xt7gb56d2m9x https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7gb56d2m9x/data/mets.xml Norwood, Charles Joseph, b. 1853. 1876  books b96-12-34875463 English Printed for the Survey by J.P. Morgan & Co., : [Frankfort, Ky. : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Geology Kentucky. Coal Kentucky. Report on the geology of the region adjacent to the Louisville, Paducah & Southwestern railroad  / with a section, by Chas. J. Norwood. text Report on the geology of the region adjacent to the Louisville, Paducah & Southwestern railroad  / with a section, by Chas. J. Norwood. 1876 2002 true xt7gb56d2m9x section xt7gb56d2m9x 

         N. S. SHALER, DIRECTOR.




             ADJACENT TO THE

            WITH A SECTION,



355 & 356

 This page in the original text is blank.



Professor N. S. SHALER, Director Kentucky Geological Survey:
DEAR SIR: I present herewith a report on the region adja-
cent the line of the Louisville, Paducah and Southwestern
Railroad, accompanied by a horizontal section, exhibiting the
geological structure of the country examined, under instruc-
tions received from you.
Thanks are due to many for kind attention given and inter-
est exhibited in promoting the work of the Survey.
Thanks are especially due to Mr. D. Brock, the former Gen-
eral Superintendent, and to Mr. D. F. Whitcomb, the present
General Superintendent of the road, for favors received.
                               CHAS. J. NORWOOD.



  The work of constructing a horizontal section of the rocks,
in the region traversed by the line of the Louisville, Paducah,
and Southwestern Railroad (the Elizabethtown and Paducah,
as it was then called), was commenced in January, 1874, and
continued till the first of April of the same year. At that
time circumstances required that the work be suspended for a
time. In September, i874, the work was resumed and carried
to completion.
  Mr. Carl Schenk was detailed as Topographer, but circum-
stances were such that little could be done in that direction.
  It has been the aim not only to obtain a section of the rocks
along the road, but also to acquire an insight into the general
mineral wealth of the region adjacent.
  The very nature of the work in hand, however, precludes
detailed discussion, to any large extent, of fparticular districts.
  The distance to be traversed could not possibly have been
gone over in the allotted time, had detailed examinations been
extended any considerable distance on either side of the road.
Every effort having been made to make the report so, it is
hoped, that it may be found of present economic value, as well
as an assistant in future investigations.
  In regard to the horizontal section accompanying the report
it is proper to state that in a number of localities the hills are
quite distant from the railroad, and frequently without expos-
ures. In some instances, also, the rocks dip towards the road-
In such cases, although the rocks were referred to the road.
which was used as a datum, they are not represented exactly
in their true position towards it  The dip is always so irregu-
lar that no reliable calculation could be made to correct that
evil. When it is known, however, that where no exposures


are to be found immediately on the road, the section refers to
those on the nearest hills, the matter will be understood.
  That everything might be as correct as possible, the hills
on the north were used, whenever within convenient reach.
Sometimes, however, when the hills on the north were not
available, those on the south were used.
  In some instances the road passes along the trough of a
fault for a few miles. In such instances it is not unlikely for
slight mistakes to be made, in referring the rocks to the road,
for very evident reasons. It is believed, however, that, as a
whole, the section is a fairly accurate representation of the
geological structure of the region across which it is taken; and
where a mistake may have been made it is easily rectified.
  No pretense to accuracy is made in the delineation of the
topographical features of the country traversed: the hills are
merely sketched in; they may be too low in some instances, or
too high, and again they may be too regular in outline.
  Particular attention was given to the question regarding the
number of coals in the region traversed by the road, and their
persistency. It was desired that this report be a scaffolding
upon which to build some general system, for the entire west-
ern coal field of Kentucky. Every effort was made to obtain
the material for that purpose.
  As large a number of coal analyses as might properly be
expected are not presented, because of two reasons: the first
is, that some of the samples were miscarried, and the other,
that it is intended, at a future time, to give a general review
of the Kentucky coal, in its character as a fuel for manufactur-
ing and other purposes; when it is proposed to give a com-
plete list of analyses of the coal at many points.




                       CHAPTER 1.

                     GENERAL GEOLOGY.
  The geological formations exposed along the road from
Elizabethtown to Tennessee river, include the LOWER CARBON-
  The lower carboniferous rocks are exposed, both at the
eastern and western extremities of the road, while the coal
measures occupy a basin between.
  At the eastern extension of the road there is a gradual
descent of the rocks towards the west, with but few undula-
tions. As the coal measures are approached, however, flexures
are frequent and faults occasionally occur. In the coal meas-
ures the rocks are frequently faulted, but most of the irregu-
larities in the strata may be referred to waves.
  Dipoz and S/rike.-The dip of the rocks is quite variable.
With the few observations at hand it is a difficult matter to
arrive at any correct estimate for the general dip, as there are
so many local modifications.
  Towards the east, from Green river to Elizabethtown, the
dip may be considered as being about west, the strike being
alternately east of north and west of north, occasionally due
  Beyond Green river the dip is eastward, with a greater
number of local changes than on the east. Towards the west-
ern limits of the coal field the rocks are frequently so faulted
as to cause them to dip northwardly or southwardly, as the
case may be, at various degrees.
  This is illustrated between St. Charles and Tradewater
river. Between those points the road runs along the trough
of a fault. On the north side of the road, rocks occupying a
high position in the series, are seen dipping rapidly in a south-
erly course, while on the opposite hills lower ones are exposed,
dipping in a northerly direction, creating the false impression
that the rocks on each side are equivalents.
  The following is a tabulated list of the local dip and strike
of the rocks at a number of points along the road:



Locality.                      if-                      Strike  
Locality."                        Dip.    Course.        Strike.

2d cut west of East View. . . . . . . . .    . . . . . . .             W.             N.
3d cut west of Stephensburgh.2.'......... .                     tS. 540 W.    N. 36' W.
3d cut west of Stephensburgh.... .   . . . . . .    .    20    N. 40' E.      N. 50' W-
At East View. ..........                        l     o.. . . . . . s.        N. 69 W.      N. 21' E.
Big Clifty bridge..2.'.. . .  . . . . . . . . . . .       2   N. 87' W.      N. 30 E.
ist cut west of the 62d mile-post..... . ..... 2 S. 205               W.      N. 70' W.
zd cut west of the 65th mile-post.... . . . .  . .   .     3'   N. 5 5 E.      N. 350 W-
ist cut east of the 68tb mile-post.....  . . . . .  .   . ..     N. 650 E.      N. 25' NV.
ist cut west of Litchfield.... . . . .  . . . . .    .    2'    N. 42' E.      N. 48 W.
4th cut west of the 71st mile-post..... . . . .  . .   . ...            E.             N.
ist cut east of the 72d mile-post..... .  . . . .    .    4            W.              N.
At the 76th mile-post.'.............. .                        S. 80 W.      N. lo' E.
ist large cut west of Millwood... . . . . . . . . .      9g            E.             N.
At the 39th mile-post..... .  . . .  . . . .  ..    .   20,    N. 50' W.      N. 40' E.
ist cut east of the 8oth mile-post... . . . . . . . .     15'     S. 750 E.     N. 15' E.
Ridge south of the 8oth mile-post..... . . . . .    .    2'    S. 230 E.      N. 67' E.
Renfrow's, at Spring Lick............             .       0.  8     S. 30' E.      N. 6o' E.
Wm. Miller's coal hank, Horse Branch .'... . . .    .     go   S. 60' W.      N. 30' W.
Hill north of ist bridge east of the gist mile-post ...  .  ..  N. 70' E.  N. 20' W.
Hill north of the 92d mile-post... . . . . . . . . . . . .      N. 48' E.      N. 42' W.
Near foregoing place............... .                    40    N. 54' W.      N. 36' E.
Horse Branch tunnel..... .    . . . .  . . . . . .   . ...     N. 250 E.      N. 65 W.
4th cut east of Horse Branch tunnel...                           N. 8o' W.      N. 10l E.
3d cut east of the 97th mile-nost.2.. . .                  2            E.             N.
-uth of the ist large fill west of the 96th mile-post . . .  40  N. 750 E.  N. 15' W.
South of the 1st large fill west of the 96th mile-post ..  9'  S. 19 W.  N. 71' W.
t loo feet south of the Ist cut east of the 97th mile-post - . . .  S. 8l W.  N. go. W.
Opposite the 2d cut east of the 97th mile-post..                  N. 750 W..     N. r;1 E.
3d cut east of the looth mile-post.2.0....        .         2   N. 82' E.      N. 8' W.
ist cut west of Elm Lick.... .  . . .  . . . . . .   . ...     S. 30' E.      N. 6o' E.
ist cut east of the xo4th mile-post....... . .. .           2'    S. 350 W.      N. 55 W-
North of Rockport.o.'... . .  . . . .  . . . . .    .    loo   S. 350 W.      N. 55' W.
North of Rockport.lo'                                          N. 35' E.      N. 550 W.
Paine's coal mine, near Green River Station .... .  .   . ...  N. 60' E.  N. 300 W.
Collier & Woodcock's mines, near Green River Station. . . . .  N. 5 E.   N. 85' W.
Richmond coal mines............. . ... ..                             W.              N.
1it cut west of the 121st mile-post... . . . . . . . .      30    S. 450 W.      N. 45' W.
Mercer's mines.                                          2     S. 45' W.      N. 450 E.
Cut at the crossing of the Owensboro and Russellville
Railroad, Owenshoro Junction.... .   . . . .  . .   .   ..   N. 40' W.      N. 5o' E.
Ross mine, Owensboro Junction.                           2     N. 45' W.      N. 450 E.
Ist cut west of the 135th mile-post.... . . . .  . .   . ...    N. 750 E.      N. 15' W.
In the Russellville road, near Greenville . . . . . . . .  6'  N. 30' W.  N. 6o' E.
!4 mile southwest of the depot at Greenville. l                  N. 2o' W.      N. 70 E.
Fubel & Krauth's coal, on Pond river.        l                 N. 30' F.      N. 6' W
Gibson's, at Woodruff.2                                        N. 55 E.      N. 350 W.
Jos. Ray's, near Woodruff.2.'... . . .                         S. 550 E.      N. 35' E.
350 yards east of 152d mile-post, on a ridge south of the
railroad.1.3.'.N....          .   .       ....        13:     N. 50' E.     N. 4o' W.
Ashmore's land, 234 miles south 60' west of Woodruff. .  3'  S. 34' E.    N. 56 E.
Coal Ford, on Tradewater.2'                                    N. 2o' W.      N. 708 E.

  ' Whereno angle of dip is given tlhe angle is I.. than a degree and not alcudared.

  It should be noticed in the table that in twenty-five cases
the strike is about north 420 West; in twenty instances, north
42' east, and in six due north.




  I am inclined to believe that, when the subject is more fully
studied, and some system arrived at, the strike will be found
to be nearly north and south, perhaps bearing a little to the
  It seems to be the fact that the coal measures, in their west-
ern extension, terminate in a heavy fault.
  Before reaching Tradewater, which is near the western limit
of the coal formation, faults are numerous, some of them quite
perplexing and on a large scale for that region.
  Indeed months of incessant labor might be devoted to the
study of the disturbances in the region lying along the borders
of Christian, Hopkins, and Union counties, to unravel them
and reduce the whole to a system. There seem to be faults
and cross-faults, as well as waves in the strata. Beyond the
limits of the coal measures, however, the rocks are compara-
tively horizontal, and end at the Tennessee river in an abrupt
vertical escarpment.

                    LOWER CARBONIFEROUS.
  Two divisions of the lower carboniferous rocks may be dis
tinguished in the series along the road; these are the Chester
and St. Louis Groups. The base of the formation was seen a'
no point along the road,  so that its precise thickness cannot
be given at present.

                    THE ST. LOUIS GROUP.
  This group includes the lowest rocks seen at either end of
the road. The beds vary in their description somewhat, but
still have certain characteristic features which serve to identify
them from the rocks of the overlying Chester Group.
  The group may be divided into two divisions, according to
the lithological characters of the strata.
  Towards the top of the group beds of beautifully oblitiC
limestone occur, alternating with beds that are drab to crearn-
colored, fine-grained, and compact, resembling lithographic
The line running from Elizabethtown to Paducab is the one under consideration. Noe-an'
inations were made along the Louisville Extension.



limestone in texture. Unfortunately, however, they are usu-
ally marred for lithographic purposes by thin seams and small
specks of calcite, quartz grains, or pyrites. In some instances
beds are found which may answer for work not requiring great
  Below the - lithographic beds" (so-called for convenience).
beds of coarse grey, often semi-o6litic limestone, occur. These
are quite variable in texture and color, passing from a dirty
grey, coarse-grained rock, frequently quite argillaceous, to a
blue or white, close-textured and fine-grained limestone. This
forms the base of the upper division. Chert beds are of fre-
quent occurrence in this part of the upper division, frequently
abounding in organic remains.
  Below the above described division and extending to the
base of the group, so far as known at present, are beds of
dark-blue, frequently fetid limestone, with numerous small
drusy cavities studded with quartz or calcite crystals.
  Patches of calcite are also distributed through the mass, and
fluor-spar is of no unfrequent occurrence.
  Chert is also abundant in the lower part of the group, occur-
ring either in irregular bands or concretions.
  This division is so well marked by the deep blue color and
its geodiferous character, that it is easily identified wherever
seen. The St. Louis Group is mentioned in the former Geo-
logical Reports on Kentucky as the "barren " or the " cavern-
ous limestone," no attempt being made to identify it with the
grouped rocks of the other States.
  It is possible that the name, -cavernous limestone," as ap-
plied by Dr. Owen, may also include a series of limestones
below the ones in question. It is a fact to be remarked that
in its entire extent in western Kentucky, this group retains its
cavernous character, and may even be identified, in great
measure, by the topography.t In a region underlaid by rocks
of the St. Louis Group, " sink-holes " and semicircular valleys,

The lithographical limestone quarries at Glasgow Junction, Barren county, are probably
in the upper division of this group.
t This cavernous character is also one of the features of the group as represented in Missouri.



caused by the roofs of caverns giving way, are marked features
in the topography.
  At the eastern extension of the railroad in Hardin and
Grayson counties, between Cecilia Junction and East View,
inclusive, the group, so far as exposed, is made up of a mass
of coarse-grey limestoraes, very fine-grained dove-colored lime-
stones, oolitic and arenaceous limestones, and shales.
  A blue limestone is exposed at Elizabethtown, which is
probably a member of the group, occupying a place towards
the lower part.
  The following is a descriptive section of the rocks from
Cecilia Junction to East View, and includes all of the rocks so
far as exposed between those points:

No.                                                              Thickness.
A. " Big Clifty " sandstone, at the base of the Chester Group.
z. Limestone; heavy-bedded, lumpy, color dark-grey, coarse-grained. Abounds
     in Prodedis mesiais and Atfhyis su4yzadra/a, with great numbers of Spi-
     ,fetra in the upper part..                                        7 feet.
 2. Limestone, abounding in Bdierophos. .
 3. Fine-grained, dove-colored limestone, abounding in Hemiprwmdt A k. . .  3
 4. Limestone; grey to dove in color.... . . .. . . . . .. . . . ..    so
 5. Oulitic limestone, with great numbers of gasteropods.          18
 6. Arenaceous and calcareous shale .10
 7. Thin-bedded sandstone.                                         17
 8. Limestone; grey and drab, containing Peitremites .. . .   ........  8
 9. Ieavy-bedded, grey limestone........... . . ........              25
 To. Compact, dove-colored limestone................. . . .             7
 xi. Grey, compact limestone, containing Prodaudus ekgans .12
 12. Arenaceous cellular limestone.                                      3
 13. Calcareous sandstone.,           . . .. . . . . ..                6
 14. Arenaceous limestone.                                               8
 5. Limestone, abounding in Pentrtmiles.                                8
 z6. Limestone, abounding in RAyneondla.......      ....... . . .          2
 I7. O6litic limestone  ..   ............          ........     .    3
 i8. Silicious limestone; "Fire Rock".................. . . .           6
 39. - Lithographic limestone.                                           4
 20.O litic limestone.... . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . ..  5
 2i. -Lithographic limestone.            . . . . . . ..                 4
 22. Odlitic limestone........      ....... ...........                 5
 23. Fawn-colored, calcareous sandstone, or arenaceous oblitic limestone. .   7
 24. Compact, oblitic limestone . . . . ............... ....... .........  3..
 25. Fawn-colored, calcareous sandstone, and oolitic limestones . . . .-.6. . . .  i6
 26. Blue, somewhat fetid, cherty, geodiferous limestone            20
   No. 26 is the lowest rock at Long Grove, on the railroad,
and at " White Mills," on Nolin river, south of East View.
   It corresponds to the blue limestones in Caldwell and Lyon
counties; it is at about the top of that division. On the Lou-
isville extension of the road, the geodiferous limestone, con-
taining Li/hostrotimo proliferum and Syringopora ramulosa () is


exposed. It occupies a position below No. 26; unfortunately
no opportunity presented itself for connecting the beds.
The origin of the o6litic limestones is clearly demonstrated
in the foregoing section. The passage from coarse sandstone,
made up of rounded grains of sand cemented by a calcareous
paste, into a coarse and then fine oolite, is beautifully exhib-
  In the western extension of this group, beyond Tradewater,
oblitic limestones are not so frequent, and the individual beds
are not so easily identified by their organic remains. There
seems to be a blending of forms in the various beds. The
two grand divisions, previously mentioned, are easily distin-
guished, however.
The drab-colored limestones predominate towards the top,
there, and beautiful oblitic limestone occupies the place of the
poorer sandy beds of the eastern margin, as is to be seen at
Princeton and vicinity. Chert beds are also more frequent.
  Plate 2 represents a general section of the group4t
  Paleontology.-As much information as is desirable, concern-
ing the paleontology of the St. Louis Group as it exists in
southwest Kentucky, cannot be given for want of the proper
means and adequate time for studying the organic remains.
It is hoped, however, that at some future time the matter will
receive more extended attention, as there certainly are inter-
esting questions to be decided, and a clear exposition of the
subject to be given. Save in the upper members of the
group, fossils are rather scarce, at the eastern margin of the
formation. This, however, is not so remarkable, as there is
such a preponderance of arenaceous beds in the lower part.
In its western extension organic remains are more numerous.
The fossils identified so far are:
Productus Cora, Prod. mesialis, Prod. Altonensis  Prod. muri-
catus, Prod. elegans, Hemifironites Keokuk, Athyris subquadra/a,
A4hyris Royssii, Spirifer Forbesi, Spr. lineatus, Spr. tenuicosta-
 They do not seem to have been formed by infiltration of silica, causing a replacement, in the
manner that some o6litic limestones are accounted for.
tThe thickness of No. 26 is given as it is seen beyond Princeton. It does not represent the
Iotal thickness, however, as that was not determined.



tus, Spr-. Keokuk, Terebratula trinuclea, Rhynconella subcunea/a,
Rhyncone/la mutata, Or/his dubia, Orthis Micheilini Pleuroto-
maria, Loxonema, Pofyphemopsis, Nautiluss- Myalina -
Macrocheidus - Pen/remi/es Koninckiana, Pentremi/es fyri-
formis, Pentremites Godondi, Pentremi/es Norwoodli Agassizo-
crinus- Dichocrinuss- Lithostrotion proliferum, Lithostro-
lion canadense, Zaphrentis spinu/iferum, Syringopora ramulosa
and Archimedes.
Cyathophylloid corals are quite abundant in some of the
geodiferous beds.

                    THE CHESTER GROUP.
  Above the St. Louis Group, and below the coal measures, a
series of limestones, sandstones, and shales are included.
  These constitute beds of passage, as it were, from the mas-
sive limestones of the lower carboniferous to the coal measures;
marking an era of rapid deposition and changeful currents
existing during the period preceding the epoch of the coal
measures. As will be noticed hereafter, they mark the first
appearance of the coal-making plants in this part of the west-
ern carboniferous area.
  The organic remains and general features of the series at
once identify the group with that collection of limestones,
shales, and sandstones, constituting the upper division of the
lower carboniferous rocks in Illinois, and denominated the
Clzester Group" in the geological reports on that State.
  It corresponds in part to the "millstone grit series " of Lyon,
a group, however, which included members of the coal meas-
ures as well as the underlying rocks extending to the St. Louis
  The members of this group are met with at intervals from
East View, Hardin county, to Litchfield, Grayson county, and
beyond; and also at points between Scottsburg, Caldwell
county, and Tradewater river.
  The group is in the best condition for study on the eastern
margin of the lower carboniferous area, as its divisions are



more distinctly defined. On the western margin it is not so
well exposed.
  The group is mostly made up of a suite of limestones and
sandstones alternating with beds of marly shales. The lime-
stones are usually thin-bedded, frequently mere plates of lime-
stone in shale.
  A general statement of the arrangement of the series, as
they occur in Hardin and Grayson counties, is the following:
No.                                                        Thickness.
i. Shale, with thin beds of limestone  .      .     .     ,   5 feet.
2. Heavy-bedded, cherty limestone.   .   .................... .   .  13 "
3. Red and green shale....... .. . .. . .. . . .. . ..   .        5  '
4. Rhomboidally jointed sandstone ...........  . .  .  , ,  ...... . o to l0
S. Limestone....... .. . .. . . ..    ... . .... ..   .        2  "
6. Shale...... .. ..  .. ... e. .. .0.... .      ..   .       so "
7. Limestone and shale; the upper ten feet usually heavy-bedded limestone,
    the lower ten feet thin-bedded limestone and shale; great numbers of
    organic remains......      . ..    ......... .      .      20 "
8. Green, purple, red, and blue marly shales, ,Litchfield marls" ......   . 25 to 60 "
9. Shale and thin-bedded limestone.  
lo. Shaly sand-tone............. . . . . ...                  .       to 20
it. leavy-bedded, dark-grey, and blue limestone .  .15 to 45
12. Heavy-bedded sandstone, the "Big Clifty sandstone" .   . . . . .  . 60 to 130
  The different strata making up the group are exceedingly
variable in their lithological features and horizontal extent,
and, consequently, furnish very unreliable data upon which tc
base observations. Indeed it is a question whether any one
member of the entire series (unless it be the Big Clifty sand-
stone) can be traced continuously for a distance of five miles,
unchanged in its thickness or its physical features.
  At one locality a limestone may be compact, thick-bedded,
possibly adapted for building purposes; at another it will be
represented by a bed of marly shale with thin limestone layers.
At other places the shales will attain great thickness, reaching
as much as fifty feet or more, with but a few thin beds of lime-
stone; these will be found at another locality greatly dimin-
ished in thickness; again they are entirely absent, limestone
occupying their place. There is a continual wedging out and
thickening of the strata throughout the entire series.
  These local modifications, both in the thickness and litho-
logical features of the rocks, are interesting as well as curious,
affording a subject worthy of careful study.
 For reasons hereafter made evident, the section is not applicable to all localities, even in the
counties named, and may be accepted merely as a typical one.



  The limestone No. 2 varies in thickness from five to thir-
teen feet, and is the one usually found at from five to ten feet
below coal K, in Grayson county. When in thin beds organic
remains are rare, but when fully developed the upper part
is charged with small Be/leroplons. The sandstone No. 4 is
very seldom present (it was found only in Grayson county),
though fragments of it are frequently found strewn over the
hills in the vicinity of Grayson Springs Station. It is peculiar
in its character, being somewhat calcareous, thin-bedded, and
breaking in rectangular blocks; it also contains Brachiopoda.
It is easily recognized, as it always presents the appearance of
a flag pavement, and, possessing the features above mentioned,
differing essentially from the other sandstones.
  Number 7 is remarkably variable in its lithological appear-
ance, as well as thickness. At certain localities it is only three
feet thick, and a good, compact limestone; at others, it is repre-
sented by ten feet of limestone, or by a mass of shale and thin
limestone beds, twenty-five feet thick. It is in this number
that the greatest quantity of organic remains are found.
  Number 8 is also quite variable in its thickness. It alter-
nately thins and thickens; it is entirely absent at some points,
and at others is thirty feet thick. Some of the beds, especially
the green, will answer admirably for fertilizing the worn out
lands so common in the hilly regions.
  It is exposed in the vicinity of Grayson Springs Station, at
Litchfield, and at other points along the road in Grayson
county. Analyses of it will be found in the Chemical Report.
  Number 9 is also absent occasionally.
  Number io is seldom present. It is a shaly sandstone,
occasionally becoming compact, but usually merely a sandy
shale. When continuous for any considerable distance its pre-
vailing thickness is twelve feet; as a rare thing it is twenty
feet thick.
  Number I I is as remarkable as any of the rocks in its lateral
  At "'Grayson Springs," in Grayson county, near the Cath-
olic Chapel, it is forty-five feet thick and a good compact rock.


 From that point towards the railroad it seems to thin and
 change in character. It was quarried on the land of Mr. Pat-
terson, near Grayson Springs Station, and used in the con-
struction of the railroad bridge over Big Clifty Creek.
At Grayson Springs, and a few other localities, the rock
contains beautiful crinoidea.
  Number 12, the Big Clifty sandstone, is at its best and full-
est development at the Big Clifty bridge. It presents differ-
ent features at either margin of the carboniferous area.
  In its eastern extension the rock varies in thickness from
sixty to one hundred and thirty feet, and from a soft, friable
rock to a close-textured, heavy-bedded one. It is also of dif-
ferent colors, the prevailing ones being buff to cream, often
At East View, Hardin county, it is very soft and friable,
color white or buff, beautifully mottled and banded with bril-
liant purple or dull brownish spots and stripes. The quartz
grains are usually exceedingly small and loosely cemented.
Cross lamination is a frequent feature in the mass.
  At the western outcrop of the Chester Group. in Caldwell
county, the sandstone is represented by a mass of sandstone
and shales in an alternating series; the sandstone predominat-
ing in the upper part and at the bottom, with shales and thin
sandstone beds at the middle.
This sandstone, forming the base of the Chester Group, is
the equivalent of the 'ferruginous sandstone" of Illinois. It
is also equivalent to the - ferruginous sandstone " (in part) of
  In Swallow's Geological Report on Missouri, IS55, page 93,
that sandstone is spoken of as -occupying the position of the
inii/stsoc grit of the English geologists, the conglomerates of
Ohio and Tennessee, and the I conglomerates and ferruginous
grits' of Iowa (Owen)."
  There seems to have been some confusion existing in regard
to the place of that sandstone, however. There is reason to
believe that there are two distinct fernrginous sandstones in
that State (Missouri); one resting on the St. Louis Group, the
    V.OL. 1-24                                           369


equivalent of the ferruginous sandstone of Illinois, of Iowa,
and of the Big Clifty sandstone in this State; the other taking
the place of the conglomerates, possibly () occupying a place
similar to our Bee Spring sandstone. When comparing the
Chester Group, as represented in Kentucky, with that of Illi-
nois, the great similarity both in its lithological and paleontolo
gical features is at once apparent. In that State as in this one
there are incessant lateral changes in the lithological aspects
of the strata.
  It is a marked fact that towards the southern and western
borders of the coal measures, in the vicinity of the conglome-
rate, shales preponderate greatly, and that the Big Clifty sand-
stone in a great degree loses its character as a sandstone and
passes into shales.
  It seems that the conglomerate does thus gradually change,
marking the ending of the turbulent waters, and ushers in the
more quiet days of the coal measures.
  Plate I is a general representation of the group.
  Paleonltology. -Great abundance of organic remains are
found in this group; chiefly confined to the shaly beds, how-
  Where the limestones are thick-bedded and compa