xt7ffb4whp1s https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7ffb4whp1s/data/mets.xml Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company. 1920  books b98-31-40188877 English Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company, : Richmond : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Tobacco United States. Tobacco  : northern and western grown / published by Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company. text Tobacco  : northern and western grown / published by Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company. 1920 2002 true xt7ffb4whp1s section xt7ffb4whp1s 

          P ublish cd bM




   High Grades of Fertilizer

                          Recommended by

      The Soil Improvement Committee of the

              National Fertilizer Association.

                                    Sandy Soil Loam Soil
    Crop                             SPA-A-P    SA-A-P
Alfalfa, seeded down .................... 10-2-4     12-2-2
Alfalfa, top dressing....             12-0-4     12-0-2
Asparagus..............                7-5-2      7-5-2
Apples, sod orchard ..................... 7-5-2       8-6-0
Apples, tilled orchard ................... 10-3-4    10-3-2
Barley .................................. 10-2-4     12-2-2
Buckwheat ............................. 10-2-4       12-2-2
Brussels Sprouts ........................ 10-3-4     10-3-2
Beets .................................. 10-3-4      10-3-2
Beans, garden .......................... 10-3-4      10-2-4
Beans, field ............................. 10-2-4    12-2-2
Blackberries ............................ 12-2-2     12-2-2
Corn, for grain .......................... 10-2-4    12-2-2
Corn, for silage ......................... 10-2-4    12-2-2
Clover, seeding ......................... 10-2-4     12-2-2
Clover, top dressing ..................... 12-0-4    12-0-2
Cabbage ................................ 10-3-4      10-3-2
Cauliflower ............................. 10-3-4     10-3-2
Carrots ................................ 10-3-4      10-3-2
Cucumbers ............................. 10-3-4       10-3-2
Celery .................................. 10-3-4     10-3-2
Grass, seeding .......................... 10-2-4     12-2-2
Lettuce ................................. 10-3-4     10-3-2
Millet .................................. 10-2-4     12-2-2
Meadow, top dressing ................... 7-5-2        8-6-0
Mangels ................................ 10-3-4      10-3-2
Melons ................................. 10-3-4      10-3-2
Oats .................................. 10-2-4       12-2-2
Onions ................................. 8-2-8        8-2-8
Permanent Pastures, top dressing ........ 12-0-4    12-0-2
Parsnips..........................,.10-3-4       10-3-2
Potatoes, late ......................... 10-3-4      10-3-2
Peas, field .........................     10-2-4     12-2-2
Peas, garden .........................   10-3-4      10-2-4
Peaches.   ......................... 7-5-2        8-6-0
Rye, fall seeding .... .-.-.......-...... 10-2-4     12-2-2
Rye, spring top dressing ......... ....... 7-5-2      8-6-0
Rutabagas.........................    10-3-4     10-3-2
Raspberries .........................     12-2-2     12-2-2
Sweet Corn.........................   10-3-4     10-3-2
Sugar Beets .........................    10-3-4      10-3-2
Spinach.    ......................... 7-5-2       7-5-2
Strawberries, spring setting ............. 10-3-4    10-3-2
Strawberries, top dressing ............... 7-5-2      8-6-0
Squash..........................      10-3-4     10-3-2
Timothy, top dressing ................... 7-5-2       8-6-0
Turnips..........................     10-3-4     10-3-2
Tomatoes, cannery ...................... 10-2-4      10-2-4
Wheat, fall seeding ..................... 10-2-4     12-2-2
Wheat, spring top dressing .............. 7-5-2       8-6-0



Tob acco


                 Published by




Richmond, Va.
Norfolk, Va.
Alexandria, Va.
Durham, N. C.
Winston-Salem, N. C.
Baltimore, Md.

Charleston, S. C.
Columbia, S. C.
Jacksonville, Fla.
Cincinnati, Ohio.
Shreveport, La.
New York City.

Atlanta, Ga.
Savannah, Ga.
Athens, Ga.
Memphis, Tenn.
Montgomery, Ala.
Mobile, Ala.

Copyright 1920, Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co., Richmond Va.



An inside view of one of the factories that make your tobacco into the finished product CIGARS.

,- MXR4,                'AJr"t aM,,non
  "',         "   , ,              i,  
               ha=u o, Rld,          11
tbe, t            U1, 17CIIIM', capability 1




              Northern and Western Grown
Over a Billion Pounds a Year:
   The production of all types of Tobacco in the 24 Tobacco growing
states in 1917 was 1,196,451,000 pounds on 1,446,600 acres. The following
table shows Tobacco acreage and production in these Tobacco growing
states according to U. S. Department of Agriculture, December 30, 1917,
tabulated in order of production.

Acreage and Production in 24 Tobacco Growing States

Kentucky                .
North Carolina            .-- -    -
Virginia...            ............. ----
Ohio -......---------
Tennessee.._.     ....       -...
South Carolina            ...     .     ....
Connecticut.-----...                 ..-...-.-.-..
Maryland. ...............
Indiana                ...        ----------------
West Virginia.                       ...-
Florida                . -.,,- -------------------.-.-.-- ----------------.---
New   York. -----------------------,------------ ---
Georgia--.      --------------------------------- ------
Illinois. ,,-------------------------------------
New Hampshire. -    ,-,---------
Vermont                ......-..-..-.. -.
Alabama ,..       .-              -
Texas                  . -              .
Yields Per Acre:

Acres     Pounds
 474,000  426,600,000
 325,000  204,750,000
 185,000  129,500,000
 103,200   99,072,000
 101,000   81,810,000
 41,500   58,100,000
 72,000   51,120,000
 48,300   45,885,000
 21,100   29,540,000
 28,600   22,594,000
 14,800   14,060,000
   8,400   11,833,000
   11,300    9,040,000
   3,100    3,410,000
   2,500    3,125,000
   3,000    2,820,000
   1,600    1,600,000
   700      560,000
   300      210,000
   600      210,000
   100      167,000
   100      165,000
   200      146,(00
   200      134,(00
1,446,600 1,196,451,000

   In no section of these 1,446,600 Tobacco growing acres is the yield per
acre so high as in the New England States. Hew Hampshire in 1917 had a
yield of 1,670pounds to the acre. Vermont 1,650 per acre, and Massachusetts
and Connecticut both over 1,400 each per acre-whereas Ohio only grew
960 pounds per acre on its 103,200 acres of Tobacco. Had Ohio an average
yield per acre the same as New Hampshire, 1,670 pounds, it would have
produced 173,344,000 pounds instead of only 99,072,000 pounds, or an increase
of 73,272,000 pounds. This increase at only 10 cents a pound would have
netted the Ohio growers 7,327,200 more than they received for their Tobacco
crop last year.



Leading States in Value Per Acre:
   Florida leads all states with a value per acre of 4627.00 on her 3,100
acres. Georgia is second with 570.00 to her credit, and the New England
States are third, with Massachusetts and Connecticut having a value per
acre of 541.06 and S,37.60 respectively. In 1915 and 1916 Connecticut
lead all states in value per acre with 444).10 in 1916 anl 229.50 for 1915.

     A Few Facts of Interest to The Growers and
                    Consumers of Tobacco

300 Years Ago and To-day:
    If the Tobacco growers of Kentucky had received the same price for
their product in 1917 that John Rolfe received for his Tobacco in 1618, they
would have received the enormous total of over 233 millions of dollars, and
the entire crop for the United States would have amounted to over 655
millions of dollars. John Rolfe was growing Tobacco in the streets of
Jamestown as early as 1612, and in 1618 the first official statement of Tobacco
exports is recorded, which amounted to 20,000 poun(ls at a valuation of
541 cents a pound.
   To what extent the Tobacco industry has grown, since this first expor-
tation may be gathered from the fact that the manufacturers of Tobacco
products in this country paid to the IT. S. Government in 1916 the sum of
SS,06.3,947.51 for internal revenue taxes, an increase of S,106,573.97 over
the previous year.





11I VX



   Kentucky leads all States in the production of raw leaf Tobacco,
Pennsylvania leads all States in the manufacture of cigars; New York in
the manufacture of cigarettes, North Carolina in manufacture of smoking
Tobacco, and Missouri in the manufacture of chewing Tobacco. That we
are great smokers in this country is evidenced by the fact that we smoked
about 25 billions of cigars and cigarettes last year, and about a quarter of
a billion pounds of smoking Tobacco.
   As late as July 3, 1917, the U. S. Department of Agriculture reported
that the total production in 1915 of
     Smoking Tobacco was                     234,937,827 pounds
     Plug Tobacco was                        10..150,658,608 pounds
     Snuff Tobacco was                       . 31,898,407 pounds
     Twist Tobacco was.                      . 14,829,476 pounds
     Fine Cut Tobacco was ....................... -  10,045,001 pounds

           Total ----- -        .        ---------442,369,219 pounds
   One single company alone sold 36,000,000 worth of cigars, cigarettes,
etc., for the twelve months ending June 30, 1917, in the United States. In
the month of Mlay this same company sold over 3,000,000,000 cigarettes.
   The aborigines of America grew Tobacco long before the event of the
White Alan. The French explorers, Marquette and LaSalle, found it in
cultivation and use by the Indians along the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers
and tributaries as early as 1669 and 1673. Nearly 100 years later Capt.
Christopher Gist came down the Ohio River in 1750 and found Tobacco
being grown by a tribe of Indians at Shawanestown, now Portsmouth, Ohio.

Ohio Makes Great Strides:
    In 1917 the Ohio-Nfiami Valley produced the greatest amount of Cigar
Type Tobacco in the United States, i. e., 61,692,000 pounds; Pennsylvania
58,100,000 pounds was second, and Wisconsin third with 45,885,000 pounds.
    Great strides have been made in some of the Ohio Tobacco growing
sections, for instance, in the county of Gallia only 8,010 pounds of Tobacco
were grown in 1869, which increased to 2,805,439 pounds in 1909.
    Adams County, in the Southern or Burley Districts produced only
43,060 pounds of Tobacco in 1859, which in 1909 increased to 8,121,165.
    Darke County produced 167,989 pounds of Tobacco in 1889, but in 1909
the Tobacco growers of Darke County produced 16,618,500 pounds of fine
cigar flller Tobacco from only 19,129 acres.
   Montgomery County growers produced 15,291,779 pounds on 27,253
    Miami Valley alone produced 54,314,620 pounds of Tobacco out of a
total production for the State of Ohio of 88,603,308 pounds, in 1909.

Heavy Fertilizing Pays Big Profits:
    The New England states lead the 13 principal Tobacco growing states
in the value per acre of their Tobacco crops. Massachusetts leads with a
value per acre of 541.06, basis December 1-17 price; Connecticut is a close
second with 537.60 value per acre. On pages 11, 16. 18, 23, 28, 29, 32, 33,
38 and 42 will be found illustrations of some typical New England Tobacco
fields on which V-C was liberally applied. The New England growers realize
the advisability of feeding their crops bountifully, and their yields are
evidence of the fact that heavy fertilizing pays big profits.



Big Burley Production:
    White Burley Tobacco in Kentucky amounts to an out put of 170 million
pounds. The total production of Burley Tobacco in the U. S. in 1914 was
224,644,000 lbs.; next to Kentucky the other states producing Burley are in
order of their importance- Ohio, West Virginia, Indiana and Missouri.
The receipts of Burley Tobacco on the Cincinnati market had grown from
49,257 hogsheads in 1882 to 63,910 in 1902 representing shipments from the
Burley Tobacco districts in Kentucky, 6hio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri,
West Virginia, Tennessee, etc.
    A                           A              I        A

              Development of Tobacco Culture
   From the small beginnings in the commercial cultivation of Tobacco
by the early Virginians of the Jamestown settlement, as has already been
pointed out, it is a magnificent development to the multiplicity o (types
and sub-types now grown extensively in the majority of the States east of
the Mississippi River from Florida to Wisconsin and from Louisiana and
even Texas to New York and New England.

Under leaf surface, and shapes of tobacco leaves: on right, leaf of Zimmer Spanish: In middle.
      leaf of Ohio or Washington Seedleaf; and at left, leaf of Pennsylvania Seedleat.
   As we have seen the production of Tobacco in the United States now
amounts to over 1,000,000,000 pounds per annum, which is valued at 100,-
000,000 to 150,000,000      Of this, some 400,000,000 pounds are annually
exported consisting almost entirely of what is known as the heavy or export




types produced principally in Kentucky, Tennessee, the Carolinas, Virginia
and Maryland. We also import some 50,000,000 to 60,000,000 pounds princi-
pally of the cigar types of leaf produced in Cuba, Porto Rico, the Dutch
East Indies, and tne Philippines, including some 10,000,000 pounds from
Turkey and vicinity.
                      Difference in Type
    As Tobacco culture, in its development, extended to new soil types in
different sections there came about marked differences in quality and style
of leaf produced. Herein we see the origin of the diversity of types now
produced in the United States.
    Some types are dark in color, nearly black in some cases, coarse in
fibre and very strong and high in nicotine. From such a type it is a striking
and almost unbelievable contrast to the delicate thin leaf produced under
cheese cloth shade in the Connecticut Valley in New England and in certain
parts of Florida and Georgia. Then there are the beautiful bright, orange
and lemon yellow types of Virginia and the Carolinas, also the peculiar
White Burley of central Kentucky, southern Ohio and West Virginia, the
somewhat similar Maryland export type, the spangled Tobacco of eastern
Ohio, and the jet black strongly aromatic Perique of Louisiana.
    One of the most important differentiations in type is that of the
Northern Cigar Types produced in the Connecticut Valley in New England,
New York State, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Wisconsin. The annual produc-
tion of these cigar types is upwards of 200,000,000 Pounds or about 20 per
cent. of the entire production of Tobacco in the United States. In the
Tobacco trade these cigar types are sharply differentiated from the so
called manufacturing and export types used in the manufacture of smoking
Tobacco, chewing Tobacco, snuff and cigarettes, and exported in large
                  Modern Tobacco Culture
    It is easy to understand, vith all this diversity in types of Tobacco
produced in the different districts, that there must also be very striking
differences in methods of production. Soils vary strikingly, as do also
methods of fertilization cultivation, curing, handling and marketing.
    It is the purpose of this little book to assist Tobacco growers by fur-
nishing reliable up-to-date information as to the methods which have been
found most profitable in the various Tobacco growing districts.

Tobacco A Very Profitable Crop to Grow:
   The great variation in type and quality of Tobacco; the diversity of
soil in the Tobacco growing section, some suitable and some unsuitable;
the importance of proper fertilization; and the skill required for proper
curing and handling, all these conspire to make Tobacco culture a complex
business offering large profits to the grower who is really master of his
    Tobacco is a sensitive plant, and its yield, composition, size, color,
superficial quality, and market value are greatly influenced by soil, climate,
weather, fertilization and treatment given from the selection of the seed
to placing on the market. It may safely be said that there is no other
important farm crop the value and profitableness of which is so dependent
upon the knowledge, care, skill, good judgment and experience of the grower.




A seed plant of Hybrid 201, A new type which seems to promise a good yield of fine appearing
                       tobacco. Bulletin 239, Ohio Experiment Station.




N 0 R T II E'R A'



Iobacco on the Iarm of W. b. I oiing, Urovn b-Q price Cr 3on at
iorse Ca''e, K3.,    clho sag 'Wo hatk   Used V-C   i-ioio Fertilizert  
krotjghout this S9ear and hope v'ocan   tg!tsamrnkind."






A & B-Glass and canvas covered seed beds. B-Canvas removed and sah raised for ventilation.
Bulletin 238. Ohio Exp. Sta. 0-Showing plant beds as used by Dept. of Agriculture. U. S. A.

          Cultivation of Northern Cigar Tobacco

Management of Seed Beds:
    The first essential of a profitable crop of Tobacco is a plentiful supply
of good healthy plants available at planting time. The growing season in
the Northern Cigar Districts is rather short at best, so it is highly im-
portant to have the plants ready on time, which is around the first of June
in the northern districts. To do this the beds should be prepared and
sowed early in April.




Field of Joseph P. Lutz, R. F. D. No. 1, Union, Ohio. He says it pays to use V. C. See his
Location of Bed and Area Required:
   The bed or beds should run about east and west, and be protected on
the north and northwest by a suitable wind brake.
    About 100 square feet will generally yield sufficient plants for an acre of
Tobacco, but to furnish this number it will be necessary to draw over the
lbe(l a number of times in a period of two or three weeks. It is safer to
allow about 150 square feet of bed for each acre of Tobacco to be planted.

Sterilizing the Bed:
    Plant beds are subject to certain damping-off diseases of a bacterial
or fungous nature such as stem rot and root rot. The germs of these diseases
exist in the soil, and not infrequently cause great damage or the almost
complete destruction and failure of the bed. Fortunately there are at
least two practical methods of destroying these germs in the soil thus
preventing the diseases and the consequent risk of losing a crop of Tobacco.

Sterilizing the Bed With Steam:
    Both the Connecticut and Ohio Experiment Stations recommend
steam sterilization as practical and the preferable method when a six to
eight horse power boiler is available capable of maintaining a pressure of
80 to 100 pounds. A steam tight pan of galvanized iron or wood must be
provided. The width of the pan should be sufficient to fit inside the perma-
nent frame of the bed if it has one, (six feet is the more common width)
and ten feet long. The sides of the pan are about 8 inches high which is
fitted with a steam hose connection at one end and also with suitable handles
at each end for conveniently lifting the pan in moving it from place to place.
    If manure is to be use on the bed it should be applied before steaming
in order that any weed seeds it contains may be killed. The soil should
be worked up about as in preparation for the seed to a depth of about four
inches, as this allows the steam to enter and heat up the soil much more



CdR O PS        is


A &I C-Beds fo,growing small lots of many Ibinds of plants, the different kinds separated by a
     lath. In C. pinted Stakes are used and numberd in duplicate, to be isitti each jot a, it is
     trans planted.  BulIlet inr 239. Ohio E-o. Sta.  
B-Shawiog` effectt of treatment in preve nting stem   rot Fungus.    Bolletin  18111  Cong. Eun.Ski
0-Tobacco seed beds with gras s Cocers partly removed sho-sng small seedlings,       U. S.Frmr
    Oulletin 571.






    Invert the pan over the bed, settling the edges well into the soil and
apply the steam at a pressure of 80 to 100 pounds for a period of forty minutes
to an hour in a place. It will take longer with the lower steam pressure.
Put weights on the pan to hold it down, if necessary. When thoroughly
steamed remove the pan to an adjacent part of the bed and repeat. After
removing the pan the temperature of the soil at a depth of two or three
inches should register 200 to 210 degrees Fahrenheit. Details of the con-
struction of the pan are given in Circular No. 156 of the Ohio Experiment
Station, Wooster, Ohio.
    Weeds as well as the disease germs are killed by the steaming, and
the saving in expense of weeding the bed will offset the expense of steaming.

Sterilizing With Formalin:
    If the steam outfit is not available, satisfactory results may be obtained
by thoroughly drenching the soil with Formalin solution of a strength ob-
tamined by mixing 1 gallon of the 40 per cent. formaldehyde, as obtained from
the drug store or dealer in chemical supplies, with 50 gallons of water. This
amount will be sufficient to treat about 100 square feet of bed. Where it is
known that infection is present this amount may be increased to 12 gallons
of Formalin to 75 gallons of water. Apply the solution as evenly over the
bed as possible, soaking slowly so that the liquid will not stand in pools
or run off. Sometimes it is best to make two or three applications of the
liquid instead of applying all at one time, in order to secure a more even
penetration of the soil. Immediately after applying lay over the bed some
material such as canvas to keep in the fumes.
    It is preferable to make the formalin treatment in the fall, but it may
be applied in the spring if the bed is thoroughly aired and allowed to dry
out sufficiently to bring it into good tilth before fitting the soil and sowing
the seed. This will require about a week under favorable conditions.

Fertilizing the Seed Bed:
    The seed bed should be made thoroughly rich, and if the best results
are desired high grade commercial Fertilizers should be used, stable
manure may be used to render the soil mellow and friable, but it is im-
portant also to use a liberal quantity of the more readily available and
quicker acting commercial Fertilizer of the highest grade. Manure is
likely to contain innumerable weed seeds, and if these are not destroyed
by sterilization they may almost ruin the bed or cause great expense for
hand wee(ling. Fertilizers should be applied a week or two before sowing,
and should be well raked into the soil at the rate of from two to six pounds
to every six square yards, according to the natural richness of the bed and
the quantity of manure used.

Sowing the Seed:
    If a plant bed is to produce a maximum number of first class plants the
seed must be evenly distributed over the bed, and they must not be too
thick. If the plants stand too thickly on the bed they will be spindling and
tender and much more readily subject to the damping-off diseases. A
rounded teaspoonful of well cleaned seed to 200 square feet of bed is about
right. Mix this quantity of seed thoroughly with about three quarts of
some good sowing material, (dry wood ashes is excellent) and distribute
as evenly as possible, going over the bed at least twice.




Loading Wagons ,i
      1 AC , r

obacco on the Farm of A. M. (
A User of V-C.

rrwging    1 ol.mcco old 5tkei o  the r.arm o[ V. L. OCQok. 13112 ;, VI.
               RJh Gr atiL aiJJ-, V-C.

Cuttt.n, -1obacco tPIrit; on the 1ri, kA A gust Nfikolite, .l
       v  Wapping, CcLim.  Also , I i f VC.i



   As Tobacco seed are very small they should be raked in only lightly
if at all, but rather they should be firmed into the surface of the finely
prepared soil by rolling or other suitable means.

Care of the Bed:
   As soon as the seed are sowed the bed should be covered with a good
grade of muslin. Sometimes glazed hot-bed sash are used. On very cold
nights strips of carpet or other suitable material should be spread over
the bed as additional protection.
   The surface of the soil should not be allowed to become dry during the
period of germination or many of the see(s may be lost. During dry weather,
while the plants are growing, it may be necessary to water the bed three
or four times a week, but moderate moisture is better and more likely to
produce healthy plants than too much watering to the point of keeping the
soil continually soaked.
   Regular and thorough ventilation of the bed is one of the most im-
portant requisites for the growing of good healthy plants. The damping-off
and other bacterial and fungous diseases are decidedly favored by warm
muggy conditions in the led, and the plants grow spindling and very tender
if the bed is not properly aired out by turning back the covering in the
middle of the day at frequent intervals as required. The Connecticut
Experiment Station in Bulletin No. 1S0 states that the most common causes
for complete or partial failure of seed beds are too thick sowing and want
of proper care in watering and particularly in airing the beds.


Of Great Importance:
   There is perhaps no other important field crop where proper and liberal
fertilization with commercial Fertilizers is of such controlling influence
as with Tobacco. The wise use of commercial Fertilizers not only permits
of growing high grade Tobacco on soil that would not produce these grades
without Fertilizer, but as is now being demonstrated in these districts,
will enable the Tobacco growers to produce more per acre, often more than
doubling the yield, and gives decidedly better quality and greatly in-
creased profits.

Liberal Application Pays Best:
   Throughout the Northern Tobacco Districts from Ohio east, including
Pennsylvania, New York, and the New England States, the growing of
heavy yields of the best grades of Tobacco is becoming more and more
dependent upon the quality and quantity of the commercial Fertilizers
used. In all these districts, as well as in the Southern Tobacco Districts,
the U. S. Government and State Experiment Stations tests show that the
heavy yields, best grades and top prices follow the use of high grade Fertil-
izers applied in liberal quantities. Thus, Bulletin No. 2:38 of the Ohio
Experiment Station reports that: "Plat 13 at the Station received the largest
total application of commercial Fertilizers, and is the most profitable plat
on the farm." This plat received 1,140 pounds of a complete Tobacco Fertil-
izer per acre, and the author states further that it is quite possible, even
probable, that a larger application would give even greater net returns.




e y.c

,53-/Acre . ri xe

( Chi. Smn l LtUran i   i-r'.7   6-
Thi5 0!d t 15 per 1). D  A i I3,,ndlr, 11 go5aGod  ro
           ofC . Av-c: L i `tJ. l

-. tt-  Pceln-s-rimi, a hi xc:.J.A.J. ,..I
all., . r. .Jp Snrt  VrC Bgri I- Is-s  
   f   P       -      7...






A-Tobacco seedlings   showing healthy root and those sightly or badly Injured by root rot.
13-1-Effect of rot on roots of mature field plants.
C-Cankered area extending on stem from ground upward.
D-Stem   of tobacco plant girdled under ground,  All above from  Connecticut Experiment Statlo.
    Oullstin 180.

il =-=



         mahian D. Case, Granby, conn. Tne arst priming nanging in the sned.
Over 100 Per Cent. Increase:
   Bulletin 285 of the Ohio Station reports a yield of 1,408 pounds of leaf
per acre as an average for six years following the application of 900 pounds
of a complete Fertilizer, and only 607 pounds of leaf as an average for six
years from a, field.to which no Fertilizer was applied, an increase of 791
pounds per acre, which is considerably more than 100 per cent. increase in
quantity, and the heavier yield was of better quality.

Highest Yields in U. S.:
    In New England both the Connecticut Experiment Station and the
Massachusetts Experiment Station have made extensive experiments with
commercial Fertilizers on Tobacco, and from these experiments has de-
veloped the custom, because it has proved most practical and profitable,
of using commercial Fertilizers with the most discrimination and in the
most liberal quantities anywhere in the United States. Indeed the general
practice there is to use from 2,000 pounds to 3,000 pounds of high grade
Fertilizers per acre, and the use of this higher quantity is by no means
uncommon, and is increasing in frequency because it has been found that as
much as and sometimes even more than 3,000 pounds per acre give the better
results. As a result of this liberal use of Fertilizers the average yield of
Tobacco per acre in Connecticut and Massachusetts is by far the highest
in the United States, and the money value per acre is at a still greater
proportionate increase as compared with any other section of the country,
as has already been pointed out. In these States a harvest of 2,000 pounds
or more of cured leaf per acre is very common, and a money value of S400
to 500 per acre is a frequent occurrence. These figures are for the sun-
grown product. Under shade the raw Tobacco in the bundle generally brings
600 to 800 per acre. In the other Northern Cigar Tobacco Districts (and
it is likewise true for the Southern Heavy Tobacco Districts) the tendency
is toward following the lead of New England in making increasingly liberal
applications of commercial Fertilizers to Tobacco, and with most gratifying






For Cigar Tobacco Avoid Fertilizers Containing Chlorine:

    One of the important points of quality in Northern Tobacco, used as
it is almost entirely in the manufacture of cigars, is that it should burn
well, and this applies to the wrappers and binders as well as fillers. A
liberal use of potash in the Fertilizer is beneficial to the burning quality,
but it is important that the potash be derived from sources not containing
chlorine, as this chlorine is very likely to offset the favorable effect of the
potash and cause the production of Tobacco of bad burning quality. Muriate
of potash, Kainit and manure salt contains chlorine, but sulphate of potash
does not contain chlorine.

Joseph P. Lutz, Union C. Exhibiting   ome of his tobacco plants grown with V. C.     8se  noi



Need of Humus in the Soil:
    One of the important points for the Northern Tobacco grower to con-
sider, especially in New England, where it is the custom to plant the same
land in Tobacco year after year, is to provide for an adequate supply of
vegetable matter in the soil to keep it mellow and friable and of good
moisture holding capacity. This can be accomplished most economically
by growing a winter cover crop, and for this purpose vetch or rye have
proven very satisfactory. The vetch is preferable because it is a legume,
thus adding to the nitrogen supply, and decays more readily in the soil
after being turned under. If rye is used it should be turned under while it
is still tender, as the hard straw decays very slowly, and in the event of
dry weather during the growing season is likely to hold the land open and
cause the drought to be more severe in its effects.

                    Preparation of the Soil

    One of the most important points in the successful growing of Tobacco
is thorou