvill
4gM. J, Strong, Campbellsvlll
5—Elizabeth Wl Collins, Louisville.
6—P, L. Gufl'lrie, Lexington ,









Editorial Comment




The Kentucky state Federation of Teachers took a courageous
action in urging the resignation of Heman H. McGuire as president of
the Kentucky Education Association. in the “interest of public education
in Kentucky and in the interests of racial and religious tolerance," be~
cause he had “freely and flagrantly indulged in ignorant and bigoted
references to a religious iaith and to a racial group." The references
had been publicly made by Mr. McGuire because, he said, 'It is my
duty as Knit, president to lead the fight for sound principles in edu-

That Mr, McGuire, who is superintendent of the carter County
schools, was white-washed by fire Board of Education and educational
organizations of Carter County, doubtless means he expressed the sen-
timent of his community, That the directors of the KEA. wiped dieir
hands of the affair, neither supporting nor condemning the action of
their president, means they failed to take high ground when an issue
presented itselt. Mr. McGuire’s unretracted statement must have been
embarrasing to the many fine members and leaders of the Kins. whose
records show them out of harmony with his point of View.

Whatever Mr. McGuire's personal prejudices may be, his position as
county superintendent and as K.E.A. president imposed upon him the
obligation of asuming the role of a good American. This he failed to
do. statements such as those made by the honored Kentucky educator
go to Russia, along with American food and clothing It is to be hoped
that whenever they may be chosen, Mr. McGuire’s successors in the
official positions he now holds, will be persons whose efforts will be to
establish, rather than to dstroy, me amtudes which make good neigh—
bors of individuals and of nations.

Salary leimtion Removed

The judicial decision that the $5,000.00 constitutional limitation on
the salaries of state officers of our Commonwealth does not apply to
the salaries of principals and teachers. is of interest to the group. it
means that their pay schedules. though limited by the availability of
funds, will not be handicapped by the former low pay ceilingr Although
teachers salaries in Kentucky have been improved constantly during
recent years, by increases ranging from mere tokens to several hundred
douars per teacher per year, their buying powe is, in many instances, less
than that of die lower salaries years ago Further increases, due to
increased living costs, already are warranted.

There is abundant evidence that the larger pay checks have im~
proved teacher morale, with a consequent raising of the level of pro-
fessional service. Thus the support given by the public recently to
teacher movements for increased pay is being justified.

We in the educational profession must never fail in our first obit
gation—to render the best possible service to the pupils. A150, we should
utilize opportunities ior keeping the public informed ot the financial
support needed for good schools, and of the value of good teachers, Then,
too, we should not fail to have available, through our educational organi»
zations, the potential pressure groups through which modern democracy



By w. o. Nuckolls

It has been encouraging to note that the great dynamic force of
teachers in Kentucky are admirably going on with the task to maintain
and improve thrift and -a democratic spirit in our way of life,

It is gratitying that general school needs are being improved.
salary differentials and general equipment have been improved, but are
by no means satisiactory,

Negro teachers and interested citizens are urged to keep alert and
continue to work for equal support for education for all Kentuckians.
Farm study, by our group, has improved to some degree. The con—
tinued shift or the Negro population from rural and smaller urban
centers increases the problem to maintain adequate intermediate and
high school opportunities for our group. -We are probably missing one or
our best opportunities through gradual lack of interest and shirt from
the farm.

The K.N.EA. Board of Directors has met several times since the
last annual meeting. It is proud to report that fllrough these meetings
and are meeting of a committee appointed by the president, to seek
information concerning the resignation of President in. 0. Russell from
West Kentucky Vocational Training School of Paducah, that the state
'Board or Education accepted the K.N.E.A. Board of Directors as an
advisory board to it concerning matters pertaining to that Training
School, The President then appointed the following persons on an
advisory committee to the K.N.E.A. Board of Directors: R. s. Lowery.
G. D. Wilson, G. w. Jackson, Mrs, M. J. Egester, Mr, Rufus s. stout
and Chas, T. Steele.

The following is the personnel of the committee which met with
the state Superintendent and the Vocation Training heads: The Presi-
dent, R. so Lowery, G. w. Jackson, G, D, Wilson and Mrs, May'me J.

1f the Secretary—Treasurer can get a good enrollment early the
general preparation tor a constructive program for the annual meet»
ing and the necessary planning for the next Legislative program will
go forward in a way that, we think. will reflect credit to the KNEA,

Mpectfully yours,
W o. NUCKOLLS, President, KNEA.

 K. N. E A. Legislative Program

The K.N.E,A. is in full harmony with the legislative program of
the K, E A. However, Kentucky's dual system of education makes
additional legislative and administrative action necessary if equality
of educational opportunity is to become a reality. Specific needs are
covered in the following report, made by our legislative committee at

the April, 1946 convention.

The Report

The KNEA. Legislative Committee wishes to oricr the following
report as its recommendation covering the legislative needs and some_
administrative adjustments for the improvement of education in the
State of Kentucky. .

1. Physical plants and Equipment. A primal need in each of the
three state Schools for Negroes is that of buildings, major equipment,
and in some cases, adequate land for the prosecution of efficient educa~
tlonal programs, In the latter need, there is now an indefinite policy
and a lack of positive cooperation on the part of the State Government
in the procurement of land, the location and erection of buildings.

We would therefore recommend; (a) that there be established a
functioning Division of Buildings and Grounds, under the Department
of Education, to be manned with a competent staff of engineers, archi—
tects, and other necessary employees;

(b) that the K.N,E.A. join with the administrators of other state
schools in their campaigns for adequate legislative appropriations to
bring the buildings, plants and equipment of the Kentucky state College,
West Kentucky Vocational Training School and Lincoln Institute up to
the standards of other similar state educational institutions.

2. Edumtlon nud Agriculture. That the Negro in Kentucky is
fast losing out as a farmer and in other agriculturesl pursuits is common
knowledge, and the State seems not to care. Due to the State policy or .
segregation in education and social welfare, Negro farmers and Negro
youth enjoy but little of die benefits which come to the state from
Federal and State funds for the encouragement and improvement of
agriculture and agricultural education. Therefore it is recommended:

('1) that the State and Federal Governments cooperate to set up 3hr
Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension Division for Negro
farmers, with sufficlent personnel for research and experiments, farm
demonstrations, and field work by farm and home demonstrators to
serve the needs of Negro farmers who reside in areas Where local service
is not provided under the present systm;

(b) that an adequate plant be established and maintained at the
Kentucky State College to operate and administer such special agricul-
tural service as may set up adequate opportunities for Negro farmers
and Negro students of agriculture.

3. Teachers' Salaries. Although much progress has been made
toward the equallzafion of salaries in local school systems, there still
Mist wide variations or salaries in many systems, due largely to a
legauy permissive practice of assigning special duties to certain teachers,
usually extra—curricular duties, and awarding them special salaries for
these services. The advantage almost universally tavors teachers in
schools for white pupils.

We recommend fllat extravservice compensation be discontinued. and
that (l) a minimum wage scale of 3140030 per year for college grad-
uates professionally prepared to teach be adopted; (2) that annual
salary increases, starting with the second year of service, and continuing
with additional experience to a level of at least $4,000.00 per year, for
college trained teachers with ten years of service.

4, Th Day Law. It is now forty-three years since one Representa-
live Day introduced in the General Assembly and secured the passage


 of a law prohibiting the attendance cf white and Negro students in the
some educational institutions in Kentucky The principal immediate
effect was the exclimion oi Negro students from Berea College—which,
according to the then President of Berea, they had attended together
“without contamination or reproach." During the intervening years
from 1904 tn 1947, the position of the Negro in Kentcky has become in-
creasingly more acute as concerns differentials in educafianal oppor»
tunity and in his ability to secure education for the needs of life even
though much of this education is operated in me state at public ex-
pense. Therefore:

(1)‘ We recommend the repeal of the Day Law. Or if, the alter-
native becomes necessary, we recommend that such modifications or
the Day Law be made as will permit Negro students to attend public
graduate and professional schools, and such private schools or this type
as will admit them, and that this include interneship in public hospitals
and sanatoria;

(2) that, until such time as the admission of graduate and pro—
ressional students to institutions within the state does equalize these op.
portunities as between races, the state grant adequate financial sup-
port to out-od—state study under the Anderson-Mayer Act;

(3) it is further recommended mat the Anderson—Mayer Law be
so amended as to require a minimum or only one year of residence
within the state to secure its benefits;

(4) that are Andersondviayer Law be further amended to include
the study of Medicine, Dentistry. Pharmacy and Nursing

5. Civil and Emmomlc nights. The Kentucky Negro Education
Association joins with the Kentucky Division at the Southern Regional
council, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored
People in a constant campaign for run participation in the civic and
economic opportunities of citizens of the state and Nation. in par-
ticulzu', we appeal to the state and local governments ror:

(1) equal employment opportunities for Negroes in the public
service, in contracts and work on public projects, and under whatever
conditions public funds are expended; .

(2) we rewmmend also the formation of a State Division of
Statistical Research on Negro Affairs. adequately financed, and re.
sponsible to the Governor for- at least a quarterly report on the progress
and needs of Negro citizens of the strata

6. Administrative Issues. More of an administrative nature than
legislative are the following items:

(a) Supervision. The effective work of the present State Assist-
ant Supervisor or Negro Schools, lvtr, Whitney M, Young, has shown
the possibilities of this type of work in Negro education,

It is now recommended that instead of part-time supervision, the
Assistant Supervisor oi Negro Education be placed on a full—time basis
at an adequate Salary

1 Implementing These Recommendations In order to secure the
needed legislative and administrative improvements set forth in this
report, the officers of the K.N,E.A. are directed:

(a) to have bills prepared, secure sponsors, and make every effort
to obtain the required legislation to make these recommendation eiiec-
tive, The employment of a lobbyist is strongly recommended;

(b) that such portions of this report as pertain to regulation and
administration by departments of the State Government he presented
by a committee to be appointed by the president of the association for
that purpose, and at such time or times as the president may see fit

(During the April convention or the Association, the above report
was adopted by unanimous vote. Members or the Legislative Commit-
tee were H. 0. Russell, Chairman; Hi E. Goodlae.. E, w, Whiteside, J
A Matth ws, 5. L. Barker, R, B. Atwood, c. B. Nuclcolls



rm ea ' _

The followlng proclnmntion invites observance o: a day in recognition

of the first successlul abdominal operation ever perlormecl. it was

done at nanvlue. Kentucky, on Christmas Day, 1809, prior to the dis-

covery of anaesthesia. December 13, the date of Jane Todd Grawfmd‘s
decision, is to be observed.

Governor Willis, in accordance with the Act of the General As.
sembly. February 21, 1942, has issued the following Proclamation honor—
ing the date upon which two courageous pioneers. a. physician and his
patient, mutually decided to enter into an experiment that has resulted
in great benefit to humanity the world over.

This Legislative Act calls for observance of December 13. each year,
n rchuols, churches. clubs, and other suitable places with appropriate
historical and memorial ceremonies."

By The
Of The .

WHEREAS, we once again approach the time when an Ken-
tucklans take prlde in paying Ll'lbute ta that brave resident of
Green County, Kentucky, Jane Todd Crawford, who, While stricken
with an lllness helleved to be fatal, traveled sixty miles by horse-
back over rough terrain to the home of a great surgeon, Dr.
Ephraim McDuwell; and

WHEREAS, it was concluded that she must submit to an
abdominal operation in order that her health might be restored: and

WHEREAS, although modern anesthesia was unknown. she
courageously submitted to the operation; and

WHEREAS, this was the first performance of an operation
of this nature and as a result of he! fortitude and Die genlus of the
surgeon, thousands of lives have been saved slnce that time;




the Commonwealth oi Kentucky, do hereby proclaim December 13,
1947, as
and call upon the citizens of this Commonwealth to pay homage to
our great heroine oi surgery.

Done at Frankfort, Kentucky. this tenth day of October, in
the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and forty-seven
and in the year of the Commonwealth the one hundred and fifty-


Commonwealth of Kentucky

Charles K. O’Connell
Secretary of state


Teachers may secure a copy of THE STORY OF JANE TODD
CRAWFORD, by the late George Madden Martin, author of EMIMY
LOU, by writing to Mrs. Wm, H. Emrich, 542 South Second Street.
Louisville a, Kentucky.

Under the chairmanship of Dr. Irvin Ahell, assisted by Mrs, Eleanor
Hume omit, the Kentucky State Medical Association is renewing the
attempt, interrupted by the War, to turnish the restored old home of
Dr, McDowell in Danville, where the momentous experiment was per.
formed so that this scene of surgery's stepping-stone may be re—opened
to the public as Kentucky's Medical Shrine.

Mrs. A, '1‘.McCorn'lackY Chan-man
Woman’s Auxiliary, Kentucky
Medical Association


“The Newest and Finest in Visual Tools for

Modern Schools”




More Than Twenty Years Serving the Schools of Kentucky

543 S. 5th St. 178 Walnut St. 911 Main St.
Loulsv'ule, xy. Lexington, Ky. Cincinnati, Ohio




By Mrs. Katherine Taylor

I have called “Lincoln" home for about two weeks. A short time,
Yes! But each hour I spend here, I’m more and more convinced first
I'm indeed fortunate to be a pm of this great institution. When I
look about at the rolling, majestic hills; the carpet of green grass; the
towering trees and the glowing sunset, I feel the presence of an
Omnipotent God. Without a. shadow of a doubt, it must have been
his guiding hand that set this “City on a hill," in Shelby County, and
allowed it to send its beams to the remote sections of our grand old
stats, biding all young people, who will, to come and lay the corner
stone for a richer and fuller life.

The director, Mr. Whitney Youngi his able assistant, Mr. J. A.
Carroll, and the dean of education, Mrsi Kathelene Carroll, have per-
fected a. school organization of which every “Kentuckiim” can be justly
proud. 1 find associated with them a splendid faculty group. Men
and women who are academically and spiri ually prepzued to meet the
needs of the students. As one, they are striving to develop these stu-
dents into Well rounded personalities, who can best serve humanity,

From the teachers and students alike there radiates a spirit of
friendliness and goodwill. A cooperative attitude is exhibited by all.
Truly, everyone seems to be a. loyal member of the “Lincoln family,"

Many visible signs of improvements can be seen this school yearr
In the dormitory for girls, a new heating system has been installed; the
rooms have been painted, and new hardwood floors have been laid. The
living gum-tats for boyl have been redecorated. 'Shrubbery has been
planted on the csxnpus, and work has begun on the road construction
project, leading from the main highway to Berea Halli

More than fifty counties and independent districts are represented
in the student body, Lincoln, like other educational institutions, is
experiencing an overflow in her enromnent Many are those who were
not permitted to enter this semester, because every available space is
already in us,

This institufion is rated “A” class by the “state" and "Southern
Association." Recently ‘ passed from the “Lincoln Foundation" to
state control. Its poss‘ rs for future developments are many, and
a bigger and better “Lincoln" has already begun to appear on the

Opportunities for basic vocational training are being uttered and
the young people are urged to accept the same.

I could not look at "Lincoln” without seeing in it. H18 dynamic
courageous and christian spirit of Mr. Young, the man who stands at
the helm and leads arlght.



Though not a carpenter: yet he builds,
Though not a doctor; yet he heals,

Though not a. farmer; yet he sows,

Though not a magician, boys and girls growl
Though not a warrior; yet he fights,

Work, for the Good of All

is his chief delight.

LINCOLN is on the March!


The second meeting of the State Association Officers, 5. depart-
ment of the American Teachers Association, was held at Florida A.
and Ml College, Tallahassee, Florida, July 2, in connection with file
annual meeting of the American Teachers Association Representatives
fram eleven state associations were present. Mr. J. R. Picott of the
Virginia Association for Education presided. The meeting considered
a founput program The first part concerned itself with adopting a
constitution and making plans for a February meeting of the Assam,-
tion to he held in Louisiana. The second part of the meeting concerned
itself with cooperation with the American Teachers Association in
keeping with the constitution of that organization. The third feature
was a presentation by Mr, Picott on national advertising for state
association magazines, The fourth feature considered new business
and discussion of plans for development of the organization, All mem»
bers of file organization were asked to pay a fee of $5.00 for the first
year. The election of officers was as follows: president, J. R” Picott;
vice-president, c. L. Harper of Georgia; secretary»treesuxer, George W.
Gare, Jr.; lay members of the Executive Committee, Dr. R. c. Hatcher
of Alabama. and Mn A. Tl Butler of South Carolina. The deparh'nent
will hold its annual meeflng during the meeting of the American
Teachers Association, and a winter meeting at the tlxne and place de-
cided upnn at the annual meeting of the department,

G. w, GORE, .13.,
(The KlN.E.A, was represented at the first meeting of this asso-
ciation, held in Memphis last February.)


The Domestic Life and

Accident Insurance Co.


26 Years of Satisfactory Service


Has Purchased $1,500,000 Government Bonds
All Claims Paid Promptly And cheerfully

Insure In THE DOMESTIC and Help Make Jobs tor
Yul]! Sons and Daughters


W: L. SANDERS, President In E, SMITH, Vice-President
R. D. TERRY, Secretary and Agency Director









Bureau of Educational Researeh, Howard Unlverslty.

A survey of the segregated school systems in 17 states and the
District of Columbia has just been completed by the Bureau of Kaunas
tional Research, Howard University This study reveals that very lit.
tle progress has been made in the provision of educational opportunities
for Negroes equal to those enjoyed by whites in the same school systems,

in 11 states (Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Ken—
tucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, Okla-
homa, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West 'Virginia) and
the Districct of Columbia separate schools are required by law for the
education of the white and Negro races Separate schools have been
decclared by the courts to be legal only when equal educational oppor-
tunity is afforded each racial group

The findings of the survey of these state school systems which are
given in some detail in the current (summer. 1947 Yearbook) number
of the JOURNAL OF NEGRO EDUCATION, published by Howard
University, showed that in no separate school system does the Negro
receive educational opportunity equal to that of white students in the
some community

The most noticeable progress toward equality of educational op-
portunity 11” been made in two areas: length of scchool term and In-
crease in teachers salaries in the common schools. Fifteen years ago
the length of school term for white pupils was 30 days longer than the
Negro school term. In 1945 the white term was only 10 days longer
than the Negro term, but the Negro school term was about equal to
the white sdhonl texl'm in 19301 White elementary school teachers re-
ceived an average Salary of $958 in 1930 and $1307 in 1945. Negro
teachers were paid $510 in 1930 and $939 in 1945. The difference in
white and Negro teachers' salaries has been reduced from 85% to 40%
in the last 15 years In general, this reduction has been made possible
by court cases instituted in many states requiring that equal salaries
should be paid white and Negro teamers with the same training and
doing similar work.

The study revealed, however. that very little progress has been
made in the equalization of facilities tor transporting pupils to school,
or in the provision or buildings and equipment in the common schools
Fifteen years ago the value of school property per white pupil enrolled
was $166 and for each Negro, only $32; in 1945 the amount invested in
white school property was 5224 for each vdilte pupil in school and only
$52 for each Negro pupil. At the present rate of progress, it would
take so years before the buildings and equipment in Negro common
schools would become substanttally equal to those provided for white
pupils in 1945, to say nothing or the tuture.

1n the matter of transportation to school, which is an important
item because of the rural character of many Negro schools, not only
are proportionately three and a half times as many white pupils trans.
ported as Negroes, but twice as much per pupil is spent for transport-
ing a white pupil as tor a Negro pupil. One state (Texas), for example,
spent as much merely to haul white pupils to school in 1945 as was
spent on the Negro common schools for everything—teachers salaries,
transportation, teaching materials, etc,

The survey revealed that the provision of higher and professional
educational opportunities for Negroes by the several states is relatively
little, it any, better than 15 years agar some increased but still in.


 adequate provisions have been made for collegiate education and a
little graduate work of limited quantity and highly questionable quality
has been started. Three tin-1% as many undergraduate curricula are
offered in the average state college or university for white students as
are offered in the corresponding Negro higher institution Graduate
work is offered in eight Negro state colleges in seven states, which give
work leading to the master's degree ONLY. No Negro higher institue
tion, public or private, offers work leading to the doctor's degree,
Graduate work leading to the master's degree is offered by at least one
statesupported institution for white students in each of the 17 states,
and the PhD. degree is offered in 12 states.

Professional education in STATE institutions vm available for
white students as follows: DENTISTRY, 4 states; law, 16; medicine, 15;
pharmacy, 14; social work, 9; and library science, 11 states. For
Negroes N0 state-supported institution in any state provides any op—
portunity for medicine, dentistry, or pharmacy; only 4 institutions offer
law; and 1 library sccince.

The most striking example of the relative opportunities provided
for white and Negro students in state—supported higher and professional
institutions is revealed by the fact that, in 1944, an amount equal to
$2.43 for each person in the white population in these states was ex—
pended for white higher institutions as contrasted with 56 cents for
each Negro. In 1930, the corresponding amounts were 51.39 for whites
and 33 cents for Negroes, Thus, the difference in favor of the white
institutions has INCREASED by 13%, instead of being decreased.

The following conclusions stated in the "Editorial Note" indicate in
brief the status of the problem of the Negro separate school:

“. . . no critical observer can honestly say that Negroes are ob-
taining equal educational opportunity in the separate school anywhere.
Moreaver, the eliznination of dispuitiel in financial outlay for Negro
and white common schools has been so slow flint. even if equal“: of
expenditures assured equality of educational opportunity, it would e
25 years or more for file Negro schools to reach me paint Where the
white schools are Now, and a hundred years to attain parity. These
facts suggest that either there can be no such thing as “separate but
equal" educational opportunity; or that, even if it were possible, it is
not the intention of the several states in which separate schools are
legally required to provide such opportunity for Negroes; or both. . .t

"it is clear that segregation in education based upon race must be
abolished. The question is when and where to start. It is the con.
sidered opinion of a growing number of intelligent people, North and
South, white and Negro, that we could and should begin Now in the
graduate and professional fields, gradually working down to the lower
levels. (And this appears to be a sensible sort of gradualismi) For
there are numerous indications that such a step is not possible NOW in
more than half of the states which require separate schools. but is
absolutely necessary if Negroes are to obtain anything like equal op-
portunity on these levels."




Dr. David H. Bradford was appointed Dean and Registrar of Ken-
tucky State College at the beginning of the school year. :Mn Bradford
has had a Wi