xt7gb56d2h4b https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7gb56d2h4b/data/mets.xml Hart, Adolphus M., 1813-1879. 1853  books b929177h2512009 English Moore, Anderson, Wilstach & Keys : Cincinnati, Ohio Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Mississippi River Valley --History --To 1803. History of the valley of the Mississippi. text History of the valley of the Mississippi. 1853 2009 true xt7gb56d2h4b section xt7gb56d2h4b 
   moore,   anderson,   &   co.'s publications.


Second Thou ft it ml in One Month ! ! !

THE THREE GREAT TEMPTATIONS OF YOUNG MEN    With several Lectures addressed to Business and Professional Men : By Samuel W. Fisher.   1 vol. 12mo., pp. 336. $1.

"A work of unusual attraction. We know not where to have seen these subjects so impressively, yet so properly and guardedly examined. Far above common-place specimens. They expose dangers of terrible imminence, and urge persuasions of incomparable importance, in a way that offends not the taste, yet reaches the heart and engages the thoughts."

JV. Y. Evangelist.

"Aule and often eloquont. * * * A work which may well be put into the hands of youth just entering upon life."   jV. Y. Observer.

" Wk shall put the book by upon one of the choice shelves of our private library."   Boston Congregationalist.

"The author's style is not less clear and forcible, than ornate and eloquent."     Detroit Herald.

"Characterized by earnestness, eloquence, and adaptation to the end had in view."   iV. Y. Recorder,

"Paints in vigorous language the horrible consequences of vice."   Boston Post. " We would that every young man in the land could bo persuaded to read it carefully."    Louisville Recorder.

"Dr. Fisher has spoken honestly and boldly. * * * Characterized by great energy of thought, a free and copious style, and by a spirit of high Christian philanthropy."    Puritan Recorder.

" Has proceeded boldly where most public teachers are too timid to venture, and his manly plainness is also marked by prudence and true delicacy"   Presbyterian of the West,

" Written in a style most inviting to youth and worthy of a very wide circulation."    Cincinnati Cli. Herald.

" Will do much good to that great class of young men who, reared in the country, are daily transferred to the cities and make up their effective population."   Worcester (Mass.) Palladium.

"Mr. Fisher speaks pointedly and plainly.   Let young men listen and learn."   PhUadeU phia Presbyterian. " Worthy of an attentive perusal."   Philadelphia Observer.

"The man, who sits down to the perusal of this volume, must rise up wiser and better, if there be any virtue in good counsel beautifully and touchingly given,"   Madison Cvur'r.

" The style is bold, manly, and vigorous, and in somo portions very beautiful. * * * In the name of the young men of our cities, we thank Dr. Fisher for preparing and sending forth so timely a volume."   Presbyterian Herald.

" The teachings of the excellent preacher will be regarded as unfashionable, and so they are, but their value is no less certain, and their practical workings cannot but be vastly beneficial to the tone of society."   2V. Y. Daily Times.


The Sirens,

The Wine-cup,

The Card-table,

The Christian Lawyer,

The Mosaic Law of Usury,

The Slayer op the Strong,

The Play-housk,

The Web of Vice,

The Path of Infidelity,

Commercial Morality. 
   moore & andersons publications




"A very lucid and useful hand-book. Its popular language, and exch sion of difficult terminology are decided recommendations. Its success is good evidence of the value of the work."   N. Y. Times.

" This appears to be a very successful publication. It has now reachc its third edition, which is a revised and enlarged one; and we learn from tl. title page that eight thousand copies have been published. Various adcli tions have been made to the Homoeopathic directions, and the anatomic; part of the work has been illustrated with engravings. The work has n ceived the approbation of several of our most eminent practitioners."-Evening Post.

" A nicely printed volume, and it appears to be a finished one of its kiiK It embraces all possible directions for the treatment of diseases, with elal orate descriptions of symptoms, and an abridged Materia Medica."   Bosk Post.

" It is very comprehensive and very explicit."   N. Y. Evangelist.

"Though not at present exclusively confined to the medical profession, v have been consulted, during the past year, in some fifty or sixty case; some of which, according to the opinion of the far-sighted and sagacious were very bad and about to die, and would die if trusted to Homoeopalliv and some were hopeless, which are now a wonder unto many in the chant" which the homoeopathic treatment alone effected. Now what of all this Why, just this, we have used Dr. Pulte's book for our Directory ; we hav tested it as a safe counselor ;     and we say to our friends who have wishe: we would get up a book for them, jnst get Pulte's Domestic Physician an the remedies, and set up for yourselves."   Cattaraugus Chronicle.

"I have recommended it to my patients as being     for conciseness, pro cisiou, and practical utility     unsurpassed either in my native or aduptc. country."   Dr. Granger of St. Louis."^.

" The plan and execution of Pulte's Homoeopathic Domestic Physician render it in my opinion the best work of its kind extant for popular use.

" ROBERT ROSilAN, M. D., " Brooklyn."

"I have found, upon careful perusal,' The Domestic Physician,' by D: Pulte, to be concise and comprehensive in its description of diseases, ait accurate in the application of remedies; but its chief advantage over otlic works of the same design, appears to me, to be the facility with which it i' understood by the lay practitioner. I consider it a valuable and useful bool of reference in domestic practice. The professional ability and extensivi practical experience of the author, are alone sufficient recommendation fu: its value. A. COOKE HULL, M. D.,

76 State St., Brooklyn. 
   moore   &   anderson's publications.

A CONCISE HISTORY OF ENGLAND, to the accession of Queen Victoria, by Clark, edited by Prof. Moffat. New edition with a series of Questions :

" We know of no history of England of the same size, so calculated to give the reader a clear view of the complicated events of that country as the one before us."   N. Y. Cliristian Intelligencer.

"As a compend to be always at hand, it is superior to any we have seen."   Christian Herald.

"It will be found a useful summary of English History, combining the attractiveness of a narrative willi the advantages of brevity and chronological definiteness."   N. Y. Courier 4" Enquirer.

"An excellent outline of English History. It would make a capital textbook for our schools and colleges. It shows what the people, as well as the Kings of England, were doing."   Enquirer.

"Just wliat it purports to be   a concise, clear, and methodical outline of English history, well adapted for school purposes and for young readers. It gives an easy narrative, and condenses all the principal facts in a way to convey much instruction, and at the same time to excite a desire for larger works."   JV. Y. Evangelist.

" This is one of the best and most useful textbooks of history we have ever examined; and it would be difficult to decide whether it is entitled to greater commendation for its succinct and correct statement of facts or the terse and pure language in which it is written."   Lawrenccburg Register.

"A single duodecimo volume, offering a brief narrative, a skeleton map, as it were, of the events of English history. It is neatly written, a good manual for instruction, and a useful book of reference in the library, when one has not the leisure to hunt a fact through larger works. The additions, exhibiting the progress of society, are judiciously made."   Literary World.

" Tins is a clear, succinct, well-arranged history: it will be found very convenient for reference, and well adapted for the use of classes. We commend it to all who wish for such a manual."   Ohio Jour, of Education.

" This is a very comprehensive manual of English History. * * As a class-book in our schools it will be invaluable."   Hartford, Conn., Daily Times.

"I have never used a text-book with more satisfaction. * * * After using it nearly a year, I most confidently recommend it to the favorable attention of the public. Edward Cooper,

President of Asbury Female College, New Albany, Indiana, formerly Editor N. Y. District School Journal. 
   moore & anderson's publications.

hugh miller'S new book.

SCENES AND LEGENDS OF THE NORTH OF SCOTLAND. By Hugh Miller, author of " Footprints of the Creator." 1 vol. 12 mo.  Pp.436.   Price $1.

" A delightful book by one of the most delightful of living authors."     N. Y. Cour. and Enq.

"In this book Hugh Miller appears as the simple dramatist, reproducing home stories and legends in their native costume, and in full life. The volume is rich in entertainment for all lovers of the genuine Scotch character." N. Y. Independent.

" Fascinating portraits of quaint original characters and charming tales of the old faded superstitions of Scotland, make up the ' Scenes and Legends. Purity of diction and thoughtful earnestness, with a vein of easy, half-concealed humor pervading it, are the characteristics of the author's style. Added to these, in the present volume, are frequent touches of the most elegantly wrought fancy; passages of sorrowful tenderness that change the opening smile into a tear, and exalted sentiment that brings reflection to the heart." Citizen.

"This is a book which will be read by those who have read the other works of this distinguished author. His beautiful style, his powers of description, his pathos, his quiet humor and manly good sense would give interest to any subject. * * There is no part of the book that is not interesting."    Louisville Journal.

"This is one of the most unique and original books that has been written for many years, uniting in a singularly happy manner all the charms of fiction to the more substantial and enduring graces of truth. The author is a capital story teller, prefacing what he has to say with no learned circumlocutions. We cannot now call to mind any other style that so admirably combines every requisite for this kind of writing, with the exception of that of his more illustrious countryman, Scott, as the one Hugh Miller possesses."    Columbian.

" The contents of the book will be as instructive and entertaining, as the exterior is elegant and attractive. Hugh Miller writes like a living man, who has eyes, and ears, and intellect, and a heart of his own, and not like a galvanized skeleton, who inflicts his dull repetitions of what other men have seen and felt in stately stupidity upon their "unfortunate readers. His observation is keen, and his powers of description unrivaled. His style is like a mountain-stream, that flows on in beauty and freshness, imparting enlivening influences all around. His reflections, when he indulges in them, are just and impressive."   Christian Herald.

"Tales so romantic, yet so natural, and told in a vein of unaffected simplicity and graphic delineation, rivaling Hogg and Scott, of the same land, will command avast number of admiring readers."   N. Y. Christ. Intel.

" The interest of its facts far exceeds romance."   N. Y. Evan. " This book is worthy of a place by the side of the world-renowned volumes which have already proceeded from the same pen."   Phil. Chronicle. 

of the


Agreeably to the request of the members of the "Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio," held May 24th, 1852, Nelson Cross, Esq., reported on the "History of the Discovery of the Valley of the Mississippi."   Mr. Cross, at the conclusion of his report, says:

"From a careful review of Mr. Hart's-work, and a comparison of its leading points with other histories, I am of the opinion that the facts which the author has therein presented, may in the main, be relied upon as true; and much credit is due to him for his industry and care in eatherins; together so much valuable information concern-


ing the Discovery and Colonization of the Mississippi Valley.

"More recent discoveries have rendered it certain that in ages gone by there existed in the Great West an unknown and extinct race, traces of which have been found along the Valley of the Mississippi, bearing conclusive evidence of a high degree of art and civilization.

""What a field is here presented for speculative inquiry, inquiry which, unfortunately, must always be speculative. They have had their day and generation; have lived, flourished, decayed, and passed away, leaving behind no monument to tell of their faded glory, save the tombs of the departed.

"Like ourselves, they had home, country, friends, affections, hopes, and aspirations, but failed to perpetuate even a name. Would that some worthy hand might be inspired to lift the oblivious curtain which wraps their past history, and unveil to us the secret of their lives, that we might profit from its admonition." 

of the



author of "asmos,  or 'tis seventy   years   and more;" "life   in the far west;" "notes and incidents of american revolutionary history," etc. etc.





Entered, according to act of Congress, in tbe year 1852, by MOORE, ANDERSON, WILSTACH & KEYS, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the District of Ohio.


hammond st..            

In the month of February last, the writer published, in St. Louis, the " History of the Discovery of the Valley of the Mississippi," which comprised an accurate account of the discovery and colonization by the French of the country West of the Alleghanies, up to the passing of the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle in the year 1748.

Believing that the narration of the " leading events" in Western History, subsequent to that period, would render the work more interesting, the author directed his attention to the task of compiling, from the numerous pamphlets on the shelves of several Historical Societies in the West, and a few manuscripts to which he was permitted to have access, a brief and succinct statement of the most important facts in the History of the Valley of the Mississippi. Some of these have become exceedingly scarce, and while the information contained in them is of surpassing interest to the student of Western History, it is almost inaccessible to him.

How far the author has succeeded in compiling a work, from the materials at his command, which will be acceptable to the inhabitants of the Valley of the Mississippi, he leaves for them to determine, availing himself of this occasion to thank them for the kind manner in which they received the small portion of the wrork heretofore published.

Cincinnati, Nov. 30, 1852. 


of arts, 01' the university of cambridge, england,


rector of the parish  of ttiree rivers, in the province    of canada,

ecijis ttiork


as a

token of the affection  and esteem of his old  friend and pupil,


of the


There are many historical associations, which cluster around the ancient denizens of Canada, in their efforts to colonize this section of the American continent, and to rescue it from the savage tribes who wandered in its pathless deserts. Canada was the gateway, through which the pioneers of civilization entered, to disclose to the world the rich and exhaustless treasures of the "West, or rather it may be likened to the portal of a mansion, through which admission was gained to the inner chambers, ornamented with every production of nature, and disclosing to the view, in "their gaudy array, pictures, which had never been dreamt of, in the wildest efforts of the human imagination. The poor and ignoble Colonist, who emigrated in the seventeenth century, from the hills and valleys of his native country, with his ax in his hand, and his gun on his shoulder, to clear the forest and drive away the red-man from those paths which had been familiar to him from his infancy, exhibits to the view of the philanthropist of the present day, an example of courage and energy, of fortitude amidst danger, and of heroism in his trials, which marks not the course of the modern adventurer.   Changeable as are the cir-


history of the valley

cnmstancee of human life, the Canadian colonist remains at the present day, as unchanged as ever. No longer is he required to wage an exterminating warfare, against the aboriginal tribes of the country, no longer does he hunt " the wild beast from his lair," but now, with his bible in one hand and his ax in the other, religion goes hand in hand with civilization, and wherever one sees the boundaries of the primeval forest receding from his view, there he observes the glittering spires of the Parish Church, reflecting the^-ays o   sun in the firmament of heaven, and betokening the soothing influence of religion, over a moral and an industrious people.

Nor can we withhold our meed of praise from those French missionaries, who took their departure from Quebec, and traveled amongst all the Indian tribes, from Hudson's Bay, on the one hand, to the countries along the shores of the Mississippi, on the other. History has commemorated in bright and glowing colors, whatever events transpired, during the inarch of the crusaders to rescue the Holy Land from the power of the Saracen; and here the valiant warrior and hero was accompanied by armed hosts, bent on achieving their object and having the means to do so; but with the missionary who stepped beyond the bounds of civilization, and wandered through trackless deserts (his only compass, the blazeed bark of the pine-tree; his only food, the fortuitous product of the chase), history has not done justice to the noble philanthropy by which they were animated, nor to their ardent devotion for the progress of science and religion, amongst the benighted nations of the earth. The cross was the emblem of both the Crusader and the missionary, but there must have been something sad and touching, in the effect, which this religious emblem produced on the minds of the Savages, in the midst of the somber 
   of the mississippi.


ains t is -inst 5 he

his joes sees

his fish tent :eli-

tose    ue-'om

ver to md


ing )ed gh of of ble earn,


)n-;h-ed ier

and silent forests of the "New World, when it could disarm their fierce hearts and render them sensible to the liveliest feelings of emotion. There must be something soothing in religion, when it could mollify the wild passions of man, in the savage state, and make him succumb to its influences. It was owing to the existence of these feelings that the French missionary was able to establish those friendly relations, which were afterward entertained toward him, by the denizens of the forest. The religious doctrines which he inculcated, contributed to draw closer the ties which connected him with his       neophytes. Hence the facilities which he had, to penetrate from one cabin to another, from one nation to another, even in countries the most distant. Whether we regard their efforts as connected with the cause of science or religion, or as tending to develop to the inhabitants of Europe an example of energy and activity in the cause of human civilization, the French Missionary of the seventeenth century will always be an object of interest to the student of American history, and will always be considered, as having contributed his share in the regeneration of the aboriginal tribes of this Continent, from the galling chains of superstition and ignorance. The warriors and statesmen of the reign of Louis the Fourteenth fade into insignificance, when put in comparison with what the genius of a Colbert and a Talon planned, or what the energy and activity of an Allouez and a Marquette accomplished. "Do yon not know," said the interpreter of an Indian tribe to these missionaries, "do you not know," said he, "that these distant nations never spare strangers; that the wars which they carry on, infest their frontiers with hordes of robbers; that the grand river (meaning the Mississippi,) abounds in monsters, who devour men and animals, and that the 

history of the valley

excessive heat there causes death ?"   " We know that,"

said they, "we know all, but by the decree of Provi- ^ .

dence, we have been appointed, as humble missionaries. ^.

in the service of God, to disseminate His holy doctrines

amongst countless tribes, in the deserts of America, and

with His will, we shall do our duty. "

Long before what is now known as " the West, " was

discovered, several missionaries had penetrated beyond

the hunting-grounds of the Ottawas and the Abenakies,

o o purs

and had established themselves along the borders of Lake ^.ag Huron.    The Fathers Brebceuf, Daniel, Jogues, Raim-   \ bault and several other members of their order, had estab ^ lished villages along the shores of that Lake, amongst -grjc others, Saint Joseph, Saint Michael, Saint Ignace and v Sainte Marie.   The latter, placed at the outlet of Lake ^Q Superior into Huron, was for a long time the central gr-e point of the various missions, in that distant part of the p0gg country.   Later, in the j'ear 1671, the scattered tribes of the Hurons, fatigued of wandering from country to country, fixed themselves at Michilimackinac,* a place situated on the shores of Lake Superior.   This was the first establishment founded by a European, in the State of Michigan.   The Indians who were found there, received from the French the name of " Sauteurs," 01 "Leapers" on account of their proximity to the Falls of Sainte Marie, known as the " Sault Sainte Marie.'' These Indians belonged to the Algonquin Tribe.

In the space of thirteen years (from 1634 to 1647). this extensive territory was visited by eighteen French missionaries, beside others attached to their ministry,

* The name of this locality is derived from a small Island formevh celebrated in those Countries, from the height of its banks, which niigl: be seen, at a distance of twelve miles. It is situated at the junction o! Lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior. 
   of the mississippi. 17

who, animated by zeal in the cause of civilization, lent their services to their clerical brethren, in order to reclaim these savages from the depths of ignorance and superstition into which they had cast themselves. The Five Nations, comprising the Iroquois, one of the fiercest tribes that inhabited those countries, were located to the north of Cataraqui, between the River Ottawa and Lake Ontario, but nearer the latter, and the travelers had to pursue their route across that part of the country which was watered by the tributaries of the Ottawa, the river Akuanagusin, marked on the old charts, being one of those tributaries. At that period, the South of Lake Erie, beyond Buffalo was almost unknown to either the voyageurs or the missionaries. It might be interesting to particularize those sections, on the borders of Lake Erie or Oswego (as it is marked on an old chart, in the possession of the writer), which were then inhabited by the Indian tribes, but the geographers of those days in Europe do not seem to be very remarkable for accuracy in fixing the localities of Indian settlements. Fort Sandoski, (Sandusky,) now the termination of a Railroad, connecting Lake Erie with the Ohio, is marked on this map, and the euphonious appellations of Tus-oi carora, Mingos, Kittawing, Schohorage, Fort Mohican and the Cross of Holfway, need only be mentioned, as indicating those parts of the "Western States, now teeming with millions of human-beings, devoted to the arts of agriculture and commerce, and supplying the world with the products of a soil, which a bounteous Providence has given them, to promote the prosperity and happiness of their fellow-men. In the year 1640, the Fathers Chaumonot and Breboeuf, completed the survey of the valley of the Saint Lawrence, from the foot of Lake Superior to the Ocean.   About this period the 
   18 history of the valley

two missionaries Charles Raimbault and Isaac Jogue-left Canada, to visit Lake Huron, and after a pleasant voyage, in which they were struck with the picturesque ness of the scenery along the shores, and amongst the islands of Lake Huron, they arrived in seventeen days at Sault Sainte Marie, where they met with a friendly reception from about two thousand Indians, assembled there. As they advanced on their journey, the bounda ries of the American Continent seemed to recede fron them, and they learnt the names of numerous Indian tribes, who it was said, inhabited the South and "West, and amongst others, the " Sioux," whose hunting ground: were situated at a distance of several leagues from Lak Superior. They heard also, of several tribes of war riors, who lived by the products of the soil, but whose race and languages were unknown to them.   "Thus,' observes an American author, " from the religious zeal of the French, a cross was erected on the borders oi Sault Ste. Marie, and on the confines of Lake Superior from whence they saw the lands of the Sioux, in the valley of the Mississippi, five years, before Elliot ol New England had addressed even a single word to the Indians, who were but six miles from the harbor o: Boston."

It may be said, that at this period (1646), the safety of the French possessions in America, depended chiefly on the efforts of the missionaries to preserve peaco, which they succeeded in doing with all the neighboring Indian tribes, with the exception of the Iroquois. The small French Colony, on the banks of the Saint Lawrence, situated at such an immense distance from the mother country, with limited resources, and scarcely food to eat would have been annihilated had it not been for the friendly alliance, which these missionaries had beet 
   of the mississippi.


able to contract with the native tribes. The Five Nations had already boasted, that they would soon drive jMbntmagny* and the French to the sea, from whence they came. But the bravery and the courage of these men, who, with the breviary hanging around their necks, and the cross in their hands, penetrated the innermost recesses of the forest, gave these people a lofty idea of the power and the resources of the nation, to which they belonged. There they were, from the shores of Hudson's Bay, to the gulf of Saint Lawrence and the forests of Michigan, engaged clay and night, in the accomplishment of their high and lofty purposes, animating, encouraging, and rewarding those, who were disposed to be friendly with them, and intimidating those, whose hostility they were menaced with. Brought up to a life of strict austerity, accustomed to that self-denial, which was enjoined by the sect to which they belonged, the terrors of a violent death, at the hands of ruthless savages could not deter them from fulfilling the solemn trust, which had devolved upon them, and that very confidence which they had in the holiness of their cause, enabled them the more readily to accomplish their duty. Providence smiled benignantly on their efforts, for had it not been that the tribes, whose alliance was courted by the French, feared the hostility of the Iroquois, in all probability they would have rejected the overtures of the missionaries and preferred war to peace.

In the year 1659 (as is related in the narrative of the Missionaries), two young voyageurs, or travelers, led by curiosity and the spirit of adventure, joined an Algonquin tribe, and spent the winter on the shores of Lake Superior.    "With their eyes fixed on the immense sol-

    Governor of New France or Canada. 


itucles of the "West, and wondering what people inhabited those forests, they heard with avidity the glowing accounts, by the Huron tribe, of those " Sioux, " warriors and they resolved to visit them. They met on their route with scattered tribes, who had been dispersed by the Iroquois, and they at length arrived in the country of the " Sioux, " who, to their surprise, tendered to them the hand of fellowship. They were a numerous tribe, being divided into forty companies, and their manners, while they were unlike those of the Algonquins and Hurons, were calculated to impress the minds of the travelers with a favorable opinion of them. The Historian^ of New France, states, " that they had an excellent disposition, treated their prisoners with less cruelty than other nations, and had some knowledge of the existence of a Divinity." These two intrepid adventurers returned to Quebec, in 1660, escorted by sixty Algonquin canoes and Canadian boats, laden with furs and peltries. They confirmed the accounts which two other Frenchmen, who had gone four years before, as far as Lake Michigan, brought back with them, of the numerous tribes who wandered in those parts, and of the Kristinos,, "whose cabins were raised high enough to enable theni| to see the Great Lakes."

In the year 1660, Father Mesnard went with the Algonquins to preach the Gospel to the Ottawas and other tribes, on the shores of Lake Superior. He remained about eight months, in a bay which he called Sainte Theresa, probably the bay of Kiwina, on the south side of the Lake, where he subsisted for some time, on acorns and the fruit of wild plants. Invited hence by the Hurons, he took his departure for the bay of Cha-gouia-migong or Saint Esprit, on the "Western side of the Lake, whither the Iroquois did not resort, on account of the! 
   of the mississippi.


distance and the scarcity of provisions. "While Mes-nard's compagnon de voyage (fellow-traveler), was occupied in repairing the canoe, he went into the woods and never re-appeared. This Priest had a great reputation amongst the savages, for the sanctity of his clerical office, and a few years afterward, his soutane (a garment worn by Priests), and his breviary were found amongst the " Sioux," who preserved them as relics, and held them in great veneration. The Indians generally were remarkable for their carefulness in preserving whatever belonged to these faithful missionaries, for four or five years after the death of the Fathers Breboeuf and Gar-nier, whom the Iroquois assassinated, a missionary found in the possession of those barbarians a testament and a prayer-book, which had belonged to them. The old chroniclers, such as Charlevoix, Champlain and others do not mention, that they preserved any other articles, belonging to the persons they murdered, but the books they had with them. These untutored savages regarded these books in the light of their better spirits, by whose directions these missionaries had been led onward, in the paths of usefulness they were following.



We have thus far traced the early discoveries in the West, which did not at the period we mentioned (1660), extend beyond the hunting-grounds of the " Sioux." But vague suspicions were then entertained of the extent of the country, or the existence of a great River in the West, and the accounts which they received from the Sioux were so uncertain  that there was little in- 

histoky of the valley

ducement for renewed exertions. However, we are about reaching a period (1C65), when the spirit of adventure was again in the ascendant, among the old French Colonists of America, and when their progress in making discoveries in the West is to be regarded with increased interest. Hitherto we have been narrating the attempts of a few voijageurs and missionaries, to penetrate the depths of the American forest, and when we consider the almost insurmountable obstacles, which they encountered and the melancholy fate which many of them met with, at the hands of their ruthless enemies, we cannot withhold from them our meed of praise for the magnanimity they displayed and the heroism they manifested. But at this period, it pleased Divine Providence fo-bring other actors on the scenes, other men, who with all the self-devotion and courage, which were found in those who had preceded them, combined qualities, whi