xt7g4f1mjq2d https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7g4f1mjq2d/data/mets.xml Alabama Alabama Museum of Natural History 1952 Other titles include: Alabama Museum of Natural History museum paper, Geological Survey of Alabama, Museum of the Geological Survey of Alabama. Other creators include: United States. Work Projects Administration, Geological Survey of Alabama, Tennessee Valley Authority. Issues for 1, 3 carry no series numbering. No. 2 also as Education papers no. 1. UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries. Call number  AS36 .A2. journals  English University, Ala. : Alabama Museum of Natural History, 1910-1960 This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Alabama Works Progress Administration Publications Museum Paper, no. 32, 1952 - including "Guntersville Basin Pottery" by Marion Dunlevy Heimlich text Museum Paper, no. 32, 1952 - including "Guntersville Basin Pottery" by Marion Dunlevy Heimlich 1952 1952 2015 true xt7g4f1mjq2d section xt7g4f1mjq2d Q `- T
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Primers and Pubhshcrs ;
, I \Vetumpka. Ala. `
~ §

University, Alabama l
T December 1. 1952  
  l» »rable Gordon Persons l
  rvernor of Alabama l
 E \[ontgomery, Alabama 4
I   I
4   1 have the honor to transmit herewith the transcript of a re- I t
Q [T an "Guntersville Basin Pottery”, by Marion Dunlevy Heim— f T
  li~ lt is requested that this be printed as 1\1useaum Paper No. ·
J P} the Geological Survey of Alabama. [
4  : Respectfully, L
 P State Geologist Q
‘ E
‘ s
1 E
 E E


’ 1* ~`\\'ORD 7 7   777777777 7 7   _7_r_7 7 77 ____rT_ 77 5 ‘
_ ]i ‘iEHY TYPE CLASSIFICATION 7777 77 __,__,,_,_r 7 7 ___i__iV __ 7
 I `iher tempered ware 77 77777 .7 7 7777 7   7 77   7   ___777777 8 7
ind tempered ware 7 7 77 7 7 777777 7 777777_ 7 77 9
 ` imestone tempered ware 77 77 77777777 77 77 77__ 7 7777777 7 777777 15  
lay and grit tempered ware 7 777777     7 77 77 20 7
hcl] tempered ware 77 7 77777 7   7 7 7777 22 7
I `z·<7»historic domestic ware 77 7 7 7 7 777777 7 7777777 22 i
alt-pan ware 7 7 7   7777 7 7777 7 7 726   _
_ site or historic domestic wares 77 7 77 77777 7 777777 26
 7 iack tihned shell tempered ware 7 77777777 7 7 77 28 7
- f-Xionndviilc hIacI< iihned 7 77 77777 7 7 7 7 77 29 7
BASIN POTTERY TYPES 7 7 7 7   7777777777 33
hronoiogieai position oi. fiber tempered ware 7 35  
 _ hronoiogicai position ol? cariy sand tempered ware 7 7   777777 77735 A
A hronologicai position ot the limestone tempered ware 36  
iiiitemparancity of sand and ciay-grit tempered types with Q
the Iiinestonc tempered ware 7     77 7 7   77   I
`7 Zhronotogicai position oi the sheII tempered wares 7 SS
 - iiatiyc chronoiogicai position ot the pottery IcveIs of  
7_ Cuntersvilie Basin sites 777. 77 7 40
I 7i ographicai distribution oi the Cuntersyiiie Basin i
A pottery tycs 7777 7 7 7 7 7 7 77 7 7777 774I ,
Fihcr tem Jcred ware 7   7 4I  
7 7 I »
Sand tempered ware 7 77 7 42 ;
‘ Limestone and clay and grit tempered ware 7 7 744 I
SheII tempered ware 7 77 7 7 77   7 46 Q
1 .I‘i$: Cuntersviiie Basin pottery types   7777777 77 7 52  
V Iitiativc properties ol` wares in the Cuntersyiiie Q
Basin Sites 7 7 7 7 7 55  
I ‘Ii$i Cuntersyiiie Basin type sherds 777777777777777 77 759 Q
Correlation of stratigraphic data from various sites 77777777 77 67  
` Tl`IItlltI\'O sccrpience ot pottery types in the Cll!TtC1`S\`IIi(?  
7 Basin 7 7 77777 7 7 7765  
I Occupation ot pottery horizons ot Cuntersyiiic  
Basin sites according to pottery type sequence 7 69  
 7 E

\Vhen Dr. William S. Webb, former Senior Archaeologis lor E
the Tennessee Valley Authority, recently wrote me that he till _  l
had a copy of an eleven-year—old manuscript of mine and the ight `
I it should and perhaps could be published, I was intensely fl; er- ;_
ed. These pages had originally been intended as a chapter i¤ ilu,  .
report of the Cuntersville Basin which was to have been pnl slr  A
ed by the Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Et ral- i
ogy for the Tennessee Valley Authority. But \Vorld XV ar IY ard =
subsequent lack of funds waylaid it. This report now appe; » as `
a separate publication, by the University of Kentucky Pres lt  
, provides the individual site descriptions, the pottery dat. aid ~
study for each site, and the cultural orientation for the mi rial .
included here. I
  A job of updating and rewriting this chapter seemed rin-  
A ally impossible for one who has been out of the field entirt for It
over ten years. So I offer it here, apologetically, as it was rmi.  I
_ for whatever documentary usefulness it may have. I only ope Z
that my current reputation as a reporter of present day · wits  ·
. will not be dimmed by my very obvious earlier limitations
  My respects and appreciation to those who made this orlt y
. . possible are extended to Dr. \Vebb mentioned above; Dr. Kal-  
  ter B. Iones, Alabama State Director of Conservation; Da l L. p
l Q Delarnette, Curator, Alabama State Museuin; and to the ( tral A
r Archaeological Laboratory staff members who participati ex- .
  " tensively in the laboratory work on pottery; Mrs. Christin Ml-
cock \Vimberly, Messrs. Harold Dahms, Harold Andersoi nid ‘
james Pxussell Foster. V
· The means for excavation of the materials from Cuntt .ill¤~
Basin and the facilities of the Central Archaeological Labo ron
, at Birmingham, Alabama were supplied jointly by the Al;. una .
l State Museum, the Tennessee Valley Authority and the \ rh
l Progress Administration  
  M. D. H. p
I ‘\Vebb, \Vm. S. and Charles C. \Vilder, An Archaeological Sun » lll
i Cuntersville Basin on the Tennessee Biver in Northern Alabama. ._
` v

 · l
ti. _  Y `
{ht  { by l
‘”‘” I Marion Dunleuy Hcimlic/1 I
the  _  
”l"‘  . Pottery Type C/(l.S'SifiC(IfiOH :
pol- · L
Ml ? The inhabitants of the aboriginal villages scattered along thc I A
` fli { J ,s of the Tennessee Biver in the Cuntersville Basin of North- V
ll ’ t llabaina Were prolific potters. Their ceramic stvles Were ` j
tlffl  . 1 ?y identical to those of their near neighbors both up and .  
will  I c n the great river. A descriptive system of potterv types for Q
 ’ I area was well laid out in earlier reports on the cultural re- ,  
t I i is from the \Vheeler and Piclroad cultural horizons which inav he k1l`1'21]`lU(i(l in relative
, .— B
I ‘ i nological sequence. In addition, certain surface finishes and g
OI` I  ‘ . . . . . *
,. ll  · ·» ‘l`llIl\’C designs appear to be diagnostic Of several PGYIOCIS
\ Ll · = _ . . .
1 I I \ zu these broader horizons. In the analysis of the Cunters— 1
ti, ` t ~ Basin sherds and the comparison of them with Pickwick ·
ra _ r
 ‘ I rr >otterv, it became a J Jarent that nearlv all of the features r
W L . l I . p
X, ‘ ‘ le PlCl
= which has been decomposed or carbonized. The structui is  ;
  verinieulated. and cellular. Occasional sherds contain cons *1* ·
  able sand and some mica, in addition to the fiber. This mix it _
  may have been due to natural agencies. The texture is mee iii I

t. 4 4 shows a laminated structure due to the fibrous aplastic.  
E. ` Q T nn little or no sand is present the clay is slightly chalky in i
,. j g are, The hardness is most frequently less than 2, the sandy l
~   T tls generally being the harder. The exterior is cinnamon  
-\\  i _ or light gray and the interior generally darker gray or p l
·r· >  ·. sionally buff. The cross section varies in shade. the color  
ll   ¤ se exterior often penetrating 2 to S mm. The remainder of  
 Q as-ore is generally dark gray. The surface finish is irregularly  
T  `lll]C(lr showing tool marl » Basins. The group prevalent in Guntersville Basin. Thc  
i~ E up prevalent in Guntersville Basin is described and subse~ l
i'- 4 Willy referred to as sand temper group 1. The minority group  
rr 1 the Guntersville Basin, group ll. is the prevalent variety in H
ni  _ *i I
which range trom snhavigular to rounded with water worn rr  
  laces. The composition ot the sand is as tollows; (1,) or ;
tpredriminantlyil. milk or clear varieties, usually with a ll,
I variety in eyidence; (2> /e/ds·pm·. content negligihle; (Sl i-
1 cretionary nodules ot Iimonile and hematite yarying in sixty I  —
I qnantity within the sherds examined; (4) miezz, present. i-  
, ; weathered sherds presents a relatively smooth surliace ii `
I _ slit{htly protruding tpiartx grains. A distinguishing Iactt “ _ j`
E group II is the Iiieh percentage oi large sand grains unilk I Q
1 dislrihuted throughout the paste. _
I , .-\ nnmher ot tractures indieatiye ol the coiling tceln I
oll manutacture have heen noted. The hardness is rarelj `  I
l and more commonly 2.0. ranging to 2.5. The paste core is  
I io hlaelt. the interior gray or smudged hlacl< and the ext M  
gray. or hntt to hrown.  
I .\ yaricty ot forms representing hoth temper groups ma
reconstructed from the rim, hasal and large hody sherds I lr
  trated in plate 1B, sherds 12-21, and cross sections in plate il
I The characteristic form is howl shaped, hut small, thin gl0l7 it
  jars occur. The most jtretpiently represented howl fOl`111 is ll'  ;
( llat lnased (sherd 20, pl1te 1B cross section 15, plate 2B), ei   Y
  slightly flaring or excurvate sided vessel with a roundetl lll `
  (sherds 18 and 19, plate 1B, cross section 8 plate 2B) or 21 I ll  ,
I  I
! I

—1· _1 11 ~11c1< ri111 (shertls 12 :11101 21, p111te 1B, 0r0ss se0ti011 12-14 plate  
0 · · Q1 _ Ttlllglllg up tO &1Pj)i`OX1l`1l&l1I(21}·’ SO 0111. i11 (112I]]]€1ZG1`. Tetra- 1
~- j P1 11 supports 011 Ll f1atle11ec1 base (cr0ss section 16 plate 213)  
1 1 .11 1·01111c1ec1 b11ses 111s0 00c11r. OCCL1S10l]Ll11}’ 1`1]11S are t11i01   sj   j)2ll`11Cll1211'1}’ 011 the t1111111Cl` vessels. OCC21S10l]L111)’ bases  
;>  ” 1; 1·1111s arc t11i01c10w t11e lip (01*0ss se0ti011 11, plate 213  A ]`1l11511Cl`(1 01  
11   1 1 s111a11 j11r11as a s111a11 100p 1]1U)(11€, shertl 17, plate 113 (cross  
1-  j . » 111 4, plate    
11  , 1"jgpe 2r1a—]iI1*11r1/ [.s·/1111d P/11111 (iplate 75 F, G, Crmtersyillc 1
1   1 ·1·t 1——Vcsscls 01 t11is type L1j)Pl`OX1l11tl1() tc111pcr g1·011p 1. Tw0  
i` · wl 110wls have ]'()iK11(1G(1 lips, Cll1`\'1l1Qj llarccl rims. sha110w j
~  1 ? .-s 1111tl 1:1tl11€]1(‘(1 bases. The CO1()1' is 1)I`()`»\`l1 t0 1)1L1(`1{. The  
j <.·1· 1lI(*LlS1Il`CS 13.2 0111. i11 t1i11111eter at thc lip by 5.8 0111. i11 1
 T 1 11; Ll11(1 yaries 1;1·()111 4- t0 8 111111. 111 tl1ic1<11ess, t11e 11ecl; being j
 · ~11\\‘D.  
. t
gu ‘ Type 21—Ben.son Fabric Marked (plate IC, sherd 9).-A lj
Il A ·V $l1€1`ClS of sand temper group I are marl‘ Il  
( the base giying an elongated appearance though the has li (
I self is rounded. The maximum diameter and height of the \ Il
( are approximately the same, I5 cm. The paired strap har  
are ornamented with protuberances, one vertical at the lip IU
  one horizontal at the center of the handle. Thickness ra I~
  from 3 to 5 mm.  ‘
I Type 2.s-Rudder Caml; Ineised (plate 76A, ]a"lSOA, C *  [_
( ersyille lleport).—One jar, identical in form to the peak rinr Il ` 
( jars. of type 2aa- Henry Island Plain, is marked with ineised l ` ,
l .

_ - ich appear to have l)€€ll made by a six toothed (JOlHl). Tl1e i1n—  
in A . nts Ol] tl1e neck are vertical while tl1ose OI] the body are gen- _
W — liy in crude semi.-lunar swirls. Sometimes overlapping Ftl](l .
\ i*ZL’(1l.I€lltl}` smoothing.   V
1 —  A
wl 'I`1/pe 21°—li1:cIder B/ac/< Painted (plate 76]), _la"l8()A Cunt-  
·Q   ville Report).——One water bottle of sand temper group I has >
A attened lip, long narrow neck, sloping shoulder and a globu— .
. body. Although well modelled o11 tl1e exterior tl1e vessel is
lp p ·l<. lll€2lS\ll`lllg T to 12 mm. The vessel bears tl1ree black paint- f
A]   patterns of tl1e su11 symbol surrounding tl1e world quarter  
,,· j   which appears i11 the negative. The water bottle measures  
1.1   ein. in maximum diaineter, 20 c111. in height. and the neck  
111  ` wht is approximately 8.5 e111. {
.l ‘
A Liniestonc Tenipered lV(lI'('  
1]} Z The preponderant ware in the Guntersville Basin is lime  
»·.· tempered. Tempering, paste a11d surface fi11ish are re-  
“   kably uniform throiighout the entire range of types. Cer- `
(K   1 forms are associated with certain decorative types. how- 1
le ~ t· 1
.(  T l
_ I lll!/})t’ 3u—M11U2erry Ciwelt P/ain (plate SA. B and plate 2(Z.  
1. ·p  `\ls"1()(}, S5 Ms"1()O, 47 l\Zs""l<')() and ST ;[a"l55).—Tl1e sherds   (
N.   his type C()1llLlll1 lt) to 30 per CClll white and light gray tl1l·    
_] A  4 it limestone teinpering. lt ranges i11 size from 2 111111. in lCllt{tll l  
(_ . g>z1rticles only detectable inieroscopically. The average size `  
( i .hc limestone fragment is slightly under l.() 111111. Visible wa-  
(_ worn subangular or rounded sand gl`tllllS of variable size co11-  
kl · lll? llpproxiinately 1 per cent of content. Variations noted  
( Q (ll weathered sherds i11 wl1icl1 tl1e limestone temper has  
j 1·n leached out leaving gaping, angular pores o11 tl1e surfaces  
.  rl weathered fractures} of tl1e sherds. and (2) sherds CO1lt&llll—  
;»   1 the l`|Tl]llllll,ll]l of lt) per cent or less limestone with a11 equal  
rl L  tlilllllt of water worn. subangular to rounded, medium sized I
1 1 and grains, both contained i11 a relatively siltv paste. The hard-

ness of the paste and temper is 2.0 to 2.5. The tenrper general  
is softened by decomposition.  i
The coiling technique of manufacture was used. Modell I
disks 6 to l0 cm. in diameter formed the bases and vessel xy; v  
were built up of successive coils of approximately little fin; ;· l
thickness. The vessels were well modelled and are relatiyr . pf 
thin considering the size. The surface is well smoothed on 1 n  ,
interior and exterior, the exterior slrowirrg tool markings, ; l _
frequently, burnishirrg. The texture is medium fine to medi r l
and the paste is well consolidated. The color is gray and l I S
to snroky black, darker shades predorninating. Y
A variety of forms is represented but characteristic are xx .· L
mouthed, deep bowls and jars. The restored vessel, illustra l  t
in figure 47 Ms"l00, is representative of the form of more t` rr _
75 per cent of the plain lirnestorre tempered ware in the Cunt —  
ville Basin. The lip is rounded and characteristically sligl . .
. tlrirrner tlrarr the body wall. Occasionally it is flattened. In e `
cjuently the lip is thickened or folded back. Both open be » `
and wide—mouthed jars with vertical to slightly flaring rims ·
cornrnon. (See cross sections, plate 2C). Conical and bir »
  ical perforations occur occasionally approximately 1 cm. be e A
the lip. The vessels narrow toward the base giving an elon;. —
ed appearance, though they frequently nreasure the same r (
V diameter and height. The bases are conoidal, truncated e ~ (
oidal or rounded (plate 2C, cross section 8-10, plate BB, lor ‘
( row) and generally, are thickened. Vessel size varies from n — t
tively small to large, ranging up to 44 cm. in height. Body xv; i o
range from 3 to 10 rnrn. in thickness, 3 to 5 rnrn. being charact A
istic. Appendages occurred at sites Ms"32, l\Is°80 and ]a"2·“ r
T only. Loop and elliptical strap handle forms are represented
fragmentarys. The exact form of attaclnnent is not known yr
the exception of lip attachments on two of the strap variety ( pl; .
SB). A rrurnber of curved lugs which were attached only at o
T end and were pointed at the free end, occur. The placement
f these lugs on vessels is not known. One large check stamp
r fragment, bears one such lug handle (plate GF).  A

 I R
Z r
u  E r
 t Common, particularly at sites Xls'32 and ]\rIs"SO, were flat ?
 _ ses with tetrapodal supports 16 to 28 mm. in height (plate §
 . a upper and lower sherds on the left). These bases suggest f
l l .— all vessels of the wide mouthed jar variety. Smaller, glo- ;
*  S lar jars with vertical to flaring rims, marked angles at the  
F  e eture of rim and shoulder, and round or flattened-round i
- es also occurred. Round bodied bowls with added rimstrips r
—` 4 re found. T  
l v p _
{   Type 3/2-Long Branc/1 Fabric; Marked (plates SC and 6B).- i  
l l in plaited fabric and basketry impressions occur on ves- l E
. ¢ similar in form to the plain limestone tempered ware.  
z. .u·acteristicial1y, however, the fabric marked vessels appear r 1
._  T he smaller and thinner with rims more decidedly incurving T {
fi .1  laring, and with rounded bases (plate 2D, cross sections 1-6). i
,1 T · lip is frequently flattened, with an irregular overhanging on i i
4  f exterior. Several thick loop handles and a number of lug  
\ _ rdles were found. V  
i » . . I
_ ~  4 I`!/pc 3c&d-1rVrig/zt Check Sranzped (plates 6C, SD, and 4A). ;
.   varieiy of sizes and shapes of check stamping are found l
4 aighout Cuntersville Basin. The size of the grid ranges from Z
V. to S mm., the fine grids being frequent, but the characteristic  
4 _ ~ is 4-to 5 mm. The square, rectangle, rhomboid and rhomhus
, represented. An effort was made to determine site, areal  
4  A stratigraphic correlations for the various grid shapes and _ 2
. `— ~s. but the only distinction found was that the rhomboidal  
4 . allelogram was more common at l\[s"1OO while the variations  
p ipproxiinately equal proportions occurred at the other sites  
4 ere check stamping was found.  
U The larger, rhombic check stamping occurs on the wide   1
utlied, flaring rimmed jars typical of the limestone tempered  
V re. Less abundantly, though well represented, are check  
. 4 imped vessels which are smaller, with vertical to flaring rims  
rl show a variety of rim and lip modifications (plate 2D, cross {
 . ations 7-12). These included the following;   an added i
a strip 12 to 20 mm. in width with check stamping on the en- H
*e exterior, on the rim strip only, on the neck only, or on the R
Q S T .

rim strip and body; (2) check stamping to the lip with a pl; r ‘
rim folded over, and (3) an unmodified flaring rim with t A
check stamped band 15 to 20 mm. width and a plain ne» .
A These vessels appear generally to have been round based. Tet ~
pedal supports and lug handles with check stamping are i` —  (
tjuently found. .
Type 3e—Bluff Creek Simple Stamped (plate 4B, sherds J-
lE).—Stamped impressions of a parallel l