xt7fn29p340g https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7fn29p340g/data/mets.xml Emerson, Edwin, 1869- 1906  books b92-202-30752302v3 English P.F. Collier, : New York : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. History, Modern 19th century.Miller, Marion Mills. Nineteenth century and after  : a history year by year from A.D. 1800 to the present (vol. 3)/ by Edwin Emerson, Jr. and Marion Mills Miller ; illustrated with eight colored plates and sixteen full-page engravings and two maps. text Nineteenth century and after  : a history year by year from A.D. 1800 to the present (vol. 3)/ by Edwin Emerson, Jr. and Marion Mills Miller ; illustrated with eight colored plates and sixteen full-page engravings and two maps. 1906 2002 true xt7fn29p340g section xt7fn29p340g 






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            anb aifter

    A. D. 1800 TO THE PRESENT

Member of the American Historical Association, New York
Historical Society, the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, etc.
             Litt.D. (Princeton)


           ZN THREE VOL UMES

1 8 6 1-1 9 0 6

               NEW YORK

. ,,




    COPYrRIGHT, 1906




EVENTS OF 1861 .............................................  859
EVENTS OF 1862 .............................................  871
EVENTS OF 1863..........                                    893
EVENTS OF 1864 ............................................. 908
EVENTS OF 1865 ............................................. 928
EVENTS OF 1866 ............................................. 939
EVENTS OF 1867          .           ..                      951
EVENTS OF 1868 ............................................. 959
EVENTS OF 1869...     ..             .     .   ............ 963
EVENTS OF 1870          ....,............. 971
EVENTS OF 1871...........          .                        992
EVENTS OF 1872..                                           1001
EVENTS OF 1873..         .         .          -            1004
EVENTS OF 1874 .......1009
EVENTS OF 1875.....                .        ,    .       .. 1013
EVENTS 01' 1876..                                          1016
EVENTS OF 1877..                                           1022
EVENTS OF 1878..                                           1032
EVENTS OF 1879..                                           1037
EVENTS OF 1880...                          ..-.. 1045
EVENTS OF 1881..                   ... 1051
EVENTS OF 1882..                                           1057
EVENTS OF 1883.....,,.         .   ... 1063
EVENTS OF 1884..       .           .                       1068
EVENTS OF 1885..      ..           .1072
EVENTS OF 1886..      .     .      ....,   ,,.-.. 1081
EVENTS OF 1887 ............................................... 1087
EVENTS OF 1888 .............................,...................1091
EVENTS OF 1889......,.             ...,,,,,,.... 1097
EVENTS OF 1890 ...,-,,,,,,,,,,........................,, .. 1105
                               i      XIXth Cecntuy-Vol. III-I



EVENTS OF 1891............                                 1111
EVENTS OF 1892............                                 1120
EVENTS OF 1893............                                 1125
EVENTS OF 1894............                                 1131
EVENTS OF 1895............                                 1142
EVENTS OF 1896............                                 1152
EVENTS OF 1897............                                 1163
EVENTS OF 1898............                                 1173
EVENTS OF 1899............                                 1193
EVENTS OF 1900............                                 1211
EVENTS OF 1901............                                 1233
EVENTS OF 1902............                                 1247
EVENTS OF 1903.1271
EVENTS OF 1904............                                 1289
EIVENTS OF 1905............                                1311
EVENTS OF 1906............             ...................... 1327
GENERAL INDEX........ ................;.................... 1345




RUSSO-JAPANESE PEACE CONRENCE .................... FrontwSpieOO
    Reproduced in Color from a Photograph by George Granthain

      THE CABINET.       ...............       Facing Page 876
    Reproduced in Black and White from a Painting by F. B.

THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG ................................... 900
    Reproduced in Color from a Painting by James Walker

    Reproduced in Black and White from a Painting by Henri

THE OFFIcIAL CAPrrIATION OF SEDA ......................... 972
    Reproduced in Black and White from a Painting by Anton
      von Werner

THE DEFENSE OF CHAMPIGNY....................,,    ..     . 996
    Reproduced in Color from a Painting by Edouard Detaille

    Reproduced in Black and White from a Painting by John S.

DEPARTURE OF JAPANsES TROOPS OR T       FRONT................ 1284
    Reproduced in Black and White from a Photograph by James
    H. Hare


MAP OF THE BATT      OF MUxEDN ............................... 1317

POUTICAL DIVISIONS or St   WORLD IN 1906.....................
   Map in Color.

 This page in the original text is blank.


                   EVENTS OF 1861

Italian Patriots Take Gaeta and Messina-Unification of Italy-Death
    of Cavour-Emancipation of Russian Serfs-"Star of the Wiest"
    Fired upon by Secessionists-Southern Governors Seize Federal
    Forts and Arsenals Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisi-
    ana, and Texas Secede U. S. Senators from these States Resign
    -Convention of Seceding States Elects Jefferson Davis President
    and Alexander H. Stephens Vice-President of New Confederacy-
    It Adopts Extreme States Rights Constitution-It Appoints Com-
    missions to Secure Recognition of Confederacy at 'Washington and
    European Capitals-Lincoln Declares His Purpose to Enforce Fed-
    eral Authority in South-He Appoints Strong but Inharmonious
    Cabinet-le Refuses to Receive Confederate Commissioners-Con-
    federates Bombard Fort Sumter-It Surrenders-Lincoln's Call for
    75,000 Three Months' Men is Quickly Answered-General Lee and
    Other Southerners in Union Army Resign and Offer Services to
    Their States-Virginia Secedes-Western Virginia Remains Loyal
    -Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina Secede-Massachusetts
    Regiment is Mobbed at Baltimore-Confederates Seize Harper's
    Ferry-Davis Commissions Privateers-Lincoln Proclaims Blockade
    of Southern Coast-He Calls for 65,000 Three Years' Men-Euro-
    pean Powers Recognize Belligerency of Confederacy-Davis Appoints
    Generals of Ability-Weakness of Union Military Leadership-Ma-
    gruder (Confederate) Beats Pierce at Big Bethel, Va.-Beauregard
    and J. E. Johnston (Confederate) Beat McDowell at Bull Run, Va.
    -Union Congress Calls for 500,000 Volunteers-Borrows 250,000,-
    000 and Declares Slaves of Confederates Contraband of War-Con-
    federate Congress Confiscates Property of Alien Enemies-Secretary
    Seward Sends Able Envoys to Europe to Prevent Aid to Confed-
    eracy-Mason and Slidell, Southern Commissioners to Euro e. are
    Seized on English Vessel "Trent"-Their Release by SewarX Obvi-
    ates Difficulty with England-Unionists Organize Provisional Gov-
    ernment of Missouri-Fr6mont (Union) Commands Division of the
    West-Lyon (Union) is Killed at Wilson's Creek-Sterling Price
    (Confederate) Captures Lexington, Mo.-Frmont is Displaced by
    Halleck-Kentucky Legislature Remains Loyal-Rise of Grant
    (tUnion)-He is Repulsed at Belmont, Mo.-McClellan Succeeds
    Scott as Head of Union Army-His Policy of Organization and
    Practice of Procrastination-Evans (Confederate) Defeats Baker at
    Ball's Bluff, Va.-Baker is Killed-Federal Fleet Captures Hat-
    teras and Port Royal-In China Ward and Burgevine Train Imperial
    -Uroops-Death of the Prince Consort of England.

I   N  Southern Italy the last blows for national union were
     strack early in the year. A French squadron for some
     time had prevented the Sardinian fleet from bombarding
Gaeta. By the middle of January, at last, the French Em-
peror consented to withdraw his opposition. Gaeta was bom-
barded by land and by sea. After a resistance of nearly a
month the garrison surrendered. The young Queen and



King of Naples were conveyed to the Papal States on a
French man-of-war. One month later the citadel of Messina,
after a stubborn defence of half a year, capitulated. The
union of Italy, with the exception of Rome and Venice, was
now complete. By his steadfast adherence to the national
cause, Victor Emmanuel had secured the Italian throne for
the House of Savoy. Shortly after this crowning stroke of
his policy, Cavour, the greatest statesman of modern Italy,
passed away. As he lay on his deathbed, Cavour addressed
to the priest who had come to shrive him his last words,
which summed up the future policy of Italy in regard to
Rome: "A free Church in a free State."
   The greatest event of the year was the emancipation of
the Russian serfs, as announced on February 19 in an imperial
ukase by Czar Alexander II. The serf population of Rus-
sia at that time aggregated 47,100,000 individuals. The
Government was to organize a system of loans, which would
permit the peasants attached to the soil immediately to lib-
erate themselves from their lords, while remaining debtors to
the State. The domestic servants, who were not attached to
the soil, were only to receive their personal liberty on con-
dition of serving their masters for two years. This great
measure of emancipation, as Rambaud has said in his "His-
tory of Russia," was, in fact, a settlement of accounts as to
the ancient community existing between masters and peas-
ants. It imposed sacrifice on both parties. When this was
brought home to the peasants many believed they had been
duped. A strange ferment arose in many provinces; it was
necessary to call out the soldiery, and three times the troops
had to fire on the people. In the Government of Kazan
10,000 men rose at the call of the peasant Petrof, who an-
nounced to them "the true liberty." Hundreds perished, and
Petrof was taken and shot. A revolution in Warsaw was
suppressed by the presence of 80,000 Russian soldiers.




    For Americans the year 1861 began with secession accom-
plished in one State, imminent in other States, and civil war
impending. In certain of the Cotton States acts of hostility
to the Government were committed before any ordinance of
secession was adopted. The Governor of Alabama, on Janu-
ary 3, seized the arsenal at Mount Vernon, near Mobile, and
the Governor of Georgia seized Forts Pulaski and Jackson,
near Savannah. On January 9 the steamship "Star of the
West," approaching Fort Sumter with provisions and Fed-
eral troops, was fired on and driven to retire. Major Ander-
son, in command at Sumter, was called on to surrender, but
on January 11 he replied with a firm refusal. January 15
Forts Jackson and Philip, below New Orleans, were seized
by the State authorities, and so also, a few days later, was
the arsenal at Augusta. Similar action was taken by State
authorities in Florida. Ordinances of secession were adopted
by State conventions, in Mississippi on January 9, in Florida
on January 10, in Alabama on January 11, in Georgia on
January 19, in Louisiana on January 26, and in Texas on
February 1. In Texas alone was the ordinance submitted
to the people; the other States followed the precedent set
when the Constitution was ratified. As these States seceded,
their Senators and representatives formally resigned their
seats in the Congress of the United States. Some of them
made speeches stating the grounds on which they resigned,
and defending the action of their several States. On Janu-
ary 21, the day on which Jefferson Davis resigned his seat
in the Senate, Kansas was admitted as a free State.
   Delegates representing the various seceding States met at
Montgomery, Alabama, on February 4, as a Constitutional
Convention, and proceeded to organize a provisional govern-
ment for the Confederate States of America. Five days later
the Convention chose Jefferson Davis of Mississippi Provi-
sional President and Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia Pro-




visional Vice-President of the new Confederacy. Davis was
inaugurated February 18, and at once named the members
of his Cabinet. The Convention then drew up and submitted
to the several States a Constitution, modeled after the Con-
stitution of the United States, but with such changes as made
the new instrument what the extreme State Rights school had
always held the old instrument to be. Tariffs for protection
were expressly declared to be unconstitutional. The Con-
vention then constituted itself a Provisional Congress for the
new Government, and as such passed various laws. Among
them -was a law forbidding the importation of slaves. This,
it was presumed, was intended to force into the Confederacy
Virginia and other border States, which would be deprived
of the only market for their surplus slaves. Commissioners
were sent to Washington to arrange all questions relating to
property and debts, and to secure recognition for the Confed-
eracy, while another commission was sent abroad to secure
recognition from the great Powers of Europe.
   The calmly firm tone of Lincoln's speeches on his way to
Washington characterized his inaugural address. "I de-
clare," he said, "that I have no purpose, directly or indirectly,
to interfere with slavery where it exists. . . . The Union
of these States is perpetual. It is safe to assert that no gov-
ernment probably ever had a provision in its organic law for
its own termination. The power conveyed to me will be
used to hold, occupy, and possess the property and places
belonging to the Government, and to collect the duties and
   The next day Lincoln announced his Cabinet. William
H. Seward of New York was Secretary of State. There were
strong men in the Cabinet, but their antecedents did not
augur harmony.
   The two questions with which Lincoln had first to deal
were the demand of the Confederate States for recognition




tlhroulgh their Commissioners and the relief of Fort Sumter.
O)n the first question he took at once a decided stand. The
Commissioners were informed that they could not be received
in any other capacity than as private citizens of the Republic.
   On the question of the relief of Sumter Lincoln did not
act at once. He felt his way cautiously, and the result of his
caution and shrewdness was to throw upon the Southerners
the onus of beginning hostilities. On April 11 Governor
Pickens of South Carolina, acting under instructions from
the Confederate President, demanded the surrender of the
fort. Major Anderson again declined, and early the next
morning the bombardment began. The flag was shot down,
Anderson surrendered, and the garrison marched out with
the honors of war.
   The news of the fall of Fort Sumter came to the North
like a bugle call to arms. From that moment the spirit of the
North began to rise, and Lincoln promptly issued a proclama-
tion calling for 75,000 men to enter army service for three
months, and summoning Congress to meet in extraordinary
session on the Fourth of July. He declared the object of the
call to be "to repossess the forts and places and property of
the United States which had been unlawfully seized."
   The country's response was immediate and enthusiastic.
Democrats and Republicans vied in making ready for the
conflict now at last clearly inevitable. The Confederate Pro-
visional Congress had already taken steps to organize an
army. Southern officers in the regular army resigned in
large numbers, and tendered their services to their several
States or to the Confederate Government. To Robert E.
Lee, Scott's favorite, was unofficially offered the command of
the Union army. He declined, gave up his commission,
offered his sword to his native State, and was put in com-
mand of all the Virginia forces. The Governors of the vari-
ous States exerted themselves with the utmost energy to help




their respective governments. These were afterward styled
"War Governors."
   On April 17 the Virginia Convention, which, only a few
weeks before, had shown a great majority against secession,
adopted an ordinance and submitted it to popular vote. But
before the popular vote was taken the State was thoroughly
committed to the Confederate movement, and the Confed-
erate Congress at Montgomery adjourned to meet at Rich-
mond, the capital of Virginia, in July. However, the west-
ern counties of Virginia were against secession. They were
organized into a separate State, later recognized by the Union
as the State of West Virginia. Arkansas seceded on, May 6.
The next day Tennessee practically joined the Confederacy,
although in that State a strong Unionist minority maintained
the forms of State Government throughout the war. North
Carolina passed an ordinance on May 20. In Kentucky
there was a strong attempt at secession, and the State was
afterward represented in the Confederate Congress, but can
not properly be regarded as one of the Confederate States.
In Missouri the situation was similar. In Maryland and
Delaware the attempt at secession clearly failed.
   Meanwhile, the permanent Constitution had been ratified
by the several Confederate States, regular elections had
been held, and Davis and Stephens had entered upon the
offices of President and Vice-President respectively for the
term of six years. On April 19, the anniversary of the battle
of Lexington, a Massachusetts regiment, passing through Bal-
timore on its way to Washington, was attacked by a mob, and
the blood thus shed is commonly regarded as the first blood-
shed of the great War of the Rebellion. Harper's Ferry Ar-
senal in Virginia -was seized by the Confederates. Davis in-
vited application for letters of marque and reprisal in order
that privateers might be fitted out to prey upon the commerce
of the United States. President Lincoln proclaimed a block-




ade of the ports of the seceding States. Early in May he
issued his second call for 65,000 volunteers for three years,
and the regular army and navy were increased. Foreign Gov-
ernments were informed that the Union would be maintained
by the force of arms. Great Britain and other Powers, by
issuing proclamations of neutrality, recognized the Confed-
erates as belligerents. On May 24 the Federal troops ad-
vanced from Washington and occupied Arlington Heights
and Alexandria, in Virginia. In organizing an army, Davis's
military training and his experience as Secretary of War
under the old Government gave him a great advantage. Thor-
oughly familiar with the personnel of the old army, he at
once called to high places of command Robert E. Lee, P. T.
Beauregard, Joseph and Albert S. Johnston, and others
whose exceptional abilities he had learned to appreciate.
There were no trained soldiers equal to these in ability among
the early generals called to lead the Union armies. Winfield
Scott, the head of the army, now at the age of seventy-five,
could no longer be expected to show the needful alertness
and energy. His right-hand men, Major-General Robert
Patterson of Pennsylvania and General Irwin McDowell of
Ohio, were very inefficient commanders, as the first conflicts
of the war quickly proved. Yet the North was already clam-
oring for an advance on the South. Soon after Congress as-
sembled, it approved the President's call for 140,000 men
and 1,000,000. The earliest engagement was fought on June
10 at Big Bethel, near Hampton, in Virginia, where Gen-
eral Peirce with some 3,500 Federals was badly beaten by
Magruder with 1,800 Confederates fighting behind breast-
works. Theodore Winthrop, the New England author, fell
in this fight. The first really important move against the
Confederacy was made on two lines. Patterson moved up the
Shenandoah Valley, which was defended by Joseph E. John-
ston, and McDowell advanced to MAanassas Junction, where




he was confronted by General Beauregard. It was essential
to Scott's plan that Beauregard and Johnston should not
effect a junction. General Patterson occupied Bunker on
July 14 with 22,000 men, and General Johnston was nine
miles away with 12,000. General McDowell on July 16 be-
gan his advance on MIanassas Junction with 28,000 men and
49 guins. On the following day Patterson retreated to Charles-
ton, West Virginia. General Johnston eluded him in the
Shenandoah Valley, hastened eastward -with 9,000 men, and
joined Beauregard. On July 18 McDowell had reached Bull
Run, midway between Centerville and Manassas Junction,
where important railroads met. On the line of the stream
both sides prepared for battle. Bull Run, as Sherman after-
ward declared, was "one of the best planned battles of the
war, and one of the worst fought; both armies were fairly
defeated, and whichever stood fast, the other would have to
run." McDowell, in a flank attack, crushed the Confederate
left and carried all before him, unti], mounting the crest of
a hill, the Federals, flushed and disordered, encountered the
brigade of Thomas J. Jackson. "Look at Jackson's brigade;
it stands there like a stone wall," cried General Bee, who was
trying to rally his own troops. Jackson, thus christened with
his famous nickname, checked the Federal advance. An as-
sault by Johnston on the Union right and rear simultaneously
with Beauregard's rallying charge decided the day. McDow-
ell's soldiers had been fighting for three hours. The Union
line broke in a panic; only a disorganized mob recrossed the
   This battle, by its moral effect, strengthened immensely
the Confederate cause at home and abroad, but it did much
also for the Union cause. There was no more talk at Wash-
ington about a "ninety day limit" to the war. On July,
22, George B. McClellan, who had won victories at Rich
Mountain and Carrick's Ford in West Virginia, was called to




Washington to reorganize the Army of the Potomac, demor-
alized by the defeat of Bull Run. General W. S. Rosecrans
succeeded him in his former command.
   July 22--25 Congress passed a General Enlistment act,
calling into service 500,000 volunteers; the Government was
authorized to borrow 250,000,000, and a war tariff was
put into effect.
   The average imposts on dutiable articles were raised from
19 to 36 per cent, and on total importations from 15 to 28
per cent, by changes in the Morrill Bill; and a bill was passed
for a direct tax of 20,000,000 on the States. Congress con-
fiscated all slaves employed by the Confederates for military
purposes, as "contraband of war," as General Butler, in com-
mand of the Department of Annapolis, styled it. On August
6 Congress adjourned, after having appropriated 207,000,-
000 for the army and passed seventy-two acts relating to
the war.
   The Confederate Congress was in session from July 20
to the last day of August All citizens of border States who
should aid the Union were declared to be alien enemies, and
so were all citizens of the Confederate States who were not
sustaining the Confederacy. All debts and property belong-
ing to alien enemies were confiscated.
   Lincoln found his foreign relations very unsatisfactory.
England and France were in the main ill-disposed toward the
North. Despite the efforts of Seward, Southern privateering
received their assent. In October news came that a combined
English, French, and Spanish fleet was fitting against Mexico
for the purpose of collecting defaulted debts. The Russian
Czar, however, declined Napoleon's invitation to join the
league, and Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Italy re-
mained friendly to the United States. Seward sent abroad
discreet men to set the cause of the Union in a more favorable
light. Charles Francis Adams was appointed Minister to




England, and served the Union cause there with exceptional
ability and firmness.
   Mason and Slidell, accredited by the Confederate Govern-
ment to the Governments of Great Britain and France, were
seized on board the English mail steamship "'Trent," by Cap-
tain Wilkes of the United States sloop "San Jacinto," outside
of Havana. Great Britain, through Lord Lyons, sent a de-
mand that the captives should be forthwith released. It was
refused. Lord Russell drafted a peremptory ultimatum, but
Queen Victoria, on the advice of the Prince Consort, then on
his deathbed, overruled her Prime Minister's decision. Sew-
ard ultimately announced the liberation of the Commission-
ers. Europe accepted this act as the strongest proof of a
cool and calm direction of affairs. Recognition of Confed-
erate independence was postponed. Every foreign Power
except Great Britain excluded privateers from its ports.
This policy drew England into a quasi-partnership with the
South, for which subsequently she was called to account.
   In the West events were less decisive than in the East.
It was important for the Union cause to control the basin of
the Ohio and Mississippi; and for that object two points were
of the first importance, St. Louis and Cairo. Lyon, on May
10, compelled the surrender of the Confederate camp near St.
Louis. He steamed up to Jefferson City three days later
with 2,000 men, and the State officers fled. On July 22 the
Missouri Convention set up a provisional government whose
capital was St. Louis. On July 3 Fr6mont, as Major-Gen-
eral, was appointed by Lincoln to the Department of the
West, but proved inefficient.  He neglected to secure the
safety of Lyon, who was 100 miles from his railroad base.
Lyon was killed at the battle at Wilson's Creek on August 10.
Sterling Price captured Lexington for the Confederacy and
compelled Fort Mulligan to surrender. Fr6mont took the
field with 40,000 men. On October 28 Fr6mont was super-




seded by General David Hunter, who gave place on XNiovem-
ber 18 to General Henry W. Halleck.
   In Kentucky the new Legislature was for the Union in
sentiment. The Federal troops were called upon to aid in
expelling Leonidas Polk from Columbus. At Bowling Green
there was a Confederate army under A. S. Johnston, and Zol-
licoffer held the mountain gaps in the east. General Ander-
son of Fort Sumter fame was in Federal command. He
invited two officers who had served at Bull Run to accompany
him, William T. Sherman and George H. Thomas. Sherman
was sent to St. Louis, and Don Carlos Buell succeeded him.
At the same time there appeared the man who was to lead
the Union to final victory, Ulysses S. Grant, a former army
officer who had distinguished himself in the Mexican war,
and who now tendered his services to Governor Yates of Illi-
nois. Grant was made colonel of a half mutinous volunteer
regiment. Starting with his men on foot, he marched them
to the Missouri River, and fitted them for active service on
the way. Late in August he was sent to Cairo. and was soon
made Brigadier-General of Volunteers. Columbus was in
the hands of Polk. Grant organized an expedition, and,
steaming up the Ohio to its junction with the Tennessee,
occupied Paducah. On his return, anxious to "do some-
thing," he attacked the Confederates at Belmont, Missouri,
but the enemy wvas too strong, and with great difficulty he
reembarked and steamed away.
   McClellan reached Washington on July 26, and assumed
command the next dav. On November 1 he succeeded Scott
in command of the armies of the United States, and at once
began to display his unusual talent for organization. He had
ordered a demonstration in October, with the purpose of
forcing the evacuation of Leesburg. At Ball's Bluff an en-
gagement occurred in which Colonel Baker, Senator from
Oregon, was killed. Things were very serious, but McClel-




lan refused to move, and began the procrastinating policy
which marked his entire career.
   In the meantime important naval expeditions were fitted
out. Hatteras and Port Royal on the Southern coast were
captured, and the effectiveness of the blockade was constantly
increased. New gunboats were rapidly provided. The South
had neither ships nor seamen, and her ports were soon closed.
In the capture of Port Royal, which made an opening into
the heart of the Carolina cotton region, fifty vessels were en-
gaged under Samuel F. Dupont and Thomas W. Sherman.
   The year closed with the Confederates hopeful, England
inclined to favor their cause, and the prestige of Big Bethel
and Bull Run not yet destroyed by any Union victory of
comparable effect. But the North had at last begun to realize
the magnitude of its task, and to bring to bear those enormous
resources which the Confederates could not match.
   The peace between China and the foreign Powers com-
pelled a revision of the position at Shanghai. Admiral Hope
sailed up to Nanking, and exacted a pledge from the Wangs
that Shanghai should not be attacked for twelve months, and
that the Taiping force should remain at a distance of thirty
miles. Ward and Burgevine were compelled to desist from
recruiting Europeans, and. were taken into the Emperor's
service to drill Chinese soldiers. This was the origin of the
Ever-Victorious army, which under Gordon was soon to
achieve great and lasting results.
   Toward the close of the year the death of Prince Albert,
the consort of Queen Victoria, on December 15, plunged the
British Empire into mourning. In announcing his death to
the nation, Victoria confessed herself "the heartbroken Queen
of England.."




                  EVENTS OF 1862

Spanish, French, and English Warships Land at Vera Cruz to Enforce
    Payment of Claims against Mexico-Spain and England Withdraw
    from Intervention-Ward Wins Successive Victories Over Taipings
    -He is Killed-Burgevine Succeeds Him-Japanese Outrages on
    Foreigners Cause English Punitive Expedition-It Burns Kagoshima
    and Exacts Indemnity from Satsuma-Lorencez Marches on City of
    Mexico-Juarez Calls Mexicans to Arms-French Suffer Defeat at
    Puebla-Forey Brings Reenforcements-Hle Supersedes Lorencez-
    He Fights His Way to Puebla-French Bombard Acapulco-Stanton
    Becomes Federal Secretary of War-Burnside and Goldsborough Take
    North Carolina Harbors-Curtis (Union) Wins Battle of Pea
    Ridge, Ark.-Grant (Union) Captures Forts Henry and Donelson,
    Tenn.-United States Ship "Merrimac" Transformed into Coufed-
    erate Ironclad "Virginia"-Ericsson Builds Ironclad "Monitor" for
    Federal Government-"Merrimac" Sinks "Cumberland" and Beaches
    "Congress" at Hampton Roads, Va.-"Monitor" Arrives and Fights
    Drawn Battle with "Merrimac"-Farragut and Porter (Union)
    Fight Their Way Up Mississippi and Land Butler's Troops-Butler's
    Rigorous Government-Union Gunboats and New Orleans Fleet Join
    Near Vicksburg-A. S. Johnston (Confederate) Forces Grant to the
    River at Shiloh, Tenn.-Johnston is Killed-Buell Joins Grant and
    Beauregard is Driven Back to Corinth, Miss.-McClellan (Union)
    Takes Yorktown, Va    and Forces J. E. Johnston Back to Rich-
    mond-Jackson (Conftederate) Fights His Way Up the Shenandoah