xt7fxp6txr70 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7fxp6txr70/data/mets.xml Richardson, Charles, 1852- 1923  books b98-55-42679953 English London & Counties Press Association, : London : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Horse racing. Horses Breeding. Racetracks (Horse racing)Lambton, George, 1860-1945. Ritchie, Alick P. F. Giles, Godfrey Douglas, Maj., 1857-1941. Palmer, James Lynwood, d. 1941. British flat racing and breeding  : racecourses, & the evolution of the racehorse / by Charles Richardson ; with a chapter on training & stable management by the Hon. George Lambton. text British flat racing and breeding  : racecourses, & the evolution of the racehorse / by Charles Richardson ; with a chapter on training & stable management by the Hon. George Lambton. 1923 2002 true xt7fxp6txr70 section xt7fxp6txr70 RACING AT HOME



Only 600 copies of " British Flat Racing
and Breeding" have been printed. The
first 475 of these form Volume I of the
475 complete sets of "Racing at Home
and Abroad."
This is set No.   .

 This page in the original text is blank.






British Flat Racing




& the Evolution

the Racehorse




& Stable













     this volume British Flat Racing and the breeding of racehorses are treated of
   both from the historical point of view and as regards the present day. As will
   be readily understood, the historical matter is derived from a variety of sources
   which were long ago discovered by earlier writers of turf history, but the present
a author may claim that he has rejected a good deal which appeared to have no very
   sound foundation, and has relied upon that which seems to be fairly proved. It
need hardly be said that almost as much mystery surrounds the early history of
the racehorse as is to be found in connection with early race meetings, and it may
be pointed out that even now it is impossible to be certain as to the exact origin of
many of the mares which were in actual fact the earliest known ancestors of the
thoroughbred. It is shown in the chapter which deals with the Evolution of the
Racehorse that no pedigree can be taken back in every direction to original ancestors,
and it is suggested that in such cases it is fair to assume that at all events a great
number of the blanks are those of English animals. Every racehorse in the kingdom
has, for example, countless crosses of the blood of Eclipse, and yet in the pedigree
of that famous horse there are no fewer than thirteen blanks, and in addition the
names of Arabian horses and mares about which practically nothing is known.
   The sire lines (arranged in order of merit and not chronologically) and the
chief female descents are shown from the earliest sources to the horses which are
at the stud and in training to-day. A most important chapter on training and
stable management has been contributed by the Hon. George Lambton, who has
devoted his whole life to racing, who has been a great observer of other horses
besides his own, and who is admitted to be one of the best judges of blood-stock
in the kingdom. The various racecourses are fully described, and the programmes
of the more important analysed, while short chapters treat of present-day trainers
and jockeys. The author (who saw Favonius win the Derby in 1871), in all matters
concerning the last fifty years of the turf, writes from his own experience only, and
as regards the merits of individual horses, sets forth his own opinion, formed on
what he saw, and not on what he heard, feeling sure that in the long run the best
guide to successful breeding is to judge the sires on their racecourse achievements,
and the mares, not only on their performances, but on the many lines of blood which
they possess.
   The illustrations are a special feature of the work, and the publishers have spared
neither time nor expense in collating them. It is obviously impossible to include
portraits of all the horses referred to in the text, but those selected will be found
both interesting and representative. It is, too, quite impossible to -find portraits of
all the sires in any one of the three lines of male descent, and, as will be noticed,
portraits of horses which were fine performers, and successful at the stud as well,
have been included rather than horses which, though great runners, made no par-
ticular mark from the breeding point of view. It may further be pointed out that
among the older portraits those of good horses are much more easily found than
those of good mares.
    The publishers desire to thank the Duke of Portland, the Earl of Derby, Lord Astor,
Sir Edward Hulton, Major Dermot McCalmont, Captain J. H. Greer, Messrs. E.
Somerville Tattersall, A. J. Munnings and Lynwood Palmer, for their help with
some of the illustrations.

 This page in the original text is blank.


    The following is a list of those who have kindly associated them.
selves with this work before publication, and to whom the thanks of
the publishers are due.

H.H. Maharajah of Patiala,
  G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., G.C.V.O.,
H.H. Mabarajah of Cooch Behar,
  K.C.S.I. (The late)
H.H. Maharaja Sir Ranjitsinhjl of
  Nawanagar, G.B.E., K.C.S.I.
Duke of Portland, K.G., P.C.,
Marquis of Anglesey
Marquis de Polignac
Earl of Airle, M.C.
Earl Cadogan, C.B.E., D.L.
Earl of Carnarvon
Earl of Pembroke and Mont-
Earl of St. Germans, M.C. (The
Earl of Westmorland
Earl of Wilton
Lord Decies, D.S.O.
Lord Howard de Walden and
Lord Lurgan, K.C.V.O., D.L.,
Lord Manton
Lord Henry Nevill
Lord Queenborough, J.P.
Lord St. Oswald
Lord Stanley, M.C., M.P.
Lord Wavertree, D.L.
Lord Woolavlngton, J.P.
Lord Herbert Vane Tempest
  (The late)
Baron Bruno Schroder
Hon. Chas. 0. H. Clifford
Major Hon. John Coke
Lt.-Col. Hon. W. Egerton
Capt. Hon. Chas. Hanbury, J.P.,
Lt.-Col. Hon. R. H. Hermon-
  Hodge, M.V.O., D.S.O., J.P.
Hon.  Sir  Alan   Jobnstone,
Major Hon. Malik Sir Umar
  Hayat Khan, K.C.I.E., C.B.E.,
Admiral of the Fleet Hon. Sir
  Hedworth Meux, G.C.B.,
Hon. Claude Hope Morley
Sir Francis Barker (The late)
Sir George H. Beaumont, Bart.
Sir Archibald Birkmyre, Bart.
Sir Albert E. Bowen, Bart.
Lt.-Col. Sir Merrik R. Burrell,
  Bart., C.B.E.
Sir  Claude  Champion    de
  Crespigny, Bart., D.L., J.P.
Sir Hugo Cunliffe-Owen, Bart.,
  K.C.M.G., K.C.B.
Sir John Dewrance, K.B.E.
Lt.-Gen. Sir Edward Locke Elliot,
  K.G.B., K.C.I.E., D.S.O.
Major Sir Samuel Hll-Wood,
  Bart, M.P., J.P., D.L.

Sir Samuel Hordern, K.B.
Sir E. Hoyle, Bart., O.B.E., J.P.
Sir Robert W. B. Jardine, Bart.
Sir T. Malcolm McAlpine, K.B .E.,
Sir Charles Campbell McLeod,
  F.S.A., F.R.G.S.
Sir W. Northrup McMlllan,
  M.L.C., Kenya, F.R.G.S.,
Lady McMillan
Sir Charles T. Mander, Bart.,
  D.L., J.P.
Sir Charles Metcalfe, Bart.
Capt. Sir Pyers Mostyn, Bart.,
  M.C., J.P.
Sir George Sheppard Murray
Sir Thomas Putnam
Sir Henry ftandall, J.P.
Lady Randall
Sir John Robinson
Sir Thomas Royden, Bart., C.H.,
  J.P., D.L.
Sir Henry Samuelson, Bart.,
Col. Sir Ormonde de L'E. Winter,
  K.B.E., C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O.
Brig.-Gen. C. R. Champion de
  Crespigny, D.S.O., C.B.,
Col. R. P. Croft, J.P., D.L.
Col. Bernard C. Green, C.M.G.,
Col. W. Grant Morden, J.P., M.P.
Col. C. Pierce
Col. C. L. Prior
Lt.-Col. T. R. Badger
Lt.-Col. A. B. Beauman, D.S.O.
Lt.-Col. C. W. Birkin, C.M.G.,
  J.P., D.L.
Lt.-Col.  James    Carruthers,
  D.S.O., M.V.O.
Lt.-Col. J. Stewart Forbes
Lt.-Col. R. H. A. Gresson, O.B.E.
Lt.-Col. Henry S. Hibberd, T.D.
Lt.-Col. C. H. Innes-Hopkins,
Lt.-Col. F. S. Isaac
Lt.-Col. W. G. Lucas
Lt.-Col. F. F. MucCabe
Lt.-Col. Stewart G. Mensles,
Lt.-Col. F. W. Mussenden
Lt.-Col. J. M. Rogers, D.S.O.
Lt.-Col.  Frank   Romer,
  M.R.C.S.E., L.R.C.P.
Lt.-Col. F. H. Starkey
Lt.-SoI. P. D. Stewart, D.S.O.
Lt.- Il H. M. Stobart, C.B.E.
Lt.-Col. C. W. Sofer Whitburn,
Lt.-Col. W. D. Winterbottom
Lt.-Col. J. A. C. Younger

Comdr. W. A. Selby.
Comdr. M. W. Ward, D.S.C.
Major Hedworth T. Barclay
Major Walter T. M. Buller,
Major Ian Bullough
Major Harold S. Cayzer
Major Herbert R. Cayzer, J.P.,
Major E. C. Clayton (The late)
Major J. S. Courtauld
Major Alan G. Gibson
Major D. N. GlUmore
Major L. B. Holliday.
Major Glies H. Loder, M.C.
Major Dermot McCalmont, M .C.,
Major Durham Matthews
Major W. H. Milburn
Major W. Newland-Hillas
Major J. B. Paget
Major Hugh Peel
Major H. Faudel Phillips
Major W. S. Power, D.S.O.
Major R. A. Raphael, M.C.
Major D. Rasbotham
Major R. Ratliffe
Major F. J. Scott-Murray
Major Ian A. Straker
Major W. W. Torre Torr, D.S.O.,
Major John H. Upton, J.P.
Major C. T. Walwyn, D.S.O.,
  M.C., O.B.E.
Major George White
Capt. B. R. Body
Capt. R. B. Brassey
Capt. T. E. W. Brinckman
Capt. W. W. Burdon
Capt. G. A. Champion de
Capt. J. H. Charters
Capt. J. Harrison-Broadley
Capt. S. A. Gollan
Capt. Humphrey E. de Trafford.
Capt. S. C. Henderson
Capt. J. G. R. Homfray, J.P.
Capt. N. H. Huttenbach, D.S.O.,
Capt. G. Larnach-Nevill
Capt. R. G. Llewellyn, M.C.
Capt. C. W. M. Norrie, D.S.O.,
Capt. F. J. 0. Montagu, O.B.E.,
Capt. E. W. Paterson
Capt. Wilfred Pepper, M.C.
Capt. A. F. G. Renton, M.C.
Capt. James 0. Sherrard
Capt. A. H. Wheeler, M.C.,

Capt. Percy Whitaker
Capt. H. Whitworth
A. D. Allen, Esq.
Harold D. Arbuthnot, Esq.


T. Alan Arthur, Esq.
A. J. Ash, Esq.
D'Arcy Baker, Esq.
Mrs. D'Arcy Baker
W. A. Bankler, Esq.
A. B. Bayley-Worthington, Esq.
Herbert Barber, Esq.
S. R. Bastard, Esq. (The late)
Walter Beer, Esq. (The late)
J. J. Bell-Irving, Esq.
J. Bell-Irving, Jun., Esq.
J. H. Beaumont, Esq.
A. Bendir, Esq.
J. H. Bennett. Esq.
Joseph Benson, Esq.
H. G. Bessent, Esq.
J. Hartley Bibby, Esq.
B. Giles Bishop, Esq.
Walter Black, Esq.
Alfred Bright, Esq.
E. J. Brook, Esq., J.P.
B. N. Burjorjee, Esq.
Harold Carr, Esq.
Wm. Clarke, Esq.
Siegmond Cohen, Esq.
Henry F. Compton, Esq.
H. B. Cory, Esq.
Mrs. Algernon Cox.
E. M. Crosse, Esq.
Douglas Crossman, Esq.
Horace Czarnikow, Esq.
Herbert Gomez da Costa, Esq.
Noel B. Davies, Esq.
H. Dyke Dennis, Esq.
Stanley M. Dennis, Esq.
Farquhar Deuchar, Esq.
G. W. Dick, Esq.
W.H. Dixon, Esq.
P. H. du Cros, Esq.
A. Percy Eccles, Esq.
J. Heron Eccles, Esq.
H. Elliott, Esq.
Robert Evett, Esq.
Mrs. Jack Fagan
Marshall Field, Esq.
N. Field, Esq.
W. Filmer-Sankey, Esq.
E S. Freeland, Esq.
A. M. Fry, Esq.
J. C. Galstaun, Esq.
F. M. Garda, Esq.
James C. Gardner, Esq., J.P.
D. H. Gibb, Esq. (The late)
A. W. Gordon, Esq.
C. W. Gordon, Esq.
J. J. Greenwood, Esq.
W. J. Gresson, Esq.
A. H. Gunn, Esq.
C. O. Hall, Esq., J.P.
F. T. Halse, Esq.

Holford Harrison, Esq.
Rowland V. Hartley, Esq.
G. H. Hilliard, Esq.
H. Hirst, Esq.
Alfred Hood, Esq.
Anthony Hordern, Esq.
.1. P. Hornung, Esq.
A. E. Howeson, Esq.
J. Hoyle, Esq.
.1. H. Hull, Esq.
J. F. Inglis, Esq.
M. Inman, Esq.
Benjamin Irish, Esq.
W. L. Isaac, Esq.
C. Bower Ismay, Esq.
D. J. Jardine, Esq. (The late)
Chas. Jewell, Esq.
S. B. Joel, Esq.
W. Stewart Johnston, Esq.
Foxhall Keene, Esq.
C. F. Kenyon, Esq.
Hugh Kershaw, Esq.
H. R. King, Esq.
T. K. Laidlaw, Esq.
G. E. D. Langley, Esq.
Joseph Latham, Esq.
J. B. Leigh, Esq., D.L.
Chas. le Strange, Esq., J.P.
Henry Liddell, Esq.
J. D. Little, Esq.
L. Lumsden, Esq.
Francis Luscombe, Esq.
W. L. McCulloch, Esq.
J. A. McLaughlin, Esq.
E. J. Marshall, Esq.
N. Marshall, Esq.
Theodore Martin, Esq.
R. D. Matthey, Esq.
C. A. Mills, Esq.
J. S. Morrison, Esq. (The late)
H. R. Mosenthal, Esq.
James S. Motion, Esq.
T. G. Mylchreest, Esq.
F. W. Parnell, Esq.
William Paul, Esq.
Fred. R. Pelly, Esq.
L. Phillips, Esq., F.R.G.S.
G. Pigache, Esq.
G. J. Plevins, Esq.
J. Porter Porter, Esq.
A. R. Preece, Esq.
Mrs. J. Putnam
W. Hornsby Putnam, Esq.
J. Voase Rank, Esq.
E. L. J. Rawson, Esq.
W. A. Read, Esq.
J. G. Reddie, Esq.
Herbert T. Rich, Esq.
W. Riley-Smith, Esq.
Gilbert Robinson, Esq.

Mrs. Gilbert Robinson
Lionel Robinson, Esq. (The late)
Mrs. R. F. Roundell
J. E. Rowson, Esq.
V. Samuel, Esq.
G. P. Sanday, Esq.
Harry Savill, Esq.
P. R. Savill, Esq.
Walter H. Savill, Esq.
W. M. Savill, Esq.
Stephen Scrope, Esq.
G. D. Smith, Esq.
E. A. V. Stanley, Esq.
Mrs. Starkey
Harry Steel, Esq. (The late)
H. E. Steel, Esq.
F. G. Steuart, Eq.
D. D. Stewart, Esq.
H. C. Stewart, Esq.
John W. Stewart, Esq.
K. Lindsay Stewart, Esq.
A. H. Straker, Esq.
C. E. Straker, Esq.
Herbert Straker, Esq., J.P.
H. C. Sutton, Esq.
A. B. Swales, Esq.
E. Somerville Tattersall, Esq.
Cecil R. Taylor, Esq.
V. T. Thompson, Esq.
F. C. Tlarks, Esq.
W. Tozer, Esq., V.D. (The late)
A. Claude Trevanion, Esq. (The
F. De Alzaga Unzue, Esq.
S. J. Unzud, Esq.
S. Van den Burgh, ERq.
Chas. L. Vicary, Esq.
Senor Don Jacinto L. Villejas
Clare Vyner, Esq.
C. N. Wadia, Esq., C.I.E.
N. N. Wadia, Esq., C.I.E.
J. P. Walen, Esq.
Tom Walls, Esq.
Theo. N. Walsh, Esq. (The late)
Rodman Wanamaker, Esq.
B. J. Warwick, Esq.
Arnold T. Watts, Esq.
John Watts, Esq.
Mrs. John Watts
W. J. Waugh, Esq., K.C.
W. E. Whineray, Esq. (The late)
Thos. Whitaker, Esq.
James White, Esq.
C. C. LI. Williams, Esq.
C. Romer Williams, Esq.
Henry Williams, Esq.
W. Melville Wills, Esq.
A. Stanley Wilson, Esq.
Joseph R. Wise, Esq.
W. S. T. Worthington, esq.




PREFACE                                    Page ix
INTRODUCTORY                                1
HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE TURF                   19
PEDIGREE OF ECLIPSE                            88
ECLIPSE AND HIS DESCENDANTS                    89
THE LINE OF CAMEL                              107
THE LINE OF BLACKLOCK                          117
THE LINE OF SPECULUM                           135
THE LINE OF HAGIOSCOPE                         142
PEDIGREE OF HEROD                              146
THE LINE OF HEROD                              147
PEDIGREE OF MATCHEM                            154
BREEDING: BROOD MARES                          167
THE NATIONAL STUD                              195
NEWMARKET                                      197
EPSOM AND THE DERBY                            233
ASCOT                                          264
RACING IN YORKSHIRE                            282
GOODWOOD, BRIGHTON AND LEWES                   299
THE ENCLOSED MEETINGS                         306
TRAINERS AND JOCKEYS                           332
THE TRAINING OF RACEHORSES                     345
STABLE MANAGEMENT                              355
INDEX                                          359






The Long Course, Newmarket
The Watering Course, Newmarket
The Round Course, Newmarket
The Byerly Turk
The Darley Arabian
Flying Childers
The Godolphin Arabian
Sir Hercules
The Baron
The Flying Dutchman
Lord Cllfden
Irish Birdcatcher
Blair Athol
Lord Lyon
King Fergus
St. Simon
tRoi Herode
Hurry On
Captain Cuttle

facing page 4


Blink Bonny
La Flbche
'Queens of the Turf (Signorina and Sceptre)
tFifinella and Vahren (the dam of the Tetrarch)
Tattersall's Sale Paddock, Newmarket
Bend Or
St. Frusquin
Persimmon's Derby
Flying Fox
Ard Patrick
Rock Sand
A Thunderstorm Derby, 1904
The Derby, 1923
The Hardwicke Stakes, 1887
Irish Elegance
The Tetrarch
Mumtaz Mahal
Prince Palatine
Gay Crusader
Pretty Polly
Ormonde (with John Porter)
The Old Style and the New
tSwynford in training

facing page 172

  The etching of Newmarket Higb Street has been specially executed for this
Volume by ALICK P. F. RITCHIE.
  I Illustrations marked thus are reproduced from paintings spectally executed
for this Volume by G. D. GILES.
  t Illustrations marked thus are reproduced from drawings specially executed
for this Volume by LYNWOOD PALMER.



Racing at Home and Abroad


         HAT racing is one of the greatest of British sports will be
         shown in the chapter which deals with the subject from an
         historical point of view. That it is probably the most popular,
         and certainly the most cosmopolitan, of all our sports is also
         a fact which hardly admits of dispute. Football is doubtless
         its greatest rival from the point of view of the number of
people who form the attendances, but the two things are hardly on
all fours, and it is possible that, as far as the "gate " is con-
cerned, football can show a bigger total for a final cup tie than any
racecourse can for a Bank Holiday meeting attendance. This, how-
ever, up to the time of the Wembley fiasco, was by no means certain.
But a football match only lasts about one-third of the time which is
occupied in an afternoon's racing, and the grounds on which the
great games are played are all situated in the outer districts of
the big towns, and, as a general rule, within a cheap tram-ride of
the centre of each particular town. Neither is any important football
match played except where there is a very large population, chiefly
industrial, close to the ground, whereas many of the great racing
fixtures are held quite a long distance from excessive population,
and on a course the journey to which involves a considerable expendi-
ture of time and money.
   For example, the football ground at the Crystal Palace or
Wembley, where the final tie for the Association Cup has lately been
played, is within less than half an hour by rail of either the West
End or the City of London, and though some six or seven miles
away, in actual distance, is reached in less than half the time
and at less than half the expense of any of the Metropolitan race-




courses, Alexandra Park alone excepted. Then again, attending a
football match is for quite nine-tenths of each attendance an after-
noon business only, whereas nearly all the racing involves a full
day away from home, and a return which must be made something
like an hour later than that of the football devotee. It is true that
in these days, when racing usually begins at two o'clock, those who
have business in town can attend to it for an hour or two before
they seek the specials at Waterloo or Victoria, but this only applies
to certain meetings in what may be called the Metropolitan area,
and is not by any means the rule.
   During the season there are, for example, some thirty days'
racing at Newmarket, and the last trains which allow of the full
day's sport being seen leave St. Pancras at 10.50 a.m. and Liver-
pool Street ten minutes later. Newmarket, therefore, means a day
away from home or business; but it is a simple matter for the
business man or the mechanic to leave off work at two o'clock
and watch a high-class football match at Stamford Bridge or some
other London ground.
   And after all it is of little consequence whether racing or foot-
ball secures the biggest gates, for whereas it is impossible to see
good football without paying for it, some of the biggest and most
important race meetings of the year are held on open courses, where
the whole place, except certain enclosures, is free to everyone, and
at such places the crowds are far beyond what is ever seen at
a football match. At Epsom, for example, there is a range of
stands on the north side of the course extending for about two
furlongs, but the opposite side of the running track is open to the
world, with the exception of a tiny stand alongside the judge's box.
Even where carriage and motor-car enclosures are roped off, and
a charge for vehicles is made, anyone on foot can go where he likes,
and in fact the far side of the course, the hill, and the space between
the eastern end of the stands and Tattenham Corner are all open
to the public.
    How large the crowd may be on a fine Derby day-and there
are about seven fine Derby days to each one of doubtful weather-
is a question which has never been decided, and probably never will
be, but it has been reckoned by those who are accustomed to
estimate the size of crowds that the number cannot be much short


of a million. This number has been confidently put forward during
the last few years, and when one studies the scene from the stands
the estimate seems to be by no means an impossible one, for the
line of vehicles is over half a mile long on the inside of the course,
and half that distance on the outside, while during the running of
the great race the entire mile and a half of the course is lined with
people on either side. Thousands witness the start at close quarters,
and thousands take up position on the rails; at the same time " the
hill " appears to be as densely crowded as ever.
   Perhaps the crowd which visits Epsom on the Derby day affords
the greatest testimony of the year to the extraordinary hold which
racing has on the public affections; but the Derby-day crowd is
not the only big one seen at the famous racing centre, and as a
matter of fact the attendances on the Oaks day, and when the
City and Suburban is run at the Spring Meeting, must reach to
something over a quarter of a million, and probably some two
hundred thousand people are present at Epsom on what are some-
times called the off-days. Indeed, unless the weather is very bad
indeed, one is inclined to think that the attendance for the four days
of the Derby week must very nearly reach two millions, and that
well over half a million are present on the two days of the Spring
   Nor is Epsom the only place which testifies to the popularity
of racing by attracting these enormous crowds, for almost the same
figures are claimed for Doncaster in the St. Leger week, and there
are many Yorkshiremen who will not admit for a moment that
more people see the Derby than they do the St. Leger. It is quite
true that the Doncaster crowd is much more interested in racing,
if regarded in its entirety, than is the Epsom crowd, for the latter
contains thousands of loafers of every description, including nearly
all the gipsies and quite half the tramps in the country. At Don-
caster, on the other hand, an enormous percentage of those present
are interested in the racing, and know the form of all the St. Leger
horses. They have, in fact, come to see as much as they possibly
can of the great race and the horses which run for it, and it is
as a whole a distinctly different crowd from that which forgathers on
Epsom Downs. In this connection we are not considering the
knowledgeable people who go in thousands to either place, but the


rank and file which go to make the numbers what they are, and
on this score the Doncaster crowd says more for the extreme
interest taken in the sport than does the Epsom crowd, which latter
is enormously composed of parties out for the day, and which
includes an extraordinary number of women and children.
   There are other places, too, which testify greatly to the love of
racing. At Aintree, which is the name of the Liverpool course, the
attendances are very large, especially on the Grand National day,
and probably this race is third only to the Derby and St. Leger
in the number of people who witness its annual celebration. On
the occasion of the race in 1913 two or three men who are
accustomed to crowds, and who have certain knowledge as to the
numbers carried by rail and tramcar, estimated the Grand National
crowd at not less than four hundred thousand, and when one sees
how the people line the course along the mile and three-quarters
that form the "country," and take note of the congestion in all
the many stands, in the paddock, and opposite the winning-post,
it is an easy matter to agree with this estimate. Other country
races which attract big numbers are the Lincolnshire Handicap, the
Northumberland Plate, and the Chester Cup, but the two last-
named events are decided on courses where gate-money is levied,
and it is extremely probable that, taking everything into consider-
ation, a fair " gate " at these fixtures, or on a Bank Holiday at the
London meetings, means a crowd of between fifty and eighty
thousand, varying, of course, according to the weather conditions.
   There are, in addition to the numbers who attend race-meetings,
many other proofs of the wide interest which racing arouses, and
one of these is supplied by the fact that a great deal of trouble
and a gr eat deal of money is spent by the public in reaching the
distant meetings. It can be urged that a fairly large percentage
of visitors to provincial courses go there on business, and this is
most certainly the case. The business contingent present at any
and every race meeting includes scores of people who either make
their living out of the sport or who spend their lives in following
the meetings. The last-named class are, as a general rule, people
who look upon racing as a pleasant pastime, who are interested in
thoroughbred horses, and who have sufficient means to allow of
their visiting racecourses whenever and wherever they feel so dis-


posed. They may bet a little-probably most of them do-but they
hardly look to the turf as a means of livelihood, and cannot be
regarded in any way as professionals. They are, in fact, a con-
tingent of the general public which helps to fill the members'
enclosures at the various meetings, and which to a very considerable
extent, by the sums they pay to the racecourses, provides the sinews
of war without which the meetings could not take place.
   Many of these men, and very often the ladies of their families,
are regular racegoers, and more often than not loyal supporters of
certain meetings. Thus some of them, if Londoners, or residing
within a short distance of town, will pick out certain racing clubs
and make a practice of attending all the fixtures at those particular
enclosures. They will, as a matter of course, go to Ascot on all
the four days of the meeting, and they will attend the Derby and
Oaks, but are not so constant in their devotion to Epsom as they
are to their own particular club meetings-unless, indeed, they
happen to be members of the Epsom Club.
   Here it may be mentioned that, owing to want of space, the
Epsom Club is a very small one, and one understands that owners
of racehorses, provided they be of good social standing, are given
the preference over mere lookers-on at racing. Whether this be so
or not, the fact remains that the numbers are limited, and that in
consequence scores of men who belong to Sandown, Kempton Park,
and other Clubs have not the entree at Epsom, and men who
belong to the Clubs elsewhere are not always comfortable in the
public rings. It is the case, then, that there are scores of racing
men of standing who miss certain days of racing at Epsom, and
yet make a practice of being present on all the four days of the
Ascot Meeting. Ladies are not allowed in the Epsom Club enclosure.
   Goodwood is one of the country meetings which attracts the
London racegoer, and quite a large number of the class go regularly
to Newmarket, often having quarters taken by the season, but
perhaps more often travelling down and back by the special trains.
It must be remembered that we are still writing of the men who
have no real business in racing, but are merely followers of the
sport, and we can go on to sa- :hat a big number of such men
make a practice of going to set; the Grand National, while some
form parties for the Doncaster week, attend the sales in the morning
                                B                          5


and  the  racing  in the afternoon.   These people, the purely
amateur division, which is so well known at the Metropolitan park
meetings, do not often go into the Midlands, and are seldom seen
at such places as Chester, Manchester, or Gosforth Park, but the
comparatively new fixtures at Newbury are much to their liking,
and the already famous Berkshire course does not languish for their
   And now to classify the business crowd at the meetings. First
we have the owners, ranging from the King and the members of
the Jockey Club to the "small" owner of two or three selling
platers. Owners may be considered to have business at the meet-
ings they attend, but, as a matter of fact, scores of owners of studs
run horses at many meetings at which they are not present, and
this applies in a great measure to the magnates of the turf world
who may be very regular in their attendances at Newmarket, Epsom,
Ascot, Goodwood and Doncaster, and very seldom present at other
meetings. All conversant with the turf can probably think of dozens
of big owners who seldom see their horses run except at the
meetings just named, and of some few whose appearances on a
racecourse are so few and far between that they are hardly known
by sight to the great army of regular racegoers.
   There are, too, certain members of the Jockey Club who have
long ceased to run horses, but who may be seen regularly at such
meetings as Epsom and Ascot. Some of these gentlemen were well
known by a former generation of turfites and, of course, still take
great interest in the sport, but they are "names " only, probably,
to the present and certainly to the rising generation, and their
colours are almost forgotten. On the other hand, about half of the
members of the Jockey Club maintain a stable of horses, a majority
of which they breed themselves. Such members are enthusiastic
both in the matters of breeding and racing; and though many of
them are busy men with numerous engagements elsewhere, they
make a practice of attending as many meetings as possible,
more especially when their own horses are due to run. Whilst on
this subject we may add that at the present day betting is not
greatly indulged in by members of the Jockey Club and their
friends, no matter how much it may have been in the past. That
certain of these highly placed owners will support their horses when


they consider them to have a fair chance of winning is no doubt
the case, but among the rulers of the turf high gambling has for
long enough been a thing of the past, and one is inclined to think
that at the present no owner known to gamble heavily over racing
would be deemed an acquisition to the Club, no matter how highly
he might be placed.
   The Jockey Club owners, and some others, who maintain breed-
ing studs and run horses of their own breeding--occasionally b