xt7g4f1mjq2d https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7g4f1mjq2d/data/mets.xml Alabama Alabama Museum of Natural History 1952 Other titles include: Alabama Museum of Natural History museum paper, Geological Survey of Alabama, Museum of the Geological Survey of Alabama. Other creators include: United States. Work Projects Administration, Geological Survey of Alabama, Tennessee Valley Authority. Issues for 1, 3 carry no series numbering. No. 2 also as Education papers no. 1. UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries. Call number  AS36 .A2. journals  English University, Ala. : Alabama Museum of Natural History, 1910-1960 This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Alabama Works Progress Administration Publications Museum Paper, no. 32, 1952 - including "Guntersville Basin Pottery" by Marion Dunlevy Heimlich text Museum Paper, no. 32, 1952 - including "Guntersville Basin Pottery" by Marion Dunlevy Heimlich 1952 2015 true xt7g4f1mjq2d section xt7g4f1mjq2d Q `- T
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 { GEOLOGICAI. SURVEY OF AI.ABAMA
  WALTER B. JONES, S·1·A·rE G12:01.0G1sT
  MUSEUM PAPER 32
  GUNTERSVILLE BASIN POTTERY
  By
; MARION DUNLEVY HEIMLICH
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MUSEUM PAPER 32
  GUNTERSVILLE BASIN POTTERY
By
A MARION DUNLEVY HEIMLICH
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 1 LETTER OF TRANSNIITTAL `
University, Alabama l
T December 1. 1952  
  l» »rable Gordon Persons l
  rvernor of Alabama l
 E \[ontgomery, Alabama 4
I   I
4   1 have the honor to transmit herewith the transcript of a re- I t
Q [T an "Guntersville Basin Pottery”, by Marion Dunlevy Heim— f T
  li~ lt is requested that this be printed as 1\1useaum Paper No. ·
J P} the Geological Survey of Alabama. [
4  : Respectfully, L
 E WALTER B. ]ONES.  
 P State Geologist Q
 —  
‘ E
‘ s
1 E
 E E
  l
  A

  
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   TABLE OF CONTENTS l
’ 1* ~`\\'ORD 7 7   777777777 7 7   _7_r_7 7 77 ____rT_ 77 5 ‘
_ ]i ‘iEHY TYPE CLASSIFICATION 7777 77 __,__,,_,_r 7 7 ___i__iV __ 7
 I `iher tempered ware 77 77777 .7 7 7777 7   7 77   7   ___777777 8 7
ind tempered ware 7 7 77 7 7 777777 7 777777_ 7 77 9
 ` imestone tempered ware 77 77 77777777 77 77 77__ 7 7777777 7 777777 15  
lay and grit tempered ware 7 777777     7 77 77 20 7
hcl] tempered ware 77 7 77777 7   7 7 7777 22 7
I `z·<7»historic domestic ware 77 7 7 7 7 777777 7 7777777 22 i
alt-pan ware 7 7 7   7777 7 7777 7 7 726   _
_ site or historic domestic wares 77 7 77 77777 7 777777 26
 7 iack tihned shell tempered ware 7 77777777 7 7 77 28 7
- f-Xionndviilc hIacI< iihned 7 77 77777 7 7 7 7 77 29 7
 _ < i\OLOCICAL RELATIONSHIP OF GUNTEHSYILLE _
BASIN POTTERY TYPES 7 7 7 7   7777777777 33
hronoiogieai position oi. fiber tempered ware 7 35  
 _ hronoiogicai position ol? cariy sand tempered ware 7 7   777777 77735 A
A hronologicai position ot the limestone tempered ware 36  
iiiitemparancity of sand and ciay-grit tempered types with Q
the Iiinestonc tempered ware 7     77 7 7   77   I
`7 Zhronotogicai position oi the sheII tempered wares 7 SS
 - iiatiyc chronoiogicai position ot the pottery IcveIs of  
7_ Cuntersvilie Basin sites 777. 77 7 40
I 7i ographicai distribution oi the Cuntersyiiie Basin i
A pottery tycs 7777 7 7 7 7 7 7 77 7 7777 774I ,
Fihcr tem Jcred ware 7   7 4I  
7 7 I »
Sand tempered ware 7 77 7 42 ;
‘ Limestone and clay and grit tempered ware 7 7 744 I
SheII tempered ware 7 77 7 7 77   7 46 Q
` ICS ANI) PLATES L
1 .I‘i$: Cuntersviiie Basin pottery types   7777777 77 7 52  
V Iitiativc properties ol` wares in the Cuntersyiiie Q
Basin Sites 7 7 7 7 7 55  
I ‘Ii$i Cuntersyiiie Basin type sherds 777777777777777 77 759 Q
Correlation of stratigraphic data from various sites 77777777 77 67  
` Tl`IItlltI\'O sccrpience ot pottery types in the Cll!TtC1`S\`IIi(?  
7 Basin 7 7 77777 7 7 7765  
I Occupation ot pottery horizons ot Cuntersyiiic  
Basin sites according to pottery type sequence 7 69  
 7 E
  E

 FOBENVOBD  
\Vhen Dr. William S. Webb, former Senior Archaeologis lor E
the Tennessee Valley Authority, recently wrote me that he till _  l
had a copy of an eleven-year—old manuscript of mine and the ight `
I it should and perhaps could be published, I was intensely fl; er- ;_
ed. These pages had originally been intended as a chapter i¤ ilu,  .
report of the Cuntersville Basin which was to have been pnl slr  A
ed by the Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Et ral- i
ogy for the Tennessee Valley Authority. But \Vorld XV ar IY ard =
subsequent lack of funds waylaid it. This report now appe; » as `
a separate publication, by the University of Kentucky Pres lt  
, provides the individual site descriptions, the pottery dat. aid ~
study for each site, and the cultural orientation for the mi rial .
included here. I
  A job of updating and rewriting this chapter seemed rin-  
A ally impossible for one who has been out of the field entirt for It
over ten years. So I offer it here, apologetically, as it was rmi.  I
_ for whatever documentary usefulness it may have. I only ope Z
that my current reputation as a reporter of present day · wits  ·
. will not be dimmed by my very obvious earlier limitations
  My respects and appreciation to those who made this orlt y
. . possible are extended to Dr. \Vebb mentioned above; Dr. Kal-  
  ter B. Iones, Alabama State Director of Conservation; Da l L. p
l Q Delarnette, Curator, Alabama State Museuin; and to the ( tral A
r Archaeological Laboratory staff members who participati ex- .
  " tensively in the laboratory work on pottery; Mrs. Christin Ml-
cock \Vimberly, Messrs. Harold Dahms, Harold Andersoi nid ‘
james Pxussell Foster. V
· The means for excavation of the materials from Cuntt .ill¤~
Basin and the facilities of the Central Archaeological Labo ron
, at Birmingham, Alabama were supplied jointly by the Al;. una .
l State Museum, the Tennessee Valley Authority and the \ rh
l Progress Administration  
  M. D. H. p
i
I ‘\Vebb, \Vm. S. and Charles C. \Vilder, An Archaeological Sun » lll
i Cuntersville Basin on the Tennessee Biver in Northern Alabama. ._
` v
 
A
 

  
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I
 · l
HH ; GUNTEBSVILLE BASIN POTTERY  
ti. _  Y `
{ht  { by l
‘”‘” I Marion Dunleuy Hcimlic/1 I
the  _  
”l"‘  . Pottery Type C/(l.S'SifiC(IfiOH :
pol- · L
Ml ? The inhabitants of the aboriginal villages scattered along thc I A
` fli { J ,s of the Tennessee Biver in the Cuntersville Basin of North- V
ll ’ t llabaina Were prolific potters. Their ceramic stvles Were ` j
tlffl  . 1 ?y identical to those of their near neighbors both up and .  
will  I c n the great river. A descriptive system of potterv types for Q
 ’ I area was well laid out in earlier reports on the cultural re- ,  
t I i is from the \Vheeler and Piclroad cultural horizons which inav he k1l`1'21]`lU(i(l in relative
, .— B
I ‘ i nological sequence. In addition, certain surface finishes and g
OI` I  ‘ . . . . . *
,. ll  · ·» ‘l`llIl\’C designs appear to be diagnostic Of several PGYIOCIS
\ Ll · = _ . . .
1 I I \ zu these broader horizons. In the analysis of the Cunters— 1
ti, ` t ~ Basin sherds and the comparison of them with Pickwick ·
ra _ r
 ‘ I rr >otterv, it became a J Jarent that nearlv all of the features r
W L . l I . p
X, ‘ ‘ le PlCl
= which has been decomposed or carbonized. The structui is  ;
  verinieulated. and cellular. Occasional sherds contain cons *1* ·
  able sand and some mica, in addition to the fiber. This mix it _
  may have been due to natural agencies. The texture is mee iii I
%
1*,
 

  
I
CUNTEBSVILLE BASlN POTTERY !~)  
t. 4 4 shows a laminated structure due to the fibrous aplastic.  
E. ` Q T nn little or no sand is present the clay is slightly chalky in i
,. j g are, The hardness is most frequently less than 2, the sandy l
~   T tls generally being the harder. The exterior is cinnamon  
-\\  i _ or light gray and the interior generally darker gray or p l
·r· >  ·. sionally buff. The cross section varies in shade. the color  
ll   ¤ se exterior often penetrating 2 to S mm. The remainder of  
 Q as-ore is generally dark gray. The surface finish is irregularly  
T  `lll]C(lr showing tool marl » Basins. The group prevalent in Guntersville Basin. Thc  
i~ E up prevalent in Guntersville Basin is described and subse~ l
i'- 4 Willy referred to as sand temper group 1. The minority group  
rr 1 the Guntersville Basin, group ll. is the prevalent variety in H
ni  _ *i I
which range trom snhavigular to rounded with water worn rr  
  laces. The composition ot the sand is as tollows; (1,) or ;
tpredriminantlyil. milk or clear varieties, usually with a ll,
I variety in eyidence; (2> /e/ds·pm·. content negligihle; (Sl i-
1 cretionary nodules ot Iimonile and hematite yarying in sixty I  —
I qnantity within the sherds examined; (4) miezz, present. i-  
, ; weathered sherds presents a relatively smooth surliace ii `
I _ slit{htly protruding tpiartx grains. A distinguishing Iactt “ _ j`
E group II is the Iiieh percentage oi large sand grains unilk I Q
1 dislrihuted throughout the paste. _
 
I , .-\ nnmher ot tractures indieatiye ol the coiling tceln I
oll manutacture have heen noted. The hardness is rarelj `  I
l and more commonly 2.0. ranging to 2.5. The paste core is  
I io hlaelt. the interior gray or smudged hlacl< and the ext M  
gray. or hntt to hrown.  
I .\ yaricty ot forms representing hoth temper groups ma
reconstructed from the rim, hasal and large hody sherds I lr
  trated in plate 1B, sherds 12-21, and cross sections in plate il
I The characteristic form is howl shaped, hut small, thin gl0l7 it
  jars occur. The most jtretpiently represented howl fOl`111 is ll'  ;
( llat lnased (sherd 20, pl1te 1B cross section 15, plate 2B), ei   Y
  slightly flaring or excurvate sided vessel with a roundetl lll `
  (sherds 18 and 19, plate 1B, cross section 8 plate 2B) or 21 I ll  ,
I  I
! I
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  ‘
 

  
‘
I
CUNTEl1SVlLLE BASIN POTTERY 11  
—1· _1 11 ~11c1< ri111 (shertls 12 :11101 21, p111te 1B, 0r0ss se0ti011 12-14 plate  
0 · · Q1 _ Ttlllglllg up tO &1Pj)i`OX1l`1l&l1I(21}·’ SO 0111. i11 (112I]]]€1ZG1`. Tetra- 1
~- j P1 11 supports 011 Ll f1atle11ec1 base (cr0ss section 16 plate 213)  
1 1 .11 1·01111c1ec1 b11ses 111s0 00c11r. OCCL1S10l]Ll11}’ 1`1]11S are t11i01   sj   j)2ll`11Cll1211'1}’ 011 the t1111111Cl` vessels. OCC21S10l]L111)’ bases  
;>  ” 1; 1·1111s arc t11i01c10w t11e lip (01*0ss se0ti011 11, plate 213  A ]`1l11511Cl`(1 01  
11   1 1 s111a11 j11r11as a s111a11 100p 1]1U)(11€, shertl 17, plate 113 (cross  
1-  j . » 111 4, plate    
11  , 1"jgpe 2r1a—]iI1*11r1/ [.s·/1111d P/11111 (iplate 75 F, G, Crmtersyillc 1
1   1 ·1·t 1——Vcsscls 01 t11is type L1j)Pl`OX1l11tl1() tc111pcr g1·011p 1. Tw0  
i` · wl 110wls have ]'()iK11(1G(1 lips, Cll1`\'1l1Qj llarccl rims. sha110w j
~  1 ? .-s 1111tl 1:1tl11€]1(‘(1 bases. The CO1()1' is 1)I`()`»\`l1 t0 1)1L1(`1{. The  
j <.·1· 1lI(*LlS1Il`CS 13.2 0111. i11 t1i11111eter at thc lip by 5.8 0111. i11 1
 T 1 11; Ll11(1 yaries 1;1·()111 4- t0 8 111111. 111 tl1ic1<11ess, t11e 11ecl; being j
 · ~11\\‘D.  
. t
gu ‘ Type 21—Ben.son Fabric Marked (plate IC, sherd 9).-A lj
Il A ·V $l1€1`ClS of sand temper group I are marl‘ Il  
( the base giying an elongated appearance though the has li (
I self is rounded. The maximum diameter and height of the \ Il
( are approximately the same, I5 cm. The paired strap har  
are ornamented with protuberances, one vertical at the lip IU
  one horizontal at the center of the handle. Thickness ra I~
  from 3 to 5 mm.  ‘
I Type 2.s-Rudder Caml; Ineised (plate 76A, ]a"lSOA, C *  [_
( ersyille lleport).—One jar, identical in form to the peak rinr Il ` 
( jars. of type 2aa- Henry Island Plain, is marked with ineised l ` ,
l .
Q
 

 }  
I
GUNTERSVlLLE BASIN POTTERY 15  
_ - ich appear to have l)€€ll made by a six toothed (JOlHl). Tl1e i1n—  
in A . nts Ol] tl1e neck are vertical while tl1ose OI] the body are gen- _
W — liy in crude semi.-lunar swirls. Sometimes overlapping Ftl](l .
\ i*ZL’(1l.I€lltl}` smoothing.   V
1 —  A
wl 'I`1/pe 21°—li1:cIder B/ac/< Painted (plate 76]), _la"l8()A Cunt-  
·Q   ville Report).——One water bottle of sand temper group I has >
A attened lip, long narrow neck, sloping shoulder and a globu— .
. body. Although well modelled o11 tl1e exterior tl1e vessel is
lp p ·l<. lll€2lS\ll`lllg T to 12 mm. The vessel bears tl1ree black paint- f
A]   patterns of tl1e su11 symbol surrounding tl1e world quarter  
,,· j   which appears i11 the negative. The water bottle measures  
1.1   ein. in maximum diaineter, 20 c111. in height. and the neck  
111  ` wht is approximately 8.5 e111. {
.l ‘
A Liniestonc Tenipered lV(lI'('  
-1l    
1]} Z The preponderant ware in the Guntersville Basin is lime  
»·.· tempered. Tempering, paste a11d surface fi11ish are re-  
“   kably uniform throiighout the entire range of types. Cer- `
(K   1 forms are associated with certain decorative types. how- 1
le ~ t· 1
.(  T l
_ I lll!/})t’ 3u—M11U2erry Ciwelt P/ain (plate SA. B and plate 2(Z.  
1. ·p  `\ls"1()(}, S5 Ms"1()O, 47 l\Zs""l<')() and ST ;[a"l55).—Tl1e sherds   (
N.   his type C()1llLlll1 lt) to 30 per CClll white and light gray tl1l·    
_] A  4 it limestone teinpering. lt ranges i11 size from 2 111111. in lCllt{tll l  
(_ . g>z1rticles only detectable inieroscopically. The average size `  
( i .hc limestone fragment is slightly under l.() 111111. Visible wa-  
(_ worn subangular or rounded sand gl`tllllS of variable size co11-  
kl · lll? llpproxiinately 1 per cent of content. Variations noted  
( Q (ll weathered sherds i11 wl1icl1 tl1e limestone temper has  
j 1·n leached out leaving gaping, angular pores o11 tl1e surfaces  
.  rl weathered fractures} of tl1e sherds. and (2) sherds CO1lt&llll—  
;»   1 the l`|Tl]llllll,ll]l of lt) per cent or less limestone with a11 equal  
rl L  tlilllllt of water worn. subangular to rounded, medium sized I
1 1 and grains, both contained i11 a relatively siltv paste. The hard-

 I6 CEOl.O(}l(Z.·\L SURVEY OF ALABAMA  
ness of the paste and temper is 2.0 to 2.5. The tenrper general  
is softened by decomposition.  i
The coiling technique of manufacture was used. Modell I
disks 6 to l0 cm. in diameter formed the bases and vessel xy; v  
were built up of successive coils of approximately little fin; ;· l
thickness. The vessels were well modelled and are relatiyr . pf 
thin considering the size. The surface is well smoothed on 1 n  ,
interior and exterior, the exterior slrowirrg tool markings, ; l _
frequently, burnishirrg. The texture is medium fine to medi r l
and the paste is well consolidated. The color is gray and l I S
to snroky black, darker shades predorninating. Y
A variety of forms is represented but characteristic are xx .· L
mouthed, deep bowls and jars. The restored vessel, illustra l  t
in figure 47 Ms"l00, is representative of the form of more t` rr _
75 per cent of the plain lirnestorre tempered ware in the Cunt —  
ville Basin. The lip is rounded and characteristically sligl . .
. tlrirrner tlrarr the body wall. Occasionally it is flattened. In e `
cjuently the lip is thickened or folded back. Both open be » `
and wide—mouthed jars with vertical to slightly flaring rims ·
cornrnon. (See cross sections, plate 2C). Conical and bir »
  ical perforations occur occasionally approximately 1 cm. be e A
the lip. The vessels narrow toward the base giving an elon;. —
ed appearance, though they frequently nreasure the same r (
V diameter and height. The bases are conoidal, truncated e ~ (
oidal or rounded (plate 2C, cross section 8-10, plate BB, lor ‘
( row) and generally, are thickened. Vessel size varies from n — t
tively small to large, ranging up to 44 cm. in height. Body xv; i o
range from 3 to 10 rnrn. in thickness, 3 to 5 rnrn. being charact A
istic. Appendages occurred at sites Ms"32, l\Is°80 and ]a"2·“ r
T only. Loop and elliptical strap handle forms are represented
fragmentarys. The exact form of attaclnnent is not known yr
the exception of lip attachments on two of the strap variety ( pl; .
SB). A rrurnber of curved lugs which were attached only at o
T end and were pointed at the free end, occur. The placement
f these lugs on vessels is not known. One large check stamp
r fragment, bears one such lug handle (plate GF).  A
it
.3*
{

 I R
A
Z r
Z  
  CUNTEHSVILLE BASIN POTTERY 17  
u  E r
 t Common, particularly at sites Xls'32 and ]\rIs"SO, were flat ?
 _ ses with tetrapodal supports 16 to 28 mm. in height (plate §
 . a upper and lower sherds on the left). These bases suggest f
l l .— all vessels of the wide mouthed jar variety. Smaller, glo- ;
*  S lar jars with vertical to flaring rims, marked angles at the  
F  e eture of rim and shoulder, and round or flattened-round i
- es also occurred. Round bodied bowls with added rimstrips r
—` 4 re found. T  
l v p _
{   Type 3/2-Long Branc/1 Fabric; Marked (plates SC and 6B).- i  
l l in plaited fabric and basketry impressions occur on ves- l E
. ¢ similar in form to the plain limestone tempered ware.  
z. .u·acteristicial1y, however, the fabric marked vessels appear r 1
._  T he smaller and thinner with rims more decidedly incurving T {
fi .1  laring, and with rounded bases (plate 2D, cross sections 1-6). i
,1 T · lip is frequently flattened, with an irregular overhanging on i i
4  f exterior. Several thick loop handles and a number of lug  
\ _ rdles were found. V  
i » . . I
_ ~  4 I`!/pc 3c&d-1rVrig/zt Check Sranzped (plates 6C, SD, and 4A). ;
.   varieiy of sizes and shapes of check stamping are found l
4 aighout Cuntersville Basin. The size of the grid ranges from Z
V. to S mm., the fine grids being frequent, but the characteristic  
4 _ ~ is 4-to 5 mm. The square, rectangle, rhomboid and rhomhus
, represented. An effort was made to determine site, areal  
4  A stratigraphic correlations for the various grid shapes and _ 2
. `— ~s. but the only distinction found was that the rhomboidal  
4 . allelogram was more common at l\[s"1OO while the variations  
p ipproxiinately equal proportions occurred at the other sites  
4 ere check stamping was found.  
U The larger, rhombic check stamping occurs on the wide   1
utlied, flaring rimmed jars typical of the limestone tempered  
V re. Less abundantly, though well represented, are check  
. 4 imped vessels which are smaller, with vertical to flaring rims  
rl show a variety of rim and lip modifications (plate 2D, cross {
 . ations 7-12). These included the following;   an added i
a strip 12 to 20 mm. in width with check stamping on the en- H
*e exterior, on the rim strip only, on the neck only, or on the R
Q S T .

 lb CEOLOCICAL SURVEY OF ALABAMA
rim strip and body; (2) check stamping to the lip with a pl; r ‘
rim fo