xt7g4f1mhk86 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7g4f1mhk86/data/mets.xml Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station 1958  journals  English Lexington, Ky Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Kentucky farm and home science, vol. 4 No. 2 spring 1958 text Kentucky farm and home science, vol. 4 No. 2 spring 1958 1958 2012 true xt7g4f1mhk86 section xt7g4f1mhk86 •/,`. . ·` it Volume 4
in
-`° · . Number 2
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Qylssued quarterly by the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station
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  AlV  A               HJ
  `  Yi.¤·¥i€a<.#T-JauEAns BETWEEN GRADES __
or BUELEY TonACCo l`lAVE ClrIANCEI)
By Dann G. Card Pagc 11 T
,llUlll,l·ZY Pll()l)UC'l’l()N Cosrs AND RETURNS 4
By John H. Bonzlnrnnt Pggg 13  
\YAllIl·Zl) llEs1;Auc1-1 PRO]l£C'l`S REP()H'l`ED y
By Frank B. Berries, ]r. Page 15 c,•_
  .   .   *
The Cover _ _
__ _ _ This number ol I"(lI'lIl and Home Science teatures burlev to-
N *U" .n.r ’ ` li • .
  bacco. the states number 1 cash crop. \Vhat more fitting
_‘ _.t;¢g§;’{siL3i¤¥_· cover picture than that oi a tobacco auction? This photo-
· 0 » ·-.· — r*= · -.. . . . -
_   sf *,*5  ..._   Ji graph ot a 19m auction ni a warehouse at Lexington. the (
  -— v   world s largest burley market, records laithtully some ol the
  ·F_   j;;$$·*< ;;'s tradition and color associated with the tobacco business. It
A   is another in a long series of excellent cover pictures made
  fu  bv llobert C. Xlav.
  . ,   _.y_ ._ _ 

  ‘ Kentucky research project seeks fundamental informa-
_ · •- . . .
_ tion which will help to understand and evaluate changes
J *` DOW Oeeurrlllg lll the Alllel‘lC3l1 cigarette illflllstry
1 P
C' e e ' e ° °  
~ lgilf tt 1Z 311 ()lI1p0S1t10l]
By R. B- GRIFFITH and G. T. WEBSTER cixtent and magnitude of the changes tak111g place and
t ie unt er ying reasons.
During the past few years there have been appar- Because of the highly competitive nature of the in- K
` V ent changes ln the market demand for certain types dustry and the natural reluctance ot the companies to
, 'I of tobacco and in the ujauufacturimg processes used disclose knowledge which might affect their competi-
by the Cigarette companies To evaluate properly the tive position, it is impossible to obtain the necessary -
ag; potential impact of such cl-ranges on any segment of facts directly from the mantifacturers involved. To ·
i the industry, it is necessary to have knowledge of tile obtain such information, the study herein reported was
` . undertaken. Although it is believed that similar studies
  ° This study was partially supported by grants from The are made by €aCl1 company Oll COmp(-ltitlve l)l`O(lllCtS
· Burley Tobacco Crower’s Cooperative Association and thc Ken-
ft tl1Cl‘ ·   , _ r
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 and likely the information obtained in this study is ference, which was found to vary from 25.0 rnrn to   _
common knowledge in the industry, no attempt will be 26.5 mm. A difference in circumference of 0.5 mm will ef
rnadc to identif com Janies or brands in re nortin the result in a change in the cross-sectional area of a J-
° Ha
results. proxirnately 3.8 percent. The change in the diameter _, V
S f h S d is believed to be one of the reasons why the 1957 &.~
c°pe ° lf G tu Y weights tended to be less than those observed in 1956
lf 1 ;· ·»··x r r :-*4 `· r . . ~ . "\.
(·lgaY€tt€$ fvem Pl"‘-11*** fl On tllf 01)*** Illdllwf lmm for an equivalent kind of cigarette based on the length 5 l
chain stores, super-markets or from similar sources Oy tobacco Cohunu (Fig. gy vyeights dcsigmlwd ljv ’
where rapid turnover of stocks could be anticipated. uh hstcrisk “,&,l.C of Cigm.Gtt&,S whmihhlg H high pm,
lrritial prrrchases of cigarettes were made from eight Cohmgt, Og wchhstituted mhhcca
l>c· t`on.· 'r Ohio Kentuck and Tennessee in \#f·r i 7 . . . . ., . .
( ‘l_l " H ‘ y’ ‘ _ _ A Q2 In considering changes m srze, rt rs believed that — 
1956. Those made between luly 1906 and April 1901   _ . _ . . .
· _ _ comparison should be made with the traditional -
were from or near Ithaca, N. Y., Lhrcago, Ill., New \ )_. I _. I _) A 1 _ _A H 1 _A 11 _ _. X A Fw ,
O I L K Ct K D _S CIM ml .~ mtrrcan crgarette,t1e so-ca et regu ar size ( , rg.  
·c"ms ·. *rns·rs 1 ans. avis · r. · t . . . . .. V .
I _‘ ’ A ’ ° ° yf ‘ _’ ‘ ’ ° ’ _` 2) wlnch is 70 mm long and had, rn the rnrtral stages *·
Lexington, Ky. After April 1951 all were obtained » ._ _ ._ — _ -0 ..   _ i
. _ _ of tlns study, a circumference of ..6.5 mm. The first ·A
from the Lexington market. Most purchases consisted . _ _ _ . ~ _
. _ _ . _ rnaior change was the production of the so-called \ _  
of cartons of the principal brands of cigarettes manu- _. . _ . _ . 9 ._ . .
_ _ _ _— _ king-size, no filter, cigarette (D, Frg. -). This C1g— V
factured by six maior cigarette companies. During the L t
latter part of the study, however, individual packages fC0”ii*w€d 0** PUSH 5) TMP
instead of cartons were bought. In addition to the ;·· 
domestic cirarettes some foreirn brands were ex- ‘ Ovgamy WE[GH'
, Bf >   L , -ll-OBACCO l;l FILTER tgrnms) I ’   A V
arnrned. These were usually obtarrred as single packs ,,56 ,,57 5
from visitors to the laboratory. A   Om ,_' ·’ ·
ln the laboratory the cartons or packages were as- °·°2‘ oiase
signed laboratory numbers and the size and weight of B   9*
. . 0.794 - - -
tlre cigarettes, the tobacco, the paper, and the filter l
were determined. The tobacco in individual cigarettes C  
_ , . , . was 0.065 *4;
was then separated vrsrrally rrrto the following frac- ..
tions; (1) stern,   reconstituted tobacco. (S) Turk- D   _
. rosa 1.039 M
rslr tobacco, (4) flue-cured tobacco. and   burlcy y
tobacco. Separated fractions were checked for accu- E 0955  
racy under a microscope (Fig. 1) and the individual `--
fractions were then weighed to determine the percent- F 0928 oass
age composition of the cigarette. The accuracy of the
separation was tested by separating l   sl · 1* r. 2 ·> ll - -‘ ‘ ‘
( N H ( lf llf` infill lll lh 'U uf rlre beginning of rlre study (May 1956) and the end (De-
lrave been nrade on tlre basis of drllerence rn errcrnn— (—cmi,(.,- rggyy
·f l{r·:x·r‘r‘..·- _ I
.   *1   il 3   ,,% i. _  ,, I _ ·~
‘   T t " ~*`<;éi’  T   ‘ .-4,. . *· .
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  ·, •. . V. V ’ _ _   ~  A ·; `l ns.
" i *   ` M , **2,   ‘    ` ""`  
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    ··_, · •   ;··   , · {  5 . _ -
·   V   K- V.., it W ,_·.. `   at '• Q ,’ p
g i · . · in , V .-7** v '».   Vx ,1* · I I ” Q I. 'I ' "· •.
, Fig. 3.-A microscopic   · `   rr *  ei r A "·   _ J "’   Q _" z
"} Q view of a strip of nat-   ”" sA "‘ _ V. _ •• ` »— `. ,*;*,1  " »‘·  ig 'ci {2,6
W;" ural leaf (extreme right)     . _AA ,_ ` _ _ ,— `·     ,   _ °
V I and three strips of re-   ·* · ° ·   “ t ‘ ` t ·   · "~¥” · ie"
_ :,.A   *   it . 3 i*•g· _ ..  
_ constituted tobacco ob- t` **=   5 r ·~—. A     ‘ _:_;- t . Y   » G;
~ tained from cigarettes ·     *a* i·   { _ ‘ A   "“ R   ·
~ _]__ produced by three dif-     _~r ~»   ~.»__`__ » .2 * A
ierent companies. The ~   z .   ¢ . · * ·‘ .· _ ·. .. `_¤
_, ,,_ large particles in the re- Yjw »Q·»;   ; * ei ·   rah _ * _A_¤`;*».3 ‘ »
" constituted tobacco are     _ . , » _   A, ‘ ‘ ‘ •
yy _ . ,   2   it  ·,» _ ~ id,   _ W., · I * · _¢*•r g
xi} portions ol stems. The { » A,  Z;. ,, :__,,» A , _ _ s { ·-A_ _ - 5.% » ~_ ,.  F A,
i center dark area in the     rl i` » ` X “~ · i`   E5 Q _   i { `
ff natural leaf is a leaf ` ,   ‘   * L ;_ `M   °¥`* i . __ A`} ·
‘ vein. s- A   C   xiii · ` · A   — { ` `ii ` V
      "g.   ’ ‘ , E`; .1 > ek ·   '.A. _
  V   -’   l , · _   ..;-
"   ` "`*’ ~   p   · .. .*.·¤A*·   M A - A , . A .
4 rv;  D i "     `•· • **   j M   @1; { H  ` I Q   • ,’• g`
‘H arette was S5 llllll long and contained approximately a trend toward the production of smaller cigarettes
ye 15 per cent more tobacco than the regular cigarette. using less tobacco.
` _. This cigarette was followed in turn by “king-size” filter
> cigarettes (E, F, G, H, Fig.2). In 1956 the “king-size” Reconstituted Tobacco
  iiiter eigni`ette$» en an nVe1`=ige» <>0¤tai¤e¤¤¤<>-like Shr<¤¤<>¤¤S*i¤i¤*¤‘<>rnN(: 1958
we

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f  ...—;——.--. - .. .. ,. .. , __   ____ _________________
P P .
··* 5 · V1
• i
“ BURLEY $
r V *
  P i '
V .........—---—.-—»....w......-..~—-..-....-_c..._..,.,,,,,___M___m_,c ____ ,_A________V______W_A   V -
° J ` V , »
O Th E R p A · t
. ylk ` .
'. · - .
F-O
Fig. 4.- These separated fractions of tobacco types (Stems, companies 1nentio11ed in Table I.) Note the excessive use
_> 2* reconstituted, aromatic, light-colored, ilue·cured, dark-c0l- ol` stem material by companies E and F which did not use
V ored llue-cured. burley and unidentified tobacco types) were reconstituted tobacco. Although the total quantity of flue-
*·°' obtained from individual 80 or 85 mm Hlter cigarettes pro- cured tobacco found was reasonably constant during the
duced by companies, A, B. (I, I), IZ. and F. (The letter study, the relative proportion ol` light and dark flue-cured
designations used here do not correspond with those given fractions varied considerably.
LA.
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