xt7g7940sd99 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7g7940sd99/data/mets.xml Rafinesque, C. S. (Constantine Samuel), 1783-1840. 1824  books b92-122-28575511 English Printed for the author, : Frankfort, Kentucky : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Indians History. Indians of North America Kentucky. Kentucky Antiquities. Ancient history, or, Annals of Kentucky  : with a survey of the ancient monuments of North America, and a tabular view of the principal languages and primitive nations of the whole earth / by C.S. Rafinesque. text Ancient history, or, Annals of Kentucky  : with a survey of the ancient monuments of North America, and a tabular view of the principal languages and primitive nations of the whole earth / by C.S. Rafinesque. 1824 2002 true xt7g7940sd99 section xt7g7940sd99 


Constantine Samuel Rafinesque

This page in the original text is blank.






                OF XORTH AMERICA,

,li-2 a, Tabular Viezw of the Principio Languages and Pn'roi-
            tive JVations of the vwhole Earth.

        By G  S. RA-FIESQUE, A M, Ph. D,

Pf.in Trans. Univ.-Sup't. of thre T.ans Bot Csrden-Sec'y oftbO
      Kent. Institute, and member ofu e followiig Societies:
Imp. Nat. Cur of Bonn          Lit.  Phil Soc. ot Nw York,
Imp. Econ, Soc. of Vienna,     Lc. of Nat. Hist of Kew Yorl,
R. Inst. of SciencesofNapies,  Ac, of Nat. Sc. otPhiladelphia,
It. Ac. of Arts and Sciences,  Antiq. Suc. of Iennessee,
Lin. Soc. of Paris,       Med. Soc of Ci-icinnati,
Amer. Antiq Soc.          Med. Soc, of Levxngton,
Histor. Soc. of New York,         8C. C.

                  CJ(umquam otioesu.)





                    THESE PAGES

                    ARE DEDICATED TO




   The following pages have appeared as an introduction to
the second edition of the History of Kentucky by Hum-
phrey Marshall Esq.-Some copies have been printed in a
pamphlet form, to which the author now prefixes a Philolo-
logical and Ethnological Table, abridged from an elaborate
survey of about 500 languages and dialects of both Conti-
nents; reduced to 50 mother languages, (besides 25 exam-
ples of Dialects) with their principal roots for four impor-
tant words.  This will demonstrate those leading facts of
his history relating to the derivation of American nations
and languages. As a first and arduous attempt, it ought to
claim the indulgence of the philologists, if any inevitable
omissions or inaccuracies should be detected; but none will
be found of a nature to invalidate the general results. At a
future time the subject may be renewed, enlarged and ren-
dered still more evident, in connection with a general histo-
ry of the nations and monuments of America.
  The individuals to whom this essay will be sent, will con-
fer a favor on the author, if they are able to communicate to
him, some additional vocabularies of any language or dia-
lect of North or South America; essential words and cardi-
nal numbers are particularly wanted.

   Page 6, line 22, for Amygdalvid read Amygdaloid.
     p 12. 1  24,  Termurians    Fermuriaqs.
       13,    23,   Orenoe         Orenoc.
       17.    27,   Gadesiems      Gadesians.
       20,    21,   Copatta        Copatla.
       23,    15.,  Karitist       Caralit.
       2,     29,   Curas          Ctiz".
       34,    22,   7500           4500
       36,    31,   county         country.
       38,    15,   Has            Star.
              20,  HarmaT         Harmon.
      39t    17,   Vaelt          Vater.


                            OF THE
     1rimitire       JatttioUs     aU41  LAnguages.

  The words Heaven, Land, Water and Man have been selected to fornm
this table; which is the first attempt ever made to ascertain and compare
the roots of all languages.  This has been done by reducing those
words from dialects and analogous languages into their primitive, essen-
tial and radical sounds. The sounds of universal speech are 64, or 12
vowels, 12 nasals, 15 Consonnw-nts, 15 Sibilants and 10 Aspirations; the
orthography adapted to express them is phonological and .invaria-
ble. rhe relative connection and affirnities of the American nations and
languages with those of the eastern continent, will be perceived at a
glance by comparing these roots. The number following each Radical
Language indicates from how many dialects the roots lai e been evolved;
but few radical Languages are omited, while the words cf some impor.
tant Dialects are added as examples. This singn! marks the roots iden.
tica: with the American roots.

        OF                        OF         OF         OF
                   GdD, SIEY, LAHTH,WORLD, SEA, RIVER, MALE, NA-

1 Atalan or Cutan 5 FI,ca. ta
  Poconchian  .  Taxat
  Cherokih   .    Calangota
2 Aruic or Antilan 7 Ya. zn.
3 Cariban 6       Ca. pU. ta.
  Tamanac  . - . Capu
4 Guarani 4       Pn. ta.
  Bragilian      . Tupana
5 Muiscas 1       Zac
6 Araucanian 2    Huen.
7 Peruvian 2      Ca.
              It. ASIATIC OF
8 Mexican 3        ll. il. eo.
9 Misurian orOmnan 9 Pa. no.
  .lMniar ih- -   Apah-hi.
10 Floridan 12    Co. hua. to.
   Chactah  . -   Itolo
11 PanisorApachian5 Sca. tu.
12 Ler apiar 35   Scu. mug.
   Shawanih  -   Spimikih
13 Meiiguy 20     To. ho.
   Tuscorora . . Toendeloh
14 Caralit 5      Ac. na.

Co. cal.
Ay. ca.
En. an. no.

Ha. ya.
Ahua. amah
A, ira.
lab. ud. ma.

ibi. ibuy,  Ig uh.
Tu. map.   Co.ro.le. ma,
An. ac.    Ma, U'. lo.

Cu. uil. sca.
Co. gua
Ii. uc. ir.
Oi.0 ukil
.1ba. tapoy.
Ra. na. co.

1.1. an.   Al. at. ul.  E',
Mah. ca.   Nih. mi.   Nu. hua. ma.
A/mah      M3inih      Mlat, zha.
Ca. na.    Cu.hua.lu.goNa. cay. is.
.A ani Nacana Ocuh. Ocah. Aloknih.
Ar. ta. oc.  Pa. ec.   lsb.tuy. gap.
Ac. in. ze  Ih. tu. ni. si. In li. di.
.Akih       stppih    Linnih.
Co. hun. chi. (En. nic.  En. on. ni.
)leniyen   Ohuen      Etntec. nihsah.
Na. can.    Im. tal.  En. in. ga.

15 Pelasgian 10  Eo! as. se. ur. Ar! ay! en! ta! Hu! ru! a! An. Cu!
   Cantabrian   Saerit       Lurre. Eri    Uva       ,Nar.
16 Celtic 54     Et! ne! eo! Ar! la! so. tal. Um.on-ac!ri. Molr! ni!
  Irish,    . . Neam        Talu         Enasc. loc..r. mo.dinih.
  Provential -  iel       Tere. Sou,     tig  mar   Ome.
17 Gothic or Scythian 30 El !eo.ca. Ard. Ian. od. At! thi. lQ! M41 ! an.
   Teutonic - . Jimel       .qrd. land    Uat. atta. J.71t.
18 Sarmatian 22  Des. ni.   Sem. or. li.  Us! od.     Oc. mo.
  Russian - -    Jebesi      Semli       Voda      .loco.
19 Chudish 12     Ta! el! me! Ma! zo. do. Ua! mu.   Er.! is'


                         ( iv. )


               1. IRANIC OR WLSTERN.
Aramic 18    El! em! IAo! se, Ar! ds, ma! Hu! mu, ya,
Z'-nd 8       As! she-Ar! en,ac! zawma, Au, ep, ri,
Persian - .    Asmon      Zemin      .,qva
Caspian 6     Ch-l ir,   Er, ac!    Su, mu, mi!
Arinenian     Girkin     Gercru     Xua
Abassian 8     Za. Il!   TOU! ec, lat! At! ta, hu!
Cushasib . .  Zila       Tula      At.u Oct1,
sia casuan 8     Zr, chasten, Ac, ma! z i, Uh! su,
Paisachian 4   Za, pa!    Ac  la! ra, Um, hi!
JX)itay- -               Lezpauc    Ishin
Sanserit 25     Ur, ma, eo, Ar! b, ib! Ig! ni! ud!
            5 sa.VP,gt,  ac!        pa,cut
Zngani - -     Amengi,ch/uro. Bu Puba,   Pani

Cu. mar,ul,as Ma! er,

Ten, gri,
Ca! ne, ul,
No, ga, ol,
gan, chervol,
Ni. can! cu,
Tin, el! ca!
Nu. in, ja,

Ar! da, za,
Na! en! ar!
La! to,ac! ul.
, Jutolat
Oc! tan, to,
Si, mo, to,
Ja, ma! tu,

27 Ogurian 4
28 Mogulian 6
29 roxiguzian 4
SO Ostiac 12
   Coriac   . K/I
31 Ainuh 6
3t Nipau or Japan 3
33 Samojed 20

Ish! ic,
Er. aic, ur,
Ar; ma!
Is! en,
Ip, mu, mi,
Ish! ca! ur,
MJuca gur!

Ua! su,    Ap
Su, uh!    Er. Ca!
Mu, cu, in, On! ni in!
Hi! pi, ri,  Ca! ga!
Pihi       Gasi.
Pi! hua!   Nu! our, in!
Peh, Peth, ,Ainuh
Mt! hu! ne  To.
I! bi, as, tuy, Ne! si.

                 III. CHINESE OR EASTERN.
34 Thibetan 2    Na! ke, hen, Sa, di. en!Ip!      In!
35 Chinese 6     Tien, lo!  Ti, di, chi! M! bau! na! Nan, In! yu,
86 Birman 14     Sa, an,    Ca! gay,   Ye, ri, ti,Vo, lu, pa,
37 Avanese orMon 8 Can!mo,.Op, la!  i! toma! Na! pa! co. Na! chay,on!
38 Igoloteh or Papuati 7 Ker, da, A,! ta! po, io, Yo, si! na! Am,
39 Malav 22      Ra, ta! ni,  I a!n-!bu,en. Ay, hua!  En! an. tr.
   .A-ucahian    Hani, tahua, llennua    Ehuay, tay, Enata
40 Tagalan 12    La, V,un,jo, Na! ;p, guy, Th! r. ni! Ic,ga!
  Liuchiu        .lijoh    Sanna,     Ushi midzi. Ikigah,
                     I. BROWN NATIONS.

41 Egyptian 3
42 Attantic orBerber
43 Abyssinian 8
44 Danakil 3
45 Caffer 6
46 Hottentot 6
47 Nubian 4
48 Sudan 10
49 Galla 10
50 Corgo 12 D

Fo Iao! ta! (;ay! umon,
F'a,      Cahi
7 ri. taW8 gi, Ay! un,
Tigo       Oya
Ze, ja, ur.  Za,er, to,mid
Se, am. ur, Ar!
Am, si,   La. um,
Ga, hom,     Ca! gu, hu,
ze, ul,   Ur, ca,
As, ra, al,  Ar! di,bo,su,
Ac, gua,    Un/la! ga,di,
Lu! zi,    I a!po,to,ze!
Izulu,    Zela, n'tato,

MU, hu! iar, Im, an,

An, na!
Mi! ri, hu!
El, li, da,
MW! hul,
Cu! muu,
Ec, ro!
To, Vi,
Be, mi! su,
Ma! bu, cu!
Maza, m'bu,

Uan! Co!
Guan, coran,
Na! hua!
Ca! ma! ut,
Ca! huan!
An; cua!

Oc. ha,
An, ya,
Un, Ca!

Thia is the primitive Black or Negro Nation of Asia, fragments ofwhich
are found on that continent, and throughout Polynesia,











      13Y Cb S. RAFINESQUE, A. M.Pnu. D.

(JNtqwm oftiowuU.)

This page in the original text is blank.


  Mv enquiries during several years, concerning the antiqul
ties of the western states, have led me to extend my researcle
over the whole circle of North American antiquities, and com-
pelled me to enter the dedalus of ancient history.
  The result of my researches may be given in a more ample
form at some future period, when rendered adequate to illus-
trate the interesting primitive periods of human existence in
both hemispheres. I shall merely attempt at present to deli.
neate the first rudiments of the ancient history, involving the
revolutions of nature and nations, in that central part of Noi th
America, now linown under the name of Kentucky, and sur-
rounded ty Virginia, Tennessee, the rivers Ohio and Missis-
sippi, extending upwards of 400 miles from east to west, and
from latitude 36 1-2 to 39 degrees north.
  In order to ascertain the filiation, migrations and annals of
the American nations, all the sources have been consulted from
which plausible or certain information might be derived. The
evidences which they afford, stand in the following order:-
1, Features and complexions of nations; 2, their languages;
3, their monuments; 4, their religions; 5, their manners; 0,
their histories; and 7, their traditions.
  1. The white, tawny, coppery, brown and black varieties of
mankind are connected by numerous links, and claim a com-
mon origin; they have been early divided, variously separated,
and occasionally blended again, yet preserving a sufficient dis-
tinction to guide us in tracing their successive settlements.
  The white men became tawny by constant exposure, brown
in warm climates, coppery in cold regions, and black in the
sands of India and Africa. The Mongol features had origin
in the deserts of Northern Asia, and the negro features in those
of Southern Asia and central Africa. There are Mongols with




different complexions, white, pale, tawny, yellow, olive, cop-
pery, c.; and there are white, yellow, brown and black ne-
groes. Real negroes have been found in all the parts of the
world, except Europe and North America, while in Africa
they are confined to the central and western parts of that
  2. The primitive language of mankind was gradually modi-
fied and divided into dialects, which became languages after
producing other dialects: their mixture has produced all those
which have existed or still exist. The analogies of those dia-
lects, in their roots and most important words, afford the best
mean to trace the relative parentage of nations.
  3. 4. 5. Monuments of arts, traces of various religions and
similarity of manners, compared and elucidated by each other,
are ofhigh importance in historical investigation.
  6. 7. There is such a diversity in the ancient history, chro-
nology and traditions of the several nations, that it is very difli-
cult to fix precisely the dates of many events; but we may trace
with a bold hand a general view of their migrations and set-
tlements: although the revolutions of the earliest empires arc
involved in fables, we can draw even from those fables, some
correct inferences and true events.
  It is almost impossible to make a plausible choice among the
various chronological tables, even of the many texts of the
Sepher or Hebrew Bible, and not easy to make them harmo-
nize with the contradictory accounts of Berosus, Plato, Herodo-
tus, Sanchoniato, Manetho, the Hindoux, Chinese, c. I shad
not attempt it at present, as this would require too many dis-
cussions, and I shall substitute thereto mere periods of time, or
epoqbs, which may be composed of indeterminate ages.




                  Part I .. Pro CXio,


  1. EVERY complete history of a country ought to include an
account of the physicaikhanges and revolutions, which it may
hav'e undergone;
  2. The documents for such a geological survey, are to be
found every where in the bowels of the earth, its rocks and
strata, with the remains of organized bodies imbedded therein,
which are now considered as the medals of nature.
  3. The soil of Kentucky shows, like many other countries,
that it has once been the bed of the sea. In James's Map, the
primitive ocean is supposed to have covered North America,
by having a former level of 6000 feet above the actual level.
Since the highest lands in Kentucky do not exceed 1800 feet
above the level of the actual ocean, they were once covered
with at least 4200 feet of water.
  4. The study of the soil of Kentucky, proves evidently the
suiccessive and gradual retreat of the salt waters, without evin-
cing any proofs of any very violent or sudden disruptions or
emersions of land, nor eruptions of the ocean, except some
casual accidents, easily ascribed to earthquakes, salses and
submarine volcanoes.
  5. There are no remains of land or burning volcanoes in
Kentucky, nor of any considerable fresh water lake. All the
strata are nearly horizontal, with valleys excavated by the
tides and streams during the soft state of the strata.
  6. After these preliminary observations, I shall detail the
successive evolution of this soil and its productions, under six
distinct periods of time, which may be compared to the six
,pocls or days of creation, and supposed to have lasted art
indefinite numlbr of ages,



               1st Period.-General Inundation.
   "In the beginning, GOD created the heavens and the earth.'
   "And the spirit of GOD was moving over the waters."
   The briny ocean covers the whole land of Kentucky, and the
 United States, rising above 4000,feet over the Cumberland or
 Wasioto mountains, and 5000 feet over the limestone region
 near Lexington. The Oregon and Mexican mountains alone
 rise above the waters in North America.
   Gradual decrease of the ocean, by the decomposition and
consolidation of the waters in the formations of rocks and deposi-
tion of strata. The rate of this decrease can only be conjec-
l ured, and is rather immaterial. The ocean subsides to 3000
  The parallel strata are formed in the following order, or near-
ly: 1, limestone; 2, slate; 3, sandstone; 4, freestone; 5, grit; C,
pebble stone, They are not always superincumbent, nor co-
existent: but are generally horizontal, except the four hast
towards the Cumberland mountains, which having probably a
granitic nucleus, have compelled the incumbent strata to be-
come obliqual or slightly inclined from 10 to 30 degrees.
  By the operation of submarine volcanoes, the strata of coal,
clay and amygdalvid are formed and intermixed at various in-
termittent times with the above strata.
  Several minerals, flint, quartz, calcedony, onyx, ovulites,
marls, barytes, iron, lead, pyrites, c. are successively formed
and imbedded or alternated with the proeminent strata.
  CREATION OF SEA ANIMALS, fishes, shells, polyps, c.; the
exuvia of many pelagic animals become buried under or within
the strata, where they exist to this time: they belong principal-
ly to the genera terebratula, gonotrema, orthocera, encrinies, pen.
tremites, turbinotites, astrea, millepera, cyclorites, mastrema, favao
sites, c.
            2nd Period.-EZmersion of Mountains.
  The Cumberland or Wasioto mountains emerge from the
sea, which sinks to the level of 1500 feet above its actual level,
and form a peninsula attached to the Allegheny Island or moun.
lain. The schistose formations proceed under water.



   The Black, Laurel, Pine, Log and Gelico mountains emerge
successively, after the Cumberland mountains, and an inland
sea remains between them, surrounded by sandy hills.
   The heavy tides and rains furrow these new lands, and form
 valleys through the soft sandy strata.
   Grass and reeds grow, VEGETATION BEGINS. Springs appear.
Streams begin to flow, and gradually increase in length as the
laiid extends, but decrease in depth and bulk by the excava-
tion of valleys.
            3d Period.-Einersion of Table Lands.
   Further diminution of the sea, till its level is reduced to
1 (10 feet above the actual level, and all the table lands and
high lands of Kentucky become uncovered.
  An inland sea remains over the Ohio limestone basin, cover-
ing part of the states of Ohio and Indiana, and extending from
the actual mouth of Scioto river to that of Salt river. It is
bounded W. and S. by Muldrow hill, or the ascent of the cen.
tral table land of Kentucky, E. by the Knob hills of Kentucky
and Ohio, N. by the Silver hills of Indiana.
  Another inland sea fills the actual Cumberland basin, boun-
ded N'. by the Green river knobs, S. by the Cumberland moun.
tains, and open to the west.
  The upper Cumberland sea is drained, the Cumberland
river flows, forms its upper valley, the Falls, and empties into
the Gulf of Cumberland.
  The Ohio flows above the Scioto, and falls into the large
Limestone sea; a long and narrow straight is formed below the
Silver hills.
  Green river forms its vallev, c. All those streams and
their branches excavate dcep valleys. The Kentucky river
falls into the Limestone sea below Red river.
  Thc knobs are formed like don on the shores of the Lime.
sta e sea. Mluldrow hill shaped like a wall by the currents
being principally composed of slate schist.
  Sea aaiw,- Vs still living in the Limesto ne sea, and their ezu
vas imnedded in the last limeston schist.




   CREATION of land animals, insects, reptiles, birds and quad-
 rupeds on the dry land.
   Vegetation increases, a thin soil is formed, trees and shrubs
begin to grow, and form forests: they succeed the mosses, reeds,
grasses and maritime plants produced in the second period.
         4th Period.-Draining of the Limestone Sea.
  Level of the sea gradually reduced to 700 feet above the
actual level. The Limestone sea of Kentucky drained, but
full of marshes, and muddy swamps; licks, clay and marl
salses, c.
  The Ohio river and Its branches, Kentucky, Licking, Salt,
Miami, c. excavate their valleys in thie soft muddy lime
strata, which only became indurated after a long lapse of time.
  The plains and glades of the Cumberland gulf are drained,
and the sea recedes west of them, to the alluvial gravel hills,
formed under water, between the actual Cumberland and Ten-
nessee valleys.
  The alluvions and bottoms begin to form in the valleys and
gulfs, by the attrition of the strata and soil conveyed and depo-
sited by the streams.
  Animals and plants increase and spread; the sea animals be-
come gradually extinct, while the land animals multiply their
individuals and species.
  Some small lakes and ponds left over the land. The sinks
and aves of the limestone regions are formed. A soil is formed
by the decomposition of strata and the decay of vegetable
  CREATION OF MANKIND in Eden, in the highlands of Asia.-
Adam, or Admo, or Adimo, (first man;) and Eve, or Evah, (life;)
are the parents of the primitive or antedeluvian nation, called
the Adamites.
  This fourth period of Kentuckian history, answers therefore
to the sixth day or period of the general creation. The first
and second periods of creation having produced the light, suns,
stars, planets, and the earth with her primitive crystallized
mountains, rising from 10 to 30,000 fcat above the actual oc wan2
besides the burning volcanoes, c.



                 5th Pcriod.-TNoah's Flood.
  treat flood of Noah, Nub, Menu, or Nahu, in the eastern
continent, which may have reached America; but has not left
any evident traces of any such violent convulsion, (in Ken-
tucky at least;) the organic and human remains buried in the
soil, are adl in gradual depositions.
  In Kentucky the ocean, which still bathes its western cor-
ncr, subsiides gradually to 300 feet above its actual level, and
abandons Kentucky forever; forming merely a gulf in the Mis-
sissippi vallcey
  T'e great northern inland sea of North Americas Whith
i cluded all the great lakes, and extended from the Mississippi
to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, is gradually drained. The greft
lakes with their outlets and falls are formed.
  Southt of Kentucky, the Gulf stream of Mexico deposits the
alluvial ground reaching from Louisiana to New York-
  All the valleys of rivers and creeks in Kentucky, c. receive
their present shape.
  Stratas begin to consolidate. The ponds and marshes de-
crease; but the salses or muddy volcanoes increase. VegetaX
tion overspreads the soil. Animals multiply. Earthquakes
are frequent; sOme strata are deranged by them.
                 6th Period.-Peleg's Flood.
  'Oreat volcanic eruptions of the sea in Europe, America, c.
with awful earthquakes, convulsing the Atlantic ocean, West
indie, Mediterranean, c.; destroying many countries and

  The ocean acquires its actual level, and the American cowk
tinent its actunl shape.
  The strata becomie indurated, and the soil firm and solido
Jakes disappear. Springs diminish, and streams decrease i4
bulk; rains are less heavy, c.
  Huge animals ramble over the soils such as the mammoths or
mastodons, elephants, megalonyx, big bears, elks, buffaloes,
jaguars, c.; they form licks. Some of them become extinct;
their bones are found at Big-bone Vick, Dreznon's lirk, the
Ohio valley, c.in the miAd or alluvion7.




                   Vlart 11 ..... Clio,

                 CIIAI. L-ADAMITES, c.
  RELIGION, philosophy, geology, history, and tradition, corer
bine to teach and prove that mankind was created in Asia,
and that thc second cradle of mankind after Noah's flood was
also in the lofty lands of Asia, where mountains and peaks
from 20 to 30 thousand feet high (over our actual ocean,) arise
among table lands elevated from 10 to 15,00O feet. The
loftiest table lands and mountains of America are much less
elevated, from 6 to 22 thounand feet at utmost, and they are
besides entirely volcanic, unfit therefore to have been the cra-
dles of mankind. It is an evident and positive fact therefore,
that America was populated from the eastern continent in thI
first instance.
  The first cradle of mankind was called Eden, or Ima, and
was in the highest land of Asia. The Adamites, or Antedelu-
vians, were spread over the eastern continent; but we have no
positive proofs that they came to America, as very few, if any,
remains have been found that might be ascribed or traced to
that previous existence of mankind. I shall not venture there-
fore to offer mere conjectures on that subject. All the Ameri-
can nations can be traced to the second human stock, and need
not therefore be deemed descendants of the Adamites.
  The second cradle -tf mankind has received many names,-
Theba, Tibet, Meru, Iran, Taurus, Ararat, c.; all referring
to lofty mountains of Asia. Noah, the second parent, monarch
and legislator of mankind, was known to all the ancient nations
TEnder many consimilar names: He is the
       Nuh of the Persians;
       Nb1nnmh of the Hindous;



       Ta-nauh of the Scythians;
       Ni-nuh of the Assyrians;
       U-ra-nuh of the Celts;
       PC-non of the Chine;e;
       Me-non of the Armenians;
       Ac-mon of the Atlantes;
       Me-nu of the Egyptians;
       Oa-nq of the Chaldeans;
       Noch or Cox of the Mexicans;
       Noch or Moch of the Chiapans, c.
  The three sons of Noah were also known by many ancieut
nations under peculiar names.
  The principal nations of the eastern continent which have
contributed to people North America and Kentucky, were
  The Atalans and Cutans, who came easterly through the
Atlantig ocean;
  The lztacans and Oghuzians, who camne westerly through
the Pacific ocean.

  THE history of those two nations, and of their settlements in
America, may be divided into five periods, as follows:
  1. From the dispersion of mankind to the first discovery of
America, including several centuries.
  2. From the discovery of America to the foundation of the
western empires, including some centuries.
  3. From the foundation of these empires to the Pelegian
revolution of nature, including several centuries.
  4. From the Pelegian revolution to the invasion of the Izta,
can nations, including about twelve centuries.
  5. From the lztacan invasion t the decline and fall of the
Atalan and Cutan nations in North America, including about
thirty centuries to the present time.
          1st Perid.-To te Discorvery of J4meic a.
  After the Noachian revolution of nature, mankind was spread
again over the earth, from Iran, Aran, Merun, Sbinar or Cash-
nir, different narnes given to tie highlands of Asia.




   The first colonies of the primitive nation, preferred to resides
 on mountains:-the mounts Shingar, Hima, Liban, Ghaut
 Shensi, Laos, Altay, Caf, Arat, Cush, Ural, ct in Asia; the
 ;nountsr Carpath, iemus, Arcad, Appenines, Alps, Pyrenecs,
 c. in Europe, and the mounts Atlas, Samen, Tigreb, c. in
 Africa, became the first abode of nations, who gradually spread,
 in the plains.
   Several empires were successively established in Hindostan,
 China, Turan, Persia, Egypt, Abyssinia, c. which underwent
 many revolutions, and sometimes attained universal dominion
 or preponderance.
   The nations which peopled the western shores of the castera
continent, were the Gomerians in Europe and the Atlantes in
Africa. The Atlantes formed a powerful empire in North
Africa, which gave laws to many nations, such as the Leha-mim
or Lybians, the Phuts, Naphthuhim or Numidians, the War-
bars, Barabars or Berhers, the Darans, the Garamans, the
Corans or Guanches, c.
  In Europe, the Gomerians divided into many nations; those
that occupied the sea shores were-1st. the Pelasgianb, scat-
tered from Greece to Ireland, under the names of Tirasiims in
Thracia, Arcadians in Greece, Lestrigons in Sicily, (Euotrians
c. in Italy, Tubalan-s in Spain, Cunetans or -jenetans in
France; Termurians in Ireland, c.;-2nd. the Celts, or Pal-
is, who became Hellens or Yavanas in Greece, Meshekhans,
Ausonians and Ombrians in Italyf Sicules in Sicily, Gaels in
France, Hesperians and Gadelians in Spain, Direcotians in
Ireland, Cumrics in Scotland, Feans or Fcines in England, c..;
-3d. the Secas, who became Magas in England, Saxons and
Rasins in Germany, Etruscans or Tuscans in Italy, Sicaniar's
in Sicily, c. ;-4th. the Garbans, who, became Cyclops in
Greece and Sicily, Ligurians in Italy,, Cantabrians in Spain,
Bascans in France, c.
  All those nations were intimately connected in languages
and manners. The Pelasgians were bold navigators, aid ven,
tured to navigate from Iceland to the Azores and Senegal.
The Azores, Madera, Canary and Capverd islands wcre then



united in one or more islands, called the Atlantic Islands, which
have given the name to the Atlantic ocean, and were first popu-
lated by the Darans and Corans or Western Atlantes. Iceland
was called Pushcara, and was not settled, owing to the severe
climate and awful volcanoes.
  Numerous revolutions and invasions took place among those
nations, until at last the Atlantes of Africa, united them all by
conquest in one powerful empire, which extended over North
Africa, Spain, France, Italy, part of Greece, Asia, c.; and
lasted many ages under several dynasties and emperors.
  It was during the splendor of this upivire, that America was
discovered, by some bold navigators who were led by the trade
winds, to the West Indies, in a few days from the Atlantic
islands, They called them Antila Islands, whlich meutnt be-
fore the land, and America was called Atala. or Great Atlantes.,
-Returning to the Azore land, by a north east course, they
extolled the new country, and a great settlement was soon
formed in Ayati or Ayxcut4 (Hayti,) and the neighbouring
continent by the Atlantes.
        2nd Period.- To the Foundation of Enmpircs.
  The Atalans, or American Atlantes spread themselves
through North and South America, in the most fertile spots;
but the marshy plains of Orenoe, Maranon, Paraguay, and Mis-
sissippi, as well as the. volcanoes of Peru, Chili, Quito, Guati-
mala and Aiahuac, prevented them from settling those parts
ofthe continent. Many of the subjects ofthe Atlantic empire,
such as the Tubalans, Cantabrians, Cyclops and Cunetans, fol'
low the Atalans in America, and become the Cutan nations.
  It is very difficult to trace the American nations, who have
sprung from those early settlers, owing to the numerous revoa-
lutions and intermixtures which they have undergone: nor is
it my intention to give now a complete genealogy of the Atalan
and Cutan nations, I must confine myself to North America,
or even Kentucky.
  The Allegheny mountains were called Loocloca. Beyond
them the country was called Great White Land, (Mahasweta-
bhumi of Hind:) and it became the seat of a great empire,




or the WOern Atlantic Empire, This included of course
Kentucky, but extended from lake Ontario in the north, to
the mississippi. The Atlantic shores called Locuta, or Lacha-
cuti, were not settled, owing to their arid soil, lately emerged
from the sea. This western empire may be called the Atalau
            3d Period.- To the Rerolution of Peleg.
   The country watered by the Ohio and its branches was the
centre of the Atalan empire, and its metropolis stood some-
where on the Ohio.  It was divided in several provinces, and
ruled by a powerful monarch of the Atlas family. The Atlan-
tic monarchs of Africa, Europe, Atlantia and Atala, often conw
tended for supremacy, and the Atalan emperor obitin d it
once. Their dominion extended from Atala to Syria: they
were repulsed in Greece and Egypt. The African emperors
were acknowledged generally as lo