xt7fqz22cb16 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7fqz22cb16/data/mets.xml  1876  books b92-75-29578970 English Printed at the Glasgow Times Office, : Glasgow, Ky. : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Mammoth Cave (Ky.) Caves Kentucky. Guide manual to the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky text Guide manual to the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky 1876 2002 true xt7fqz22cb16 section xt7fqz22cb16 



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          INTRODUCT ION.

                       -   To

                 THE CAVE BAND.
  The Cave Band, by study and long practice, have adopted
their music to the different avenues of the Cave, the effevt of'
which, particularly on Echo River, is peculiarly enchantinz.
                  CAVE COSTUME.
  The proper costume for a gentleman consists of a jacket,
heavy boots, a cloth cap and woolen pants.
  The Bloomer or Turkish dress is the proper costume for a
lady. It may be plain, or fancifully trimmed to suit the
wearer. When trimmed in lively colors, which is alwvavs
advisable, the effect is beautiful, particularly it the party be
large. Flannel or cloth is the proper material. 14 must be
borne in mind that the temperature Of the Cave is utty nine
  Every lady carries a lamp, and in no case. except that of
illness, should she take a gentleman's arm  It is fatiguing
to both parties, and exceedingly awkward rn appearance.
  The Mammoth Cave is situated in Edmonison County, Ky.
ninety-five miles south of ]Louisville, or half way between
Louisville and Nashville; and is accessible by the Louisville
and Nashville Railroad, which passes within seven miles of
the Cave, at Cave City, where convevances are in readiness
to convey passengers to and from the Cave.
  The Cave Hotel is capable of accommodating twohundred
visitors. The rooms are furnished in the best style, and the
table is not surpassed by that of any hotel in the Union.
Attached to the hotel isbea- magnificent ball-room, which is
fitted up in the most approved manner.
The scenery in the vicinity of the Mammoth Cave is almost
without a rival. Green River, with its towering cliffs, is but
a few hundred yards from the hotel, and affords good fishing
and pleasant bcat excursions, which, together with the mai-
nificent grounds, promenades, swings, etc., attached to the
hotel, conspire to render a visit peculiarly attractive.


         A GUIDE M-NUAL

                    OF THE



     HE ENTRANCE to the Cave is one hundred and
     ninety-four feet above Green River, and is
     about twenty-five feet in height, by about thir-
tv in width, oN-e-. which may b3 seen, at all seasons,
a mist or feg, which, wher'. the -xtel nal air is warmer
than that of the Cave, is produced bv the condensa-
tion of the moisture of the fbrewer shy the reduced
temperature of the Matter. COl the contrary, when
the temperature of the external atmosphere is less
than that of the Cave, the n!oistu1b of the air of the
latter is condensed in a similar manner. When the
temperature of the outer air is the same as that of
the Cave, no fog or cloud is observable at its mouth.
  The entrance to the Mammoth Cave, at an early
period of its history, was situated about half a mile
from its present location, constituting what is now
called the mouth of Dickson's Cave. This cave ter-
minates within a few feet of the mouth of the Mam-
moth Cave, but there is at present no direct commu-
nication between the two. The voice of a person at


the end of Dickson's Cave, can be distinctly heard
at the entrance of Mammoth Cave.
  The present entrance to Mammoth Cave was form
ed, and its communication with Dickson's Cave cut
off by the disintegrating action of the water of the
spring, which discharges its contents from the ceiling,
at the mouth of the former, and which caused the
Cave at this point to fall in-thus establishing a new
entrance, and shortening the length of the Cave by
about half a mile. Dickson's Cave differs little in
size and appearance from Proctor's Arcade, in the
M1ammoth Cave.
  The Mammoth Cave breathes once a year. That
is to say, in summer, or when the temperature of the
external air is above that of the Cave, the current
sets from the latter to the former. In other woIrds,
the Cave is the entire summer in making an expira-
tion. On the other hand, when the order is reversed,
or the temperature of the outer atmosphere is below
fifty nine degrees, the Cave makes an inspiration, or
draws in its breath which it a'complishes during
the winter. The respuratory mceharissn of the Cave
ceases to operate, or, to carry out the metaphor-it
holds its breath-when the nreercurg in the ther'mom-
eter stands at fifty nine degrees in the outer air;
which is the average temperatur,-e f all parts of the
Cave, winter and summer   Hensce ia, is frequently
observed, in the spring and fall, that there is no
mnotion of air in eitheir direction at the mouth of
the Cave.
  On entering the Cave for a few hundred yards, in
summer, when the temperature is at or near 100 de-
grees, the air rushes out with such force as frequently
to extinguish the lamps. Passing into the Cave for
about a half mile, however, the motion of air is
barely perceptible at any time, from the fact that the
main avenue enlarges so rapidly that it plays the



part of a reservoir, where a current of air, from any
direction, is speedily neutralized. If a current of
air blows from without, inward, and is below fifty-
nine degrees, it does not pass more than a quarter of
a mile before it is brought up to that point. Air
above the average temperature of the Cave never
blows into it.
  Thtis it will be observed that a change of seasons
is unknown in the Mammoth Cave; and day and
night, morning und evening, have no existence in
this subterranean world. In fact, there is an eternal
sameness here, the like of which has no parallel.
  In manv parts of the Cave, time itself is not an
element of change; for where there is no variation of
temnperature, no water, and no light, the three treat
forces of geological transformation cease to operate.
  The proportions of oxygen and nitrogen bear the
same relation to each other in the Mammoth Cave
that they do in the external air, The proportion of
carbonic acid gas is less than that observed in the
atmosphere of the surrounding country, upon an
average of many observations. In the dry parts of
the Cave the proportion is about 2 to 10,000 of air;
in the vicinity of the rivers, something less. Not a
trace of ammonia can be detected in those parts of
the cave not commonly visited. The amount of the
vapor of water varies. Thus, in those avenues at a
great distance from the rivers, upon the walls and
floors of which there is a deposit of nitrate of lime,
the air is almost entirely destitute of moisture, from
the hygroscopic properties of that salt. and animal
matter mummifles instead of suffering putrefactive
decomposition. And for the same reason, no matter
what state of division the disintegrated rock may
attain, dust never rises. In portions of the Cave
remote from the localities in which the bats hyber-
nate, no organic matters can be recognized by the


most delicate tests. Not a trace of ozone can be
detected by the most sensitive reagents.
  From what has been stated, it will be observed
that the atmosphere of the Mammoth Cave is freer
from those substances which are calculated to exert
a depressing and septic influence on the animal
economy than that of any other locality of the globe.
This great difference is observed by every one on
leaving the Cave, after having remained in it for a
number of hours. In such instances, the impurity
of the external air is almost insufferably offensive to
the sense of smell, and the romance of a "pure coun-
trY ail," is forever dissipated.
  What diseases would be benefitted, or rendered
worse, by resorting to the Mammoth Cave
  Consumptives, at one time, resorted to the Cave,
and, as might have been anticipated, with fatal
results. Several of them died there, and all of them
soon alter exposure to the external air. One patient
did not see the light of the sun for a period of five
months. Short trips are attended with advantage,
but a Cave-residence is speedily fatal.
  I know of no inflammatory disease that is rendered.
worse by a resort to the Mammoth Cave. On the
contrary, short and easy trips have been known to
effect a cure in chronic dysentery and diarrhea, where
all other measures have failed.
  In all those diseases where absolute silence, and
the total exclusion of light are indicated, the Cave,
above all other places, possesses pre-eminent advan-
tages; for nowhere else have we these conditions
combined. The only condition in which risk is
incurred is during the menstrual period. Serious,
and even fatal results, have been the consequence of
inattention to this fact.
  The temperature of the Mammoth Cave is uni-
formly fifty-nine degrees, winter and summer, which,
in connection with -the remarkable purity of its at-



mosphere, will account for the fact that individuals
are enabled to undergo such an unusual amount of
physical exertion in it. It is not an uncommon
occurrence for a person in delicate health to accom-
plish a journey of twenty miles in the Cave, without
suffering from fatigue. who could not be prevailed
upon to walk a distance of three miles on the surface
of the earth.
  The agencies concelned ill the tormation of the
Mammoth Cave, may be divided into Chemical and
Mechau ical.
  There can. be no doubt but that the solvent action
of water holdingf carbonic acid in solution, was the
primary agency concerned in the formation of the
Cave. Thus, the limestone, or carbonate of lime,
which constitutes the strata of rock through which
the Cave runs, is not soluble in water until it com-
hines with an additional proportion of carbonic acid,
by which it is transformed into the bicarbonate of
lime. Ia this way the process of excavation was
conducted, until communications were established
with running water, by which the mechanical agency
of that fluid was made to assist the chemical. The
little niches and recesses which are observed in
various parts of the Cave, and which seem to have
been chiseled out and polished by artificial means,
were formed in this manner; for when these points
are closely examined, a crevice will be observed at
the top or back of them, through which water issued
at the time of their formation, but which has been
partially closed by crystals of carbonate of lime, or
gypsum. At the time these niches were forming,
water flowed through the avenues in which they are
found. Examples of the action we have been de-
scribing, may be seen in Spark's Avenue, leading to
the Mammoth Dome.



   The grooves which are observed in rock over which
 water is, or has been flowing, are also formed. by the
 solvent action of water containing carbonic acid; for
 in all such. instances, the water has no solid matter
 in suspension. Examples of this kind of action may
 be seen in operation in Mammoth and Gorin's Domes;
 and evidences of its former action may be observed
 in Lucy's Dome. What are termed the "pigeon
 holes," in the Main Cave, are cut out of the solid
 rock- in the same manner.
   When water, holding the bicarbonate of lime in
solution, drops slowly from the ceiling, by which it
is exposed to the air sufficiently long to allow of the
escape of one equivalent of carbonic acid gas, the
lime is deposited in the form of the proto-carbonate
of lime. If the deposit occurs in such a manner that
the accumulation takes place from above, downward,
in the f.. rm of an icicle, it constitutes what is termed
a stalactite; but if it accumulate from below, up-
ward, it is called a stalagmite. Stalactites and
stalagmites frequently meet in the center, and be-
come cemented, by which a column of support is
formed. Many instances of this kind are to be
found in Gothic Arcade and Fairy Grotto.
  If the limestone which forms the stalactite is per-
fectly pure, it will be white or semi-transparent; if it
contains oxyd of iron, it will be of a red or yellowish
color. When a stalactite is black, it contains the
black oxyd of iron. The stalagmitic cinders in Vul-
can's. Smithy, and the grapes in Martha's Vineyard,
are colored with black oxyd of iron.
  Another agency which contributes in. part to
change the appearance of the Cave, is the efflores-
cense of the sulphate of soda or Glauber-salts, and
the crystallization, of. sulphat of. lime or plaster of
  The sulphae, of. lime, which is known under the
names of gypsum, plaster of Paris, soeaite, alabas.


ter, etc., exerts a much greater influence in disinte-
grating the rock than the sulphate of soda. The
avenues in which gypsum occurs are perfectly (iry;
differingc in that respect from those which contain
stalactites. When rosettes of alabaster are formed
in the same avenue with stalactites, the water which
formed the latter, has for ages ceased to flow, or they
are situated far apart, as the former can not form in
a damp atmosphere. The force exerted by gypsum
in the act of crystallizing, is about equal to that of
water when freezing, for when it crystallizes between
ledges, or strata of rock, they are fractured in every
direction, as instanced in Pensacola Avenue and
Rhoda's Arcade.
  The formation of nitre is due, in part, to the
decomposition of the remains of bats and other
animals, but it must not be forgotten that lime-stone
rocks are never entirely destitute of nitrifiable niat-
ter. The nitric acid which enters into its composi-
tion may, in some measure, be derived from the
atmosphere. The kind of nitre that is found in the
Cave is the nitrate of lime, which, when re-acted
upon by the carbonate of potash is transformed into
nitrate of potash or common saltpeter. This was
the course pursued by the saltpeter miners, when that
substance was manufactured in the Cave in 1812-14.
The nitrate of lime is found in the dryer parts of
the Cave but is not discoverable till the earth which
contains it is lixiviated.
  The mechanical agencies concerned in the excava-
tion of the Mammoth Cave are trifling when com-
pared to the chemical.
  They are instanced in the transportation of gravel,
sand, and clay, ifrom one part of the Cave to another,
and in the abraded appearance presented by the
rock composing certain avenues. Thus, it is possible
to tell the direction which the water ran in most of



the avenues and the rapidity of its motion, by ob-
serving the points at which gravel, sand, and clay
are deposited, and the order in which they come.
For example, the points at which gravel is deposited
indicate a rapid current; where sand is found the
movement was slower; and where clay occurs the
water was almost or quite stationary.
   At one time water rushed with great force through
Fat Man's Misery, for in Gxeat Relief, which is just
beyond, washed gravel occurs; still farther sand is
found, which is succeeded by clay, showing that the
current was in the direction of Echo River. Before
the mechanical agency could have exerted any appre-
ciable influence, the chemical must have been in
operation thousands of ages.
  The loose rocks that are scattered on the floor of
many of the avenues, have fallen from the walls and
ceiling, but in many instances the points from which
they were detached are indistinct, from the fact that
the rugged surface from which they have fallen is
either smoothed by the action of water, or covered
by crystals of the carbonate or sulphate of lime. In
those parts of the Cave where no rocks have fallen,
the floor presents the appearance of the bed of a'
river, and is covered with gravel, sand, or clay,
according to the rapidity of the flow of water at the
time of the deposit. No rocks have fallen since the
discovery of the Cave.
                 GREEN RIVER.
  There is an interesting relation subsisting between
Mammoth Cave and Green River.
  Thus, there can be no doubt but that Green River
has cut out the bed or channel through which it
runs, for on ascending its banks on either side for a
distance of not less than three hundred feet, a plain
is reached, which is not succeeded by a valley, estab-
lishuig conclusively that it has worn its bed to its



present level by the mechanical and chemical action
of water, and that the avenues of the Cave were cut
through with nearly equal pace; those near the
surface of the earth being formed first, and the others
in regular order from above downward; the avenues
through which Echo and Roaring rivers run being
the lowest and last formed. Both of these rivers are
on a level with Green River, with which there is a
subterraneoust'communication. As Green River con-
tinues to deepen the valley through which it runs,
the avenues of the Cave will continue to descend,
until the springs which supply Echo and Roaring
rivers cease to flow, when the avenues through which
they run will become as dry as Marion's Avenue,
which at an early period in the history of the Cave,
contained the most beautifnl subterranean river in
the world.
               THE: MAIN CAVE.
  After leaving a small archway near the mouth of
the Cave, the sides of which are walled with rock,
which the saltpeter manufacturers obtained from the
floor at this point, and which is called the Narrows,
the visitor enters the Main Cave, which is six miles
in length, and which varies from forty to one hun-
dred feet in height, and from sixty to three hundred
feet in width.
               THE ROTUNDA.
  The Rotunda is entered on leaving the Narrows.
The ceiling is about one hundred feet high, and its
greatest diameter one hundred and seventy-five feet.
  The floor is strewn with the remains of vats, water-
pipes, and other materials used by the saltpeter
miners, in 1812. The wood of which they are made
shows no indications of decay.
  To the right of the Rotunda, Audubon's Avenue
leads off for about half a mile, to a collection of
stalactites. During the winter, millions of bats
hybernate in this avenue.



  At the entrance of Audubon's Avenue small cot-
tages were built fifteen years ago, for the residence
of persons afflicted with consumption, under the
impression that they would be benefited by a uni-
form temperature. The idea that consumptive pa-
tients could be cured by a residence in the Cave,
must have resulted from a total misconception as to
the .nature of phthisis, as it is well known that the
absence of light will develop the scrofulous diathesis,
and cause a deposit of tubercles in the lungs. The
truth of this position was established in the cases
of those who resorted to the Cave for relief; inas-
much as three of them died there, and the majority
of those who remained any considerable length of
time, died within periods varying from three days to
three weeks after leaving it. Those patients who
remained in the Cave three or four months, presented
a frightful appearance. The face was entirely blood-
less, eyes sunken, and pupils dilated to such a degree
that the iris ceased to be visible, so that, no matter
what the original color of the eye might have been,
it soon appeared black.
  Although persons who are affected with consump-
tion are rendered much worse by a residence in the
Cave, they need not be deterred from making short
excursions in it, for when not carried to such a
degree as to occasion fatigve, they are always attend-
ed with advantage. Over-excitement of the brain,
and incipient insanity, would undoubtedly be bene-
fiteds by a Cave residence.  Here absolute silence
can be obtained, which cannot be had anywhere else.
and which is the great desideratum in brain affec-
tions. It is surprising how rapidly the night influ-
ence is felt in the Cave, which is indicated by pallor
of the cheeks, yawning, and an irresistible tendency
to sleep. Persons who first visit the Cave are not, as
a general thing, thus affected, because of the novelty
of their situation, and the many objects which attract
their attention. This tendency to sleep is not due



to any impurity of the atmosphere, for the propor-
tion of carbonic acid is even less than it is in the
outer air, but is referable solely to the complete
silence and total absence of light. It is perhaps the
only place where a person can count the pulsations
of his own heart by listening to its beat; in fact, the
pulsations of the hea't of another person can be
counted at the distance of several feet.
   Thunder is never heard in the Mammoth Cave,
 and at gentleman who was in it at the time a shock
 of an earthquake was experienced on the surface of
 the earth, did not perceive it.
   The Rotunda is situated under the dining-room of
the Cave Hotel.
             METHODIST CHURCH.
   On leaving the Rotunda, and passing huge over-
hanging cliffs to the left, which closely resemble the
cliffs of the Kentucky River, after which they are
named, the Methodist Church is entered. It is
eighty feet in diameter, by about forty in height.
Here, from the gallery or pulpit, which consists of a
ledge of rocks twenty-five feet in height, the Gospel
was expounded more than fifty years ago. The
benches, or logs, occupy the same position which
they did when first placed in the Church.
  After leaving the Gothic Galleries, which lead to
the Gothic Avenue, of which we will have occasion
to speak further on, the Grand Arch is -entered,
which leads to the Giant's Coffin. This arch is
about fifty feet high and sixty wide.
  To the left of the path leading to the Giant's
Coffin are found two immense rocks, many tons in
weight, which have fallen from above, and are stand-
ing in an upright position.
  The Giant's Coffin is a huge rock, forty feet long,
twenty wide, and eight in depth, and at the point



from it is viewed, presents a striking resemblance to
a coffin. It has been detached from the side of the
avenue against which it rests. The avenue at the
foot of the Giant's Coffin leads into the Deserted
   On tho ceiling, a little to the left of the Giant's
Coffin, and looking into the Deserted Chamber, is
the figure .of an ant-eater. It is composed of the
effloresdense of black gypsum, and rests upon aback
ground of white limestone. The resemblance of the
figure to the animal after which it is named, is
  A short distance beyond the Giant's Coffin, in the
Main Cave, after passing what is called the Acute
Angle, a group of figures is observed on the ceiling,
which is termed the G.ant, Wite and Child. These
figures are in a sitting posture, and the Giant ap-
pears to be in the act of Passing the Child to the
Giantess. They are also composed of black gypsum,
which rests on a white background.
  Still further on, the figure of a colossal mammoth
may be observed on the ceiling.
  From the Giant's Coffin to the mouth of the Cave,
wheel tracks, and the impression of the feet of oxen
may be seen, which were made nearly fifty years ago.
The earth, at the time these impressions were left,
was moist, as mosi of it had been lixivated in the
manufacture of saltpeter, but at the present time it
is perfectly dry, and almoet of the consistency of
  From the Acute Angle to the Star Chvmber, seve-
ral stone cottages, which were formerly inhabited by
consumptives, are still standing.
            THE STAR CHRAIBER.
  The Star Chamber is situated in the Main Cave.
It is sixty feet in height, seventy in width, and about
five hundred in length. The ceiling is composed of



black gypsum, and is studded with innumerable
white points, which, by a dim light, present a most
striking resemblance to stars. These points, or stars,
are produced, in part, by an efflorescense of Glauber's
salts beneath the black gypsum, which causes it to
scale off; and in part by throwing stones against it,
by which it is detached from the white limestone.
In the far extremity of the Chamber, a large mass
has been separated, by which a white surface is
exposed, termed the Comet.
   When the guide takes the lamps and descends
behind a ledge of rocks, by which a cloud is made
to pass slowly over the ceiling, it is difficult to divest
one's self of the idea that a storm is approaching.
It needs but the flash of lightning and the roar of
thunder to make the illusion complete.
  After producing the storm illusion, the guide dis-
appears with the lamps, through a lower archway,
several hundred yards in length, leaving the visitor
in total darkness, and re-appears at the eastern ex-
tremity of the Star Chamber, holding the lights in
advance, which, as he slowly elevates them from the
cavern from which he rises, produces the illusion of
the rising sun.
  With the exception of Echo River, the Star Cham-
ber is, perhaps, the most attractive object in the Cave.
  The Floating Cloud Room connects the Star
Chamber with Proctor's Arcade.
  The clouds are produced by the scaling off of
black gypsum from the ceiling, by an effloreseense of
sulphate of soda beneath it, by which a white surface
is exposed. They appear to be drifting from the
Star Chamber over the Chief City. The Cloud Room
is a quarter of a mile in length, and in height and
width corresponds with the Star Chamber.



              PROCTOR'S ARCAIDE.
  This is the most magliificent natural tunnel in the
world. It is a hundred feet in width, forty-five in
height, and three quarters of a mile in length. The
ceiling is smooth, and the walls vertical, and look as
though they had been chiseled out of the solid rock.
When this tunnel is illuminated with a Bengal light
at Kinney's Arena, which is its western terminus, the
view is magnificent beyond conception.
  Kinney's Arena is a hundred feet in diameter and
fifty feet in height. From the ceiling, in the center
of the Arena, there projects a stick, three feet in
lenogth and two inches in diameter. It rests parallel
with the ceilina, and is inserted into a creviqe in the
iock. How it was placed in its present position is a
difficult question to settie, inasmuch as it could not
have been inserted in the position it occupies by ar-
tificial means.
             WRIGHT'S ROTUNDA.
  After passing the S. Bend, which has no particula'
points of attraction, Wright's Rotunda is entered.
  This rotunda is four hundred feet in its shortest
diameter. The ceiling is from ten to forty feet in
height, and is perfectly level, the apparent difference
in height being produced by the irregularity of the
floor. It is astonishing that the ceiling has strength
to sustain itesif, for it is not more than fifty feet froni
tile surface of the earth. Fortunately the Cave at
this point is perfectly day, and no change of any
kind is transpiring in it, otherwise there might be
some risk of its falling in, as evidences of such occur-
rences are to be found in the surrounding country.
  When this immense erea is illuminated at the two
extremes, simultaneously, it presents a most magnifi-
cent appearance.
  At the eastern extremity of the Rotunda, is a col-
umn, four feet in diameter, extending from the floor



to the ceiling, termed Nicholas' Monument, after one
of the old guides.
  The Fox Avenue communicates with the Rotunda
and S Bend. It is about five hundred yards in
length, and is worth exploring.
  A short distance beyond Wright's Rotunda, the
Main Cave sends off several avenues or branches.
That to the left leads to the Black Chamber, which
is one hundred and fifty feet wide, and twenty in
height, the walls and ceiling of which are inDrusted
with black gypsum. It is the most gloomy room in
the Cave.
  There are two avenues leading off to the right.
The far one communicates with Fairy Grotto, which
contains a most magnificent collections of stalag-
mites. It is a mile in length. The other avenue
communicates with Solitary Cave, at the entrance of
which there is a small cascade.
               THE CHIEF CITY.
  The Chief City is situated in the Main Cave be-
yond the Rocky Pass.
  It is about two hundred feet in diameter and forty
in height. The floor is covered at different points
with piles of rocks, which present the appearance of
the ruins of an ancient city.
  From the Chief City to the end of the Main Cave,
a distance of three miles, there are several points at
which the appearance which this avenue presented
when filled with running Water, may be observed,
where the overhanging cliffs closely resemble those
in the Pass of El Ghor, of recent formation.
  The Main Cave is terminated abruptly by rocks
that have fallen from above. It must not, however,
be supposed that this is the end of it, for there can
be no doubt that it was closed at this point in the
same manner as Dickson's Cave was terminated, and
that the removal of the obstructing rock would open



a communication with a cave of the same size as the
one we have been attempting to describe.
             THE LONG ROUTE.
  On entering upon the Long Route, the visitor
leaves the Main Cave at the foot of the Giant's
Coffin, and passes into the Deserted Chamber. The
distance from the mouth of the Cave to the Mael-
strom, which is situated at the end of the Long
Route, is nine miles. The trip is generally accom-
plished in about twelve hours.
  The Deserted Chamber is the point at which the
water left the Main Cave to reach Echo River, after
it had ceased to flow out of the mouth of the former
into Green River. In other respects it is not of
particular interest.
            WOODEN BOWL CAVE.
  The Wooden Bowl Cave is next in order. It re-
ceives its name from the fact that a wooden bowl,
such as was used by the Indians in early times was
tound in it when it was first discovered. The Cave
itself is the shape of an inverted wooden bowl.
  Black-Snake Avenue, which enters the Main Cave
near the stone cottages, communicates with Wooden
Bowl Cave. It receives its name from its serpentine
course and black walls.
            IARTHAL'9 PALACE.
  Martha's Palace is entered by passing a steep
declivity and pair of steps, called the Steeps of Time.
The Palace is about forty feet in height and sixty in
diameter. It is not particularly attractive.
  The Side-Saddle Pit, over which there rests a
dome sixty feet in height, is reached by passing
through what is called the Arched Way, the walls,
floor, and ceiling of which bear evidence that it was



once the channel of running water. This pit is
ninety feet deep, and at its widest part about twenty
feet across.
  Minerva's Dome is situated about twenty feet to
the left of the Side Saddle Pit. It is fifty feet in
height and ten in width. It is a miniature repre-
sentation of Gorin's Dome. The Dome and Pit have
been cut out of the solid rock by the solvent action
of water containing carbonic acid in solution. They
are still enlarging.
  The aperture leading to the Pit presents the out-
lines of a side-saddle, hence the name.
  The Bottomless Pit, paradoxical as the statement
may appear, is but one hundred and seventy five feet
deep. Its width varies from fifteen to twenty feet.
A substantial wooden bridge, termed the Bridge of
Sioghs, is thrown across it, from which it may be
viewed in safety.
  Shelby's Dome, which is sixty feet in height, rests
directly over the'Bottomless Pit. The Pit and Dome
have been formed, and are still enlarging by the same
causes that excavated the Side-Saddle Pit.
              REVELER'S HALL.
  On leaving the Bottomless Pit, a room is entered,
which is about twentv feet in height and forty in
diameter. Here it is the custom of visitors to rest
for a short time and discuss the terrors-of the Pit.
This is generally followed by the bringing forth of
the potables, when the health and safety of all parties
are dulv swallowed.
  After passing thr