xt7ftt4fpk0t https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7ftt4fpk0t/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1920 journals kaes_circulars_001_1_080 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 080 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 080 1920 2014 true xt7ftt4fpk0t section xt7ftt4fpk0t é.
Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director .
CIRCULAR NO. 80.
Raising The Dairy Heifer
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BY
J. R. DAWSON
Lexington, Ky.
.u·iu1.. mo
I`11!·lisl1¤··l in (‘·¤11*¤·¤‘;1ti<¤r1 ni` tho <‘¤¤ll•·g•.- of .\J:1‘ia‘liil\ll'u, i`l`|i\`t‘l`Sii)` of 1{entuvk;.·, ·
with tho L`. S. 1)epz11‘i1nci1t i»1‘ .·\§Jl`ik'\liilll`&‘, und distribiitvd in 1`111·tlici·z1uc<*
cfzliewi-1. provided for in the .\uL of Congress of May S, 1914.

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`m·*.U· ·   ··H-—·····•~` =—“‘ V" ; J  lil|'¢‘(l every six years. or. in other
»`<",_z_. i words, T—l.()(l() ll<‘ll`<‘l`N mnst eome into milk ear-h year in order to
·.i?’lv' Y maintain tl1e nninher ot` rows. lt` a l`armer has twelve eows he
if  i 3 must have at least two lieifers to heeoine fresh eaeh year. and
;`_ _‘,   must have on hand l`onr heil`ers that hav.· 11ot hegxnn to yield re
    5 turns. listiinating the eost ot` feed alone it means that there
  E are approxiniately $S.>H().Ut)t) invested in nnprodnetive dairy
hiya; T · valves and heit`ers. lint. regardless ot` cost. the dairy herds
git   . mast he maintained and these heifers nmst he reared. One
?.i_g`·· · ‘ matter that eliietly eoneerns d;·ir_v1nen is how to raise tl1e heifer
    most eeonoinieally.
§_ gf` ‘ One of the ehief prohlenis in ilairying is to ohtain good
gx QB eows. lt. is lieeoniing more dit`tii·nlt eaeh year to seenre the
{jh`, right kind of dairy stoek. This faet indieates that the most
  if _ eeonomieal way to hnild np a good herd is to raise tl1e heifers
_ from the hest eows. heingz earet`nl to have the ealves sired by a
’ pure—bred dairy hnll. Raising heifers to replenish the breed
seiwes to proteet the herd against the importation of such ‘

 I
. 4 Circular N0. S0
diseases as tuberculosis and contagious abortion, which an t
often introduced by new animals. Many dairymen in Km-
tucky are not raising tl1e heifers (even the best ones) but an
selling all for veal, depending upon the stock yards or ops;
market for cows as needed. Good cows, the l;ind that every
farmer wants, are for sale only at high prices. Ordintn·ily. un.
desirable cows are the only ones found on the open inarkizt
Whenever tl1e praetis of buying new cows instead of ra€~€:.;
heifers is followed, the production of the herd is usually  
and there is little opportunit_;· or temlency l`or it to risc. 'l`}
· I practis lllill'l{S thc distinction lnctwcen a dealer and ·i ln~·~»·H~·_
ln general. thc prolileni ol` feeding the call` must l··- ·-·~·.~ Y-
ered from two standpoints: iirst. when whole mill; is solil fr  
the farm. land sl;in1-mill; is tlicrel`ore not availalilcz ~··-··E
when eream is sold and sl;imrmill; is available l'or t`v··»lh.;·
` the calves.
WHEN WHOLE MlLK IS SOLD.
Almost 30 per vent ot` the ¤lair_v vows in this t'¢lllllYl'_`·  
found on farms from wl1i··l1 whole mill; is shipped to eitr z;_"·
dealers. eondcnseries and cheese l`aetorics. 'l`hc mill; l·rE:.;~ .
high price. and calves can not lie ted evonomicall_v on it  rw
great length of time. l'ntil four months ot. age a call' 1···»i·;E;·~
S to 12 pounds of whole mill; daily. 'l`his mal;cs a to".] i
about l.2(lt) pounds ol` whole mill; l`ol‘ thc l`our tnonllts. \`;f;—`
at $3.50 a hundred. the mill; is worth $42. 'l`his does not  
into consideration the ha_v and grain that the eall` •'·ill~`l"Z~
during this period. llccause ol` tho value nt` the mill; t~·p;`·"
to raise calves. dairynien ot`ten follow the pravtis ol` lnlliinzai
bull calves. and sometimes the hest heil'ers are saerili·····l in ‘i~
way. `
In gcneral. one ol` three plans may lie l`ollox·.·ed l»_v the t';.r··:.-
er who has a n1arl;ct for wholc mill;. 'l`he plans are oi;tlii=~—]  
` follows:
l. (live the call` a good start on whole mill; and at tl~»‘·°l
of two months put the calf on a ha_v and grain ration l·T·i~—-—

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[l'llI'Sl·Il{j Ilte ])iIl-I`_l] /[r·[fr·r 7
k is M (.\»,.,·y pound of 1m·al used. This gruel is substituted for skim-
a uml {lm milk, pouml for pound,
“·mp A As was stated I»el`orc. calves will not do as wcll on milk
I Hf mw ,Hlstitules as on whole or skim milk. However, theyiwillr Le of
Ulm Wl Sante height aml iii a thrifty aml growing condition if fed
H I,]·.,pt·t·ly. Milk is Ilcller aml at an equal cost would he prefer-
r·~·l. (`alf 1m·als are used only when the high price of milk pro· '
Us UH lil llillils its usc.
II l’I"*l"‘Y` :l_ .\ third manner of l`ccding. where whole milk is sold
"I’*I’l“"" from the farm. consists in giving: the calf the least amount of
YI"? II·""' milk required to proniote normal gzrowth. The Illinois Exper-
llIIi·   jment Station? fouml that the minimum amount is 152 pounds
d at ll~z:.· of whole milk aml -135 pounds of skim-milk. This was fed
· the ll~»1:.- during a period of two months, after which the calf was gradu-
» the ¤:.·=¤ ally put on a hay and grain ration.
l lll2ll·.‘I`iui~
IHMIIMIQ WHEN SKIM-MILK IS AVAILABLE
·il¤IX* ‘‘‘‘ l If cream is sold from the farm and skim-milk is lthus
li I"""-l"i· made availahle. the problem of feeding the calf is not so diffi-
I"*‘· H"' cult. Good calves can he raised on skiin-inilk.
*ll*l'I”"`**l‘;" The earlier the calf is taken from the cow the easier it can
**l.lll l-~¤¤¤j llc taught to drink from a bucket. Some dairyinen never allow
¤l¤~‘~l··ll*i the calf to nurse at all, while others allow the calf to stay
tl *’f ¤"l‘·I*i with the cow for the tirst few days. The very young calf should
l tl"? if lie fed frequently and in small quantities. Its stomach at this
1=¤>·‘·i V ·‘ time is small and excessive amounts of milk will result in in·
\¥lll`·` i?"i digestion aml scours. The tirst milk of a cow after calving is
{Milli *»'‘ fil called colostrum. and is valuable for thc calf because it is a
laxative aml cleans out the digestive system. For the first two
lXllll'¤‘ uf] weeks. S pounds of milk a day is all the calf should be allowed.
nilk, 'l'EQ< A small calf. such as a Jersey. should not have more than 6
mall qiurz- pounds a day at the start. It may he fed twice a day but three
tml stiucl times is preferable. As the calf grows older, the milk can be
quarts t~1‘ slightly increased. hut at no time will it. need more than 14 or 15
 
Sutstltzii C iF"¤$€F-_ YV. J. aml Braml. R.   Milk Required to Raise g. Dairy ·
M. t Glf. Illinois Experiment Station Bulletin 164, 1913.

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I S C!iI'(‘Il{tlI' No. NU
pottmls u 1lu_\‘. (l\`<‘I‘l-l‘<‘tlllIQ_` is u l.l'l‘¢|lll‘lll (‘ZlllSt‘ ol` 1iiu·s1i._,.
ti·o1tl1lt~s. .\. gootl l`lllt‘ to l`ollow is Ell\\'Zl_\`>i to k1···[» tli1· 1·;l[i'__
little llllIlQ’I'_\`. l`ul\·t~s Slllllllil lll‘\`l‘l' ln- l`¤·tl i11 t1·o11ul1~.;1s .
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tl111 1·o111pl1·to (‘ll2llIg_{`<‘. l'(`[llil(°lllg· tlto wliolo milk witln uu  
tttiutttity ol` skim—milk .\ll lllllNtl'l&llll 1·o11si_v ]>lill'l|lQ' u littl1· gruiii iu tl11·i1· lIlllNll]ll<‘ twi1·1· u tluy. l`[» lo lll|‘ ugo ol` two 1111 
it. sliottltl liuvv u littlv mort-. -\ potiml of gruitt u 1lu_1· w.tl   C
it i11 gzootl .Q`l'()\\`l|lg' 1·o111litio11.
‘ Tlm }i'l'2Illl is to tuktt tl11· 1»lu1·1·ol` tlit- l`ut \\`lIlt‘ll wus 1··‘·111— 
fl`0lI1 lll(* 1lllll{ i11 skimittiiig. lillllill ]l&ll’lS ol' {'llI`ll 111··;1l tai
whole 01‘ ('l'll$llC(l outs mukc u ggootl ;;·1·ui11 ]lllXllll'(‘ to s11[1]·l1‘l¥"'·i

 Ee
l Raisittg the Dctiry Heifar 9
l` tiigtoto skim-milk. Corn meal should be fed the young ualf until it is
the out .t two or three months of age, when shelled corn can be gradually
uuhs. as s substituted for it. The essential points to be kept in mind
has ttul 5; nre as follows:
I not   Feed fresh. sweet milk—Feed regulat·ly—Do not over feed,
Feed warm milk—Feed each calf individually——Keep the _
‘·l t·· >l: ll··il`··t·s slioultl lie raisetl largely on
l"`*" l`l· Yi l`¤>llQ'll1lQt‘. llowe\‘et·. grain ieeilitig slittttlil lie eoittitiuezl For some
l*·`~’ l`? tiuie al`ter the lieil`et· is talteit oIl' of milk. lieeause stottpiiig the
l)¤lll`   tiiilk ami grain at the same time reitttires too great a eoitsutnp-
·lllllll "*l lieu of rouglsaue. Yllllt‘2!llilIl1ll will not eat a stitlieiettt illlltllllll of
will l"¥l iiutgltage for some time. even ou gootl pasture. eozrzeitttetitlg.
l lll il l `· Ljrowtlt will lie slow for a few mouths.
’lll`ll!"`ll l·`t‘om altottt ten mouths ot` age the lieii`et· sltoultl lie fell ou
· ·\l·`°l°` ;»·<··l1·ougltaue ttiitil within two or three mouths of ealvixtg. when
lll"ll` ll- `· vane grain should he fetl. 'l`his plan m;t_r result. in some eases.
!`l`*llll `’`‘ li i`1 tlie lieil`er iieiitg somewhat utuler tiormal size tltirittgz tlte
F <‘ll*‘l‘·'ll¥ yiewitig period. lt' this eittitliliitii is evident it should he oil-
l" !`l`·`l  >*‘Y li_\‘ not lrreetliitg the ltt·il`er until later than ttsttal. The
lV" lll"`lll` ellllillllt oi grain that eau lie i`etl eeottotttiezilly tlepetttls almost
' ‘l`·ll ll `l l'·"l1l·ll)' ltptnit tlie el1;it·;1t·ler ol` the rottgltage. lf llillillillllll l‘t¤1lQ'l1-
_ Wi`. Sllell as eorit silgige ittttl legtmte lt;i_\‘ is ttfxiilttltle. S2lliNf&l<‘l0l')’
is t‘·`·¤¤¤“l’l Waits eau he olmlihetl with a minimum amount of grain.
meal Mil ._
lllllllllllllll tttt.,;lli;ll.all'T_‘|HoiHMMm~l]lg;l"'w§i¥-lli·*¤F T·*1‘ llaiiiw lltifers. Missouri Iixpe:i· l

 l
l
t 10 Circular N0. 80
Heifers that have made gains far above normal during the
winter, as the result of heavy grain feeding, make small gains
during the summer on pasture. Heifcrs making considerably
less than normal gains during the winter, as a result of rations
received, make relatively larger gains on pasture in summer.
However, if winter conditions are too extreme, so that the ani·
mals are low in. vitality in the spring, the summer gains on
pasture will not be sufficient to make up for the small gains
made during the winter. The best results follow a winter pe,.
tion that enables the animal to 1nake a normal growth. lt
4 means keeping the animals in moderate tlesh. Silage and a  
gume hay, both fed at will. make one of the most p1·a··ti··al:xr1·i
economical rations and give larger gains than alt`alt`a or o‘i;·*:·
legumes fed alone. (ln this ration lieifers nine montl.< ~r
more of age make normal growth during the winter. Ca? .-,·t ¤
` younger than this need some grain in addition. i\\'hen silz1g»2n1.i
legume hay are fed at will the animals will consume about 1 ~.—.
pounds of silage to one pound of hay.
The 111OSl satisfactory 1·ation of all those tried was silizgwt
will. legume hay limited to six pounds daily and two poun»i~ f
corn daily. On this ration heifeis of all ages thrived and n1.:»Y,·
gains a little above normal. l·`air results eau be obtainetl fr :.1
feeding silage alone as a roughage. In this ease. about Tri
pounds of grain should be supplied daily, eomposed of equal p;1"=
of C0l‘11 and linsced or cotton seed meal. The animals wil T.
more contented and will do better if they have aeeess to s :;;-2
dry feed, such as corn fodder or oat straw.
lf silage is not to be had. legume hay fed at will. with' ‘t‘’ *
or three pounds of eorn or other grain, makes a Sillll11111l1l l11· i`1··l 1la1l_\‘. 'llllv 11l1_11·1·1 ll*‘l`(‘ is 111 have them in
T gains on l&lll' il1·~h at l‘2ll\'l|I}_"l|lI1<‘. I I ,
Small mm g_ \\'l11~11 1·111·11 silam- 1< 2l\`iI|l&ll¤l¢‘ l1111 l1·g111110 hay is 110f,
“.iHm.m_ gil;{¥•‘ 111111 |11· l`1·1l a~ 1‘11111:‘l1au1· 111:··1l11·1· \\'llll s111111· ill'_\' 111111 111
!l'0\\'lll. lt l`··1l1l1·;·. ,\ll(llll 1|11·1-1· 1·1111111l»1·l` ;1`l'iilll >h1111l1l l11· l'1·1l 1laily. 11111·-
T mMu1_1_ 111111 111. \\`lll<'ll >ll*1|Il1l h1· a hixh»111‘1111·i11 l`•·1·1l Slli‘ll as 1·11tt1111s1;1;1l
.m.ti,.H1;11,1 ;—1· li11>··1~1l lll•‘Ill. 'llll!‘ l`1‘ll11lllllIl{[ half may 1111 ('(}l·ll. l11·a11. (’I'l1$ll
fu Ol, M,11Ji_ ,1.] 1·;1:<_ 111· l‘l'll\ll•'ll l|ill'l•‘_\'.
IHMMQ yy ZL I1` l1·g111111· lI£|_\' lllll 1111 >il:1g1· i< 1111 l1;1111l. il ;:11:11l 1·;1ti·111
M,. U1, _.,.V Q 1\;1h';1l1'11, 1·l111‘1·1·. s11_1‘—h•·a11 111* <¤>\\`]>l‘&l lI£1_\' i'1·1l :11 will. with 11111
1s1l11u·2111,i 11111111- ·>1` ·1·· 111 1*111*.*
», Hlmklll ,`_` V 4, li`1·111·11 l`1:1l1l1·1· 111· 11111111l1_v hay i< 1111 llilllil. lllll 1111 sila;111
1'1!`l*‘Zlll!l·‘ l1:;_1·. it i~ ll>ll2lll_\` l1·~<1 111 [1111·.·l1a<11 l1·;:111111· hay. lf
.:1; $i1Hg,1_11 l··:111111·l111_1·1·:111 11111 l1·· !llll`l'llil`l.(l lllllllll grain ]llIl