xt7ffb4whj00 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7ffb4whj00/data/mets.xml Blue-Tail Fly, Inc., 1969- 19700101  newspapers 2008ua008_1_4 English Lexington, Ky. : Blue-Tail Fly, Inc., 1969- : Lexington, Kentucky. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Blue-Tail Fly Blue-Tail Fly, January 1970 text Blue-Tail Fly, January 1970 1970 2010 true xt7ffb4whj00 section xt7ffb4whj00 
A radical plan to curb population, page seven

Edgar Tolson, American Folk sculptor, page 5 Rick Bell and Jack Lyne
A plan for population control, page 7 Wayne H. Davis
snaps: Arthur Tress, pages 8 and 9
Where I'm at--Cap'n Kentucky reports, page 10 Ed McClanahan
Round and round she goes. . .a prospectus on youth, page 12 Bucky Young
Alive and well; greetings from Canada, page 14 Joe Nickell
Cover photograph by Arthur Tress
The blue -tail fly is published monthly by blue-tail fly, inc. at 210 W. Third Street, Lexington, Ky. 40507
blue-tail fly
January, 1970 vol. 1, no. 4 W
staff:  Guy Mendes, Rick Bell, David Holwerk, Jack Lyne, Sue Anne Salmon, Chuck KaehJer, Gretchen Marcum, Bucky Young, Nick DeMartino, Julie Mendes, Geoffrey Pope, Kevin Hill,
Don Pratt and Doug Stewart.   Business staff: John Simon, Jeannie St. Charles, Terry McCarty, Carol Bryant, Maria Chalk, Warren
Ford and Becky Martin.
Diary of a porno bust
Since our last issue, we have been involved in our first legal hassle, centering around such questions as whether the btf is obscene and whether last issue's Snaps section was a picture of a woman playing with herself.
The recipient of this nonsense was staff member DON PRATT. Pratt, who may be dragged off to jail any day for refusing induction, has by this time a rather practiced eye for the finer points of political criminality, as his following account shows.
Time: December 12, 1969"'til December 31, 1969"'til January 28, 1970, 'til...
Locations: Home"U.K. Campus"Fayette County Police Dept."Fayette County Court House (Juvenile Court)"City Police Court, to be.
Cast of characters: A.T., C.H., W.L.-three young black men, ages 9-14, Sgt. Jacobs"Lexington's Jack Webb, now in stiff competition with Fryman, Sylvestro and Fred Wachs for 1969 Lexington man of the year, Det. Arnett"a Broderick Crawford xerox.
Friday, Dec 12: *
'Twas thirteen nights before Christmas. The phone rang, and as usual, one of the gang was pleading his case for spending the night. Plans had already been made to attend "Weird Harold's" party at the Student Center but A.T.'s arguments continued during my explanation and an agreement was forthcoming.
Being a couple of weekends since the last overnight visit, the green light was all I could see even though the thought of "Weird Harold's" party brought caution. I agreed to pick C.H. and him up as soon after the party as possible.
That "soon after" didn't come that night so I went to bed with Saturday night on my mind.
Sat., Dec 13, early morning, or at least early morning for "sleep laters:"
Got up to go to work, grouting the space frame (an architectural research project), but thought it might be enjoyable to A.T. and C.H. to come over to
spend the day on campus. Stopped by their home and found W.L. over there too. Why not, and he came along.
Grouted approximately 2xh hours while the three-man "gang" started out "exploring the land." Nothing unusual though, and they returned around noon, thinking of lunch ...
Beginning of afternoon: Had to meet Guy at the btf office to work on subscriptions so we took off. Guy wasn't there, so we waited. A.T., C.H. and W.L., having sold papers for me (the obsolescent Lexington Leader), got excited about making some money and asked to sell btfs on campus. Obliged them and they got about IS apiece while I took about 100 for deliveries.
On the way back to U.K_ C.H. began talking about the first issue and the words "fuckin* punk" which he had noticed or heard about, back in October. Laughingly remarking that "if they thought that was bad, then those people would react worse to this issue." I then told him about the center page, commenting that it was simply an art photo. C.H. had the greatest response when he said: "Some old man will want to hang this on his wall."
Nothing more said (and no sex acts committed) we made lunch at the grill on hot dogs and cokes. I went back to grouting and they to hustling,' we finished out the afternoon.
Four-thirty p.m. and we split for home, they having successfully sold their copies and me covered with cement.
Back to U.K. (coliseum) toselj official "Wildcat" programs and nearing countdown. C.H., A.T. and W.L. all decided to sell more btf and the student line was my suggestion. Deciding to reap their afternoon rewards, they dropped in the Huddle to get hamburgers. Their notorious careers began.
8:30 Sat. night"Left the game looking for the gang who might still be around" not knowing that they had been kidnapped by the LPD. They were to have walked over to our house, a few blocks away, so, not finding them, I headed on home. They weren't there and I knew something was up.
Called A.T.'s house and found out that it had happened. The gang, taken into custody, were rushed off for questioning, but mainly scaring them to death, the friendly neighborhood cop had done his
job. C.H., A.T. and W.L. now were to be used, and they were released to their parents.
The arrest: I knew that something would probably happen as my E.S.P. was up, so when two sets of headlights pulled up on the wrong side of the street in front of the house, I made my move for the door. I was right, one car and a paddy wagon, two plainclothed and two uniformed had dropped by. As they were surrounding the house, I interrupted their plans by opening the door. The uniformed policeman, headed to guard the back door, turned around and came back. The capture was a success. Later, the question about whether someone should come along got the response that after booking, I would be immediately released on my own recognizance. How absurd, surrounding the house for a "booking."
I immediately invited them in only to be informed of my arrest. Asked if I had in my possession a dangerous weapon such as a knife, I responded "No." They checked. Outside, searched again, I noticed the cracks in the Venetian blinds of neighbors across the street. Didn't get to wave goodbye, as I was immediately locked in the back of the LPD wagon. The patrolman offered "light to illuminate the darkness" and with no objection, he gave it. I now could read my palms if I knew how but since I didn't, I just looked at them.
Searched again upon arrival at the Fayette County Police Dept., I was then allowed to relieve myself, and 1 thought I'd- never get through. Finished and closing my fly, I returned to the tedious task of booking. No questions by Sgt. Jacobs was a strange phenomenon as they earlier insisted that I read the usual statement about my rights and how anything I said "could be used against me." While being booked, I was fingerprinted three times, which were on three separate sheets. Six times per hand, or a total of 60 fingers recorded. During such occasion I had the legal obligation of bouncing six "birds" for Jacobs and Arnett. Done with pleasure!
At the "pig pen" Sgt. Jacobs took time to speak to Boobie and finding her emotionally high-pitched, he was thrown the question "why was the btf considered obscene?" He bluntly answered her that the woman in the photo was playing with
herself. Until Jacob's vulgar outlook explained that picture, I personally had not noticed that hand. Such an observation though, was just as absurd as my later-imagined idea that the nude model had 4-foot fingers and was playing with another nude mcdel standing behind her.
"Relieved" and Released: I tried to relax by watching the replay of the U.K. ballgame. Fate had it that "Boobie," my wife, would demand a flick and such turned out to be a story of a perverted murderer. This woman raper was guilty of killing at least three women, one of whom was left hanging naked among the nude mannequins. Not only did he do that but he also went into the woman's restroom"right on TV!! Of course, he was disguised as an old woman, and it could have been a female stand-in, but the implication was there. That was nasty.
I knew that somewhere in Lexington, somebody was thinking that men like "Red," the wo man-raper, murderer, detainer against wills, etc., probably started out by selling nude pictures on the street and that, had they caught him early, maybe his criminality would have been retarded. Poor Red died with his head on the pitcher's mound and what started out for me at a basketball game ended up in a baseball park. One more evening in the life of a draft re sister.
First trial date, Wed., Dec 17:
ACLU had acted quickly in taking the case so Bob Sedler was representing me. Court is always a bore so I had little interest in the proceedings. But what was notable on this day was the instructions in law Sedler gave, and the necessity of showing the prosecuting attorney what the charges should be. Originally charged with "contributing to the delinquency of a minor, causing to sell obscene literature" (3 counts), the charges were to be amended the following Wednesday.
While we sat in conference, a patrolman had been sent out to find a copy of the evidence. He stepped outside the judge's chambers and into the courtroom where a friend, Pete, was selling souvenir copies. The cop, in a very serious tone, asked Pete, 24, to prove his age. Not asking it then, but wanting to later, Pete had this same question for the patrolman.
January, 1970

That day ended with a preliminary hearing set to be held Christmas Eve and
the trial New Year's Eve___oh, the
season to be jolly.
Prelim. Hearing, Wed., Dee. 24:
Reduced charges"something to the effect that I had contributed to the delinquency of a minor by causing to sell for gain or reward matter that would cause unusual harm to the morals of youth. Their task to prove "unusual harm" as well as "gain or reward". This session extremely short, less than an hour.
On my way out of the courthouse, with a new frame of reference (a detective's) in looking at nudes, I noted the "juvenile statue" in front of the court-, house. That young man was doing something mighty strange to the pole. Nasty!
Trial, New Year's Eve, Dec. 31:
More excitement, as the courthouse was full, everyone was waiting for the trial The proceedings included the LPD's star witness, Sgt. Jacobs, and I must admit I did enjoy seeing him cross-examined. When pressed, time after time, for the reason "why?" the newspaper and particularly the photo would "cause unusual harm to their morals," Sgt. Jacobs in a very decisive manner stated: "I would not show it to my sons." That was why. In another comment as to the obscenities of the btf Sgt. Jacobs emphatically stated that to "beat meat" didn't mean hamburger.
The only other testimonies of any significance were those of C.H., A.T. and W.L. Each little man came through quite well and I want to commend them and their courage under such circumstances.
"Acquittal" was the final decision with the addition "but with probable cause" which means that we could possibly go on to a higher court and a stiffer statute.
Agnew's ghost
By Ian Sven
LNS"The radio speech was never broadcast"yet old show-biz Agnew got 14,000 letters of praise the next day. No one will admit who slipped.
What happened was that UPI, a news service-also-makes-news tapes-used by-independent radio stations. A month ago they recorded a full hour of the usual hard hitting, always missing Agnew diatribe. The schedule said it was to be broadcast over dozens of stations on the week-end. But a foul up occurred"not a single station aired the speech.
Just the same, come Monday morning, ââ€"  the UPI office was buried under a flood of 14,000 letters of fulsome praise. There was not a single letter criticizing the speech. Agnew was praised for once again exposing the effete intellectual snobs that marched in the. protest prades.
14,000 American citizens went zap over a speech they never heard. Only Spiro can get that.
I know of three New York City TV stations that were forbidden by their management to air the story. Makes one think.
Come to think of it, that's the same number of letters that Nixon had on his desk the day after one of his speeches. Makes one think.
Mrs. Mitchell pulls a Spiro
WASHINGTON, D.C. (LNS)-Emerg-ing from a strenuous gala at the Israeli Embassy recently, Martha Mitchell, the outspoken wife of the attorney general, settled into her limousine with Mrs. Gilbert Hahn, wife of the chairman of the city council of the District of Columbia.
"Boy," sighed Martha, "I'm glad to get away from all those Jews."
Mrs. Hah, herself Jewish, told the story to all her friends, then denied it when the newspapers began calling. Reporters at Newsweek and Time, and the Washington Post's gossip columnist Maxine Cheshire, wanted to write the story, but their editors quashed the news.
Mrs. Mitchell made the news recently when she told a CBS reporter that she resented all the "liberal communists" who took over Washington on Nov. IS for the anti-war demonstration.
blue-tail fly
By Christopher Chandler
College Press Service v
It was 4:44 a.m. on the morning of December 4. The block on Chicago's West Side was cordoned off. Police stood guard on rooftops. State's Attorney's police were stationed at the tront ana rear or tne first-floor apartment, armed with a submachine gun and shotguns.
There was a knock on the front door, and then the sound of more than 200 shots echoed through the early morning hour. When it was over, Fred Hampton, chairman of the Illinois Black Panther Party, was dead in bed. Mark Clark, a Panther member from Peoria, UL, was dead behind the front door. Four others were critically wounded, and three were arrested unharmed. One policeman was slightly wounded.
State's Attorney Edward V. Hanrahan held a press conference later that day, displaying what he said was the arms cache recovered from the apartment (each bullet carefully placed on its end) and pronounced to the television earners: "We wholeheartedly commend the police officers for their bravery, their remarkable restraint and their discipline in the face of this Black Panther attack"as should every decent citizen in our community." He stressed the word "decent."
Under normal circumstances, that would have been the end of it. Hanrahan, the key figure in Mayor Daley's 1968 election strategy, then man named to run the city's "war on gangs" last June, would ordinarily have enhanced his reputation as a tough-crime fighter and as the most popular Democratic vote-getter.
But there are not normal times. The story did not end with that press conference, but grew into an international scandal The glare of publicity that focused on every aspect of that eight-minute raid illuminated the workings of Chicago's law enforcement machinery and we glimpsed momentarily, as by a flash of lightning, the face of repression.
The story would not died, in part because of the stark imagery of the early morning raid by heavily armed police. "For those of us alive in the late '30's," said Professor Hans Mattick of the University of Chicago, "this brought back one of those nightmare images"the knock on the door at night, the Jews intimidated and dragged away."
It would not die because the Black Panther Party opened up the apartment at 2337 W. Monroe Street for the world to see, and the evidence was inescapable: police had massed a heavy concentration of machine-gun and shotgun fire at one living room wall and into two bedrooms. There was little if any sign of return fire.
It would not die because Hanrahan, distressed by what he said were the "outrageous" and "slanderous" statements made to the press, decided to try his case in the Chicago Tribune. But
By whom ?
evidence provided to substantiate his account of the raid turned out to be fraudulent, and the competing newspapers jumped at the chance to recover some honor by exposing the fraud. A picture purporting to show bullet holes where the Panthers shot at police in the kitchen turned out to be a picture of nail holes, and the bullet-ridden "bathroom" door turned out to be the inside of the bedroom door.
It would not die because the coroner's office mis-represented Hampton's fatal wounds, because Hanrahan would not permit the FBI to interrogate his men in private. It developed that the FBI .was involved, having been wiretapping and tailing the Panthers, and the Justice Department itself had set up a special task force on the Black Panthers last August, a task force aimed at countering the threat to national security.
Events had shaken the country's trust in the social order. Calls for a thorough and impartial investigation intensified to the point that there are now some eight bodies planning such a probe. But there is little prospect that findings of the investigations will convince any large spectrum of the population.
The Panther Party would not have it otherwise. They are not interested in the findings of a "blue ribbon committee" or a "grand jury investigation" designed, or, in the words of Attorney General John Mitchell, to "put an end to rumors and speculation that surrounded this incident,." The Panthers' belief is that to restore confidence and end speculation is to mask the exposed face of a growing fascism. Last month's Chicago raid has given the party widespread new support for its viewpoint.
Fred Hampton said last June, "I just went to a wake where a young man had been shot in the head by a pig. And you know this is bad. But it heightens the contradictions in the community. These things a lot of times organize the people better than we can organize ourselves."
All of the investigations of the raid will be forced to sift through a mass of conflicting testimony. The police version, reenacted for CBS television in a special 28-minute program directed by the State's Attorney's office, must be rejected on the basis of the available evidence. One policeman in the reenactment, for example, describes three shots being fired at him as he enters the kitchen door, the film having been taped before those three bullet holes had been shown to be nail, holes.
The Panther version may never come to light in its entirety. Defense attorneys for the seven surviving Panthers (charged with attempted murder) plan to retain their best evidence until the trial, and they may be in a powerful bargaining position to have the charges dropped. Panther officers have generally confined themselves to characterizing the raid as a
"political assassination" and denying that any Panthers fired at police.
The hard physical evidence is sparse, but heavily weighted toward the worst possible construction of the raid.
* There are two bullet holes in the front door leading from a small anteroom into the living room. One is about heart high and was fired through the door from the outside while the door was slightly ajar. This shot probably killed Mark Clark, whose body was found in a pool of blood behind the door. A second hole in the door, about a foot and a half below the first, may have been made by a shotgun blast from the inside of the apartment into a far corner of the anteroom near the ceiling. The crazy angle of the blast suggests that Clark's gun may have gone off as he fell.
* The right-hand side of the living room wall is covered with 42 closely stitched bullet holes, mainly from a machine gun. The shots were fired from the doorway and from the center of the living room, the shots from the center of the room penetrating the walls of two adjacent bedrooms.
* The back door was forced from the outside. Two rear windows, in the kitchen and in Hampton's rear bedroom, were broken in from the outside. There is no sign of gunfire in the rear of the house except for the bedrooms, which are punctured with bullet holes. Standing in the entranceway between the kitchen and the dining room, you can see that four shotgun blasts were fired from that area three into Hampton's bedroom and one, penetrating two closets, lodging in the far wall of the middle bedroom.
* Hampton was shot from above while lying in bed. According to art independent autopsy conducted by the former chief pathologist for the County Coroner's office and witnessed by three physicians, two bullets entered Hampton's head from the right and from above, at a 45 degree angle.
Whatever happened in that apartment on the morning of December 4, it could not possibly have been the 20-minute "gun battle" that the police and the State's Attorney's office have described again and again. Clearly the State's Attorney's police went to the apartment heavily armed to do more than serve a search warrant for unauthorized and unregistered guns (a minor offense). But why now?
Why the Panthers?_____-
The answer furnished by many columnists and commentators"that the Panthers were an unpopular, probably dangerous group, and therefore the authorities may have overstepped the bounds of propriety in curbing their activities-does not hold up.
The Panthers were and are a popular, successful group, and it is precisely because of that success that they have become the targets of a nationwide governmental campaign of control This fact presents us with a far more serious issue of national policy. Theoretically we believe that any organization (and particularly any political organization) is entitled to win as much popular support as its platform and leadership permit. Surely this is the democratic way. But we make exceptions to that rule, particularly during periodic "red scares." Then, any group associated with an "international Communist conspiracy" or, in the words of the Chicago Tribune, a "criminal con spiracy" are denied that basic right.
So, with the rapid spread of Black Panther Party chapters across tht country in the past two years, and with the intellectual leadership that has made the Panther Party the ideological leader of most of the white radical left, and with the surprising organizational strength in cities from Hartford, Connecticut, to Peoria, Illinois, came increased governmental attention.
When Mitchell took office last January, The New York Times relates, he officially labeled the Black Panther Party a subversive threat to the national security"thereby authorizing the FBI to tap Panther phones and bug Panther offices. In July, J. Edgar Hoover gave the Panther Party the distinction of being "the greatest threat to the internal security of the extraordinary step of setting up a special task force on the Panthers, made up of representatives from its civil rights, internal security and criminal divisions.
The situation was similar at the local leveL The Illinois chapter of the Black Panther Party was founded in November of 1968 by Hampton and by Bobby Rush, the current chairman. Six months later, the Panthers had become the strongest organization in Chicago's black

community. Its influence extended beyond the ghetto to alliances with a variety of groups including the national office of the Students for a Democratic Society, an Appalachian white youth gang called the Young Patriots and a Puerto Rican gang called the Young Lords.
The Panthers were respected because they spoke of carrying arms for self-defense (although they never publicly bore arms in the city), because they had a coherent socialist ideology and because they had a genius for organizing and administration. In the March special al-dermanic election they aided an independent candidate by stationing members outside of precincts where there were complaints of vote fraud. The candidate almost forced a runoff in one of the Democratic Party strongholds. In April, a party spokesman lambasted 5000 peace ...archers for not checking with the Panthers before conducting the march, and the march's leadership admitted its error. In May, they concluded an agreement with the Black P. Stone Nation, Chicago's most powerful teen gang, after having converted its traditional rivals, the East Side Disciples, to full Panther membership.
Days later, Mayor Daley announced that the city was launching a "war on gangs," which would be headed by State's Attorney Hanrahan. Hanrahan listed the Panthers as prime targets in his campaign, and talked about soaring gang violence (although a study conducted by the Chicago Journalism Review revealed that gang-related youth crime had actually declined during the year).
Fred Hampton soon had 25 criminal charges filed against him, but only one conviction"the somewhat strange case of assault in connection with the robbery of' $71 worth of ice cream. (Hampton commented: "I may be a big dude, but I can't eat no $71 worth of ice cream.")
Despite the constant arrests and the repeated raids on their headquarters the Black Panther Party continued to grow in strength. Favorable articles about the party's free breakfast program for schoolchildren were carried in three of the city's five daily newspapers, embarrassing city officials into launching their own, hopelessly bureaucratic free breakfast program Plans were announced, funds raised and equipment procured for a free medical clinic, to be opened on the West Side. By October, Chicago newspapers did not
find it unusual to quote Hampton's reaction to the "Weatherman" demonstration scheduled for down-town Chicago: he denounced them as "anarchistic" and "Custeristic"
On November 4, the Black Panther Party, somewhat weakened by arrests and raids, was still the most powerful single independent organization in the city. Its program of putting socialism into practice had attracted wide support. Its policy of analyzing problems by reference to economic class, not race, was working to depolarize whites and Blacks during demonstrations, and erroneous descriptions of the members as "racists" or "Black power militants" in the local press were beginning to be corrected.
The Black Panthers made the federal subversive list, they became a prime target for Chicago officialdom because of their success. I don't suggest that Mayor' Daley cynically set out to destroy the party because it might bring success to bis enemies at the polls"or that the Justice Department set out to crush the party nationally because it wanted to protect the country's big businesses against socialism
Mitchell and Hoover see the Panthers as an arm of an International Communist conspiracy (has not Panther information minister Eldridge Cleaver visited Cuba and Algeria while in exile"even lavishing his highest praise on the North Korean government?).
Mayor Daley views the Panthers as much of the rest of the population views them"as "Communists"; and worse still, young Black Communists who carry arms. (The Panthers are not reticent to express their views: they will explain patiently at a press conference that their political ideology is based on Marx and Lenin, and that they look to other revolutionary leaders, including Mao Tse-tung, for examples of how to translate ideology into political power.)
Policemen all over the country see the Panthers as their explicit enemies. The Panthers called the police "pigs," and even talk of killing pigs. (To the Panthers, "pig" means most importantly the "pig power structure," and secondarily the "pig police" who enforce the will of that power structure on the country's Black colonies.)
There is a "conspiracy" to get the Panthers, and it is a conspiracy tied t gether by the mutual convictions of
Imported shoes Blacklite posters Incense Body Shirts Hand carvings Hookahs Jewelry Stationary Greek handbags Bell bottoms
trade wind
Come one and all
100 WEST HIGH ST. --1
policemen, local government and federal government. It is a conspiracy that puts the country's professed ideals to a hard test. Are we prepared to allow revolutionary Marxists"Leninists to campaign for public support and public office? Theoretically we are. Theoretically (at least according to a June 9, Supreme Court decision) we also cannot convict someone for merely advocating the moral propriety or necessity of using violence to overthrow the government.
But in practice we are not prepared to view the Black Panthers as a political party. One might argue that the Panthers should disarm if they are serious about politics and about only using their weapons for self-defense. The bearing of arms may be a fetish carried over from the formation of the party in Oakland in 1966, when it was called the "Black Panther Party for Self Defense," and when its primary goal was to defend Blacks from police harassment. Undoubtedly, the very existence of arms does much to provoke the police. But there are problems' with this argument: there is nothing illegal about carrying arms; that right is protected by the U.S. Constitution, Twenty Panthers have died in gun battles with police around the country (although police have died also"two in Chicago just two weeks before the raid). The Hampton killing itself r ises the grim possibility that the Panthers, even today in Chicago, do need guns for self-defense.
The State's Attorney's raid suggested another disturbing view"that this country is moving steadily toward the extreme political right. The proposed investigations of the raid provide an example of the extent of that shift. The FBI investigating? But the FBI has been involved in nationwide raids against the Panthers. The Justice Department? Attorney General Mitchell's approach to law enforcement is not reassuring.
The main investigation is to be conducted by a special U.S. District Court grand jury in Chicago. A seven"man racially integrated team of federal investigators, headed by Assistant Attorney General Jerris Leonard, will present the evidence to the jury. Leonard, head of the civil rights division, last May explained to Jay Miller, the executive director of Illinois American Civil Liberties Union, why Bobby Seale had been included among the Chicago Conspiracy trial defendants. "The Panthers are a bunch of hoodlums," he said. "We've got to get them."
* * *Copyright 1970 Harrison-Blaine, New Jersey, reprinted by permission The New Republic. Mr. Chandler is senior, editor of The Chicago Journalism Review.
High school unrest seen as preview
by Phil Semas "jv-"-Chronicle of Higher Education:
(CPS)-During the past few months, student radicals on many college campuses have sounded a warning in virtually the same words: "If you think we're bad, wait until some of these high school kids get into college."
So far during the present academic year, activism in the high schools has been even more widespread than in the colleges. Among the incidents:
* At Bladensburg High School in the Maryland suburbs of Washington, D.C., more than 60 students were arrested after a series of demonstrations over demands by Black students. The students charged that Principal David L. Dean had refused to discuss their demands, but the school later decided to establish a Black studies course and to allow establishment of a Black cultural organization.
* Balboa High School in San Francisco suffered two days of violent battles between white and Black students. There were no specific demands involved and Principal Harold Zimmerman put the blame on "pure hatred" between the races.
* Students ran through hallways and broke some classroom windows at Riverside High School in Milwaukee in a protest over school regulations.
* Several high schools and junior high schools in Detroit were closed after racial disturbances.
* At Central High School in Little Rock, Ark."where National Guardsmen were called out to enforce integration 13 years ago"150 Black students staged a walkout, charging racist policies at the
school All were suspended.
There have been many other disturbances and many quieter, non-violent protests.
During the 1968-69 academic year some of the worst disturbances occurred at schools in Los Angeles and the New York City area.
All 18 senior and junior high schools in the predominantly Negro south central area of Los Angeles were hit by fires, assaults on teachers, picketing, rock-throwing, and windowbreaking. On one day 65 fires were set in schools in the area. The violence started after the arrest of a Black college student at one of the schools.
A study of newspaper clippings by the Center for Research and Education in American Civil Liberties at Columbia University showed that from November, 1968, through February, 1969, there were 239 serious disruptions involving 348 high schools in 38 states and the District of Columbia.
"In this short period, the number of dippings we have been receiving