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IROI, JAMES Ix. IATIERSON, IH. D. ;
COMMISSIONER OF KENTUCKY T0 T1”: '. ' i
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I’ PRINTED AT THE KENTUCKY YEOMAN OFFICE. 3 1
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IN HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, l
MOXDAY, FEBRUARY 7th, 1876. - )
MR. PRESTON offered the following resolution, which was adopted, . .1
_ viz: ' JI
Ram/val, That 1,000 copies of the report of Prof. James K. Patterson, who was ap- ‘ I
\ pointed by Gov. Leslie to attend the International Congress of Geographical Sciences, at ,
Paris, in the your 1875, be printed for the use of this House. . ‘ I
IN SENATE, 1 4.,
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 8th, 1876. i I
1
MR. LINDSAY offered the following joint resolution, which was adopted, )
viz: ' l i
1 \VliiiitiiAs, The Governor of this Commonwealth appointed James K.,Pntterson, Presi- '
dent of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kentucky University, Commissioner to .
' represent this State in the International Congress of Geographical Sciences, held in the city 1.
of Paris; and whereas, the Governor has received rt report from President Patterson f l
nboundiugr in matter of interest and value to the people of this Commonwealth; therefore, 1
be it , ‘ ‘ .
A’t‘SU/I/c’tl] /{V ///L’ Gmn‘n/ rifle/”Mr (3f f/IL’ Gwymmzwm/lxi of lrlwlm‘lj’, That the Public ‘
Printer be directed to print and furnish each member and officer of the General Assembly l
' fifty copies of said report. ' l
, Adopted by House of Representatives February 9th,.and approved g , 'l
by the Governor February 12th, 1876. - I j,
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. AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE, l i_ l
, KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY, r
LEXINGTON, K12, December 10, 1875,) l 1
. ' To H‘z's Era/[Hwy jAMEs B. MCCREARY, Goon-7101' 0f [(CIZZth/g’: ._ l
, DEAR SIR: I beg to submit to you, and through you to the chisla— ‘ l
‘ turc, the following report: ' "
- About the last of May I received an appointment from your 03- i l
, teemcd predecessor, Gov. P. H. Leslie, to represent the State of Ken» l“ l
tucky in the International Congress of Geographical Sciences to be fl
_ holdcn in Paris, France, about midsummer. In order to be present 1 l
at its deliberations, as well as to attend the meeting of the “British , . l
/ Association for the Advancement of Science,” to be holden at Bristol, ‘ ‘
' England, I applied for leave of absence from my college duties till the l
middle of November. This obtained, I set out about the middle of :3 l
June, and reached Paris in time for the opening session of the Con- 11‘ l
, .‘ gross. il
l The International Congress of Geographical Sciences met for the first 73’ ' l
. time in 1874, at Antwerp, and was presided over by the distinguished l; l
. - Belgian, M. Charles d’Hane Stecnhuysc. Its origin was due to MM. l
Charles Roulcns, Elie de Beaumont, d’Avczac d’Halloy, and Francis j; l.
" Garnicr, names representing the most advanced thought and scientific Q.
culturc‘of Europe. Its object is to discuss all facts relating to Geogra— ‘,vl ii“
phy in its widest sense ; to encourage discovcrcrs, and promote discovery; Ii l1
to demonstrate by facts the great importance of scientific research; to ill ‘ l
encourage the nations to a generous emulation in promoting the diffusion lll‘ l
of knowledge, by the dissemination of learning; by the development of fl 3
' their resources, and by the multiplication of such facilities for intorcom— l l
‘ , munication as will bring distant people nearer and bind still more closely il1 ,
I- together those with whom we are already in most intimate relationship. '33, l
The Congress of Antwerp adjourned to hold its next meeting in the ”5' 1
> - French Capital. At three o’clock on the first of August the first _Lf‘lr '5
. _ ..::q 3

 , e X. 7" 5
: l .i J
, i l ' " ; :5 ‘
E 55E sitting was opened by the President of the Congress of 1874, who, in l
I ' El ..' a short speech, handed over the chair to Vice Admiral Baron de la
E 5 E h‘ Ronciere Le Noury, President of the Geographical Society of Paris. -;
, : EE The great hall of the Tuileries, in which, during the empire, Napoleon '1
: . EE E. III delivered the speech from the throne to the assembled Senate and‘ _5’5I
:i -5 El ; Corps Legislatif, had been set apart by the government for the sittings 5
i 3% of the Congress, together With as many government offices in the Tuile— '
555 5 . ries as might be required for the sittings of the sections and for the ex-
E ‘3: 1E _position which formed an accompaniment of the Congress. Among I
l l the distinguished personages present were the President of the French 5
l Republic, the Grand Duchess Marie, of Russia, the Grand Duke Con-
E ‘1 stantine, Sir Henry Rawlinson, President of the Royal Geographical f: '.
l i . Society of London, M. de Semenoff, of that of St Petersburg, M. de
l Beaumont, of that of Geneva, M. Correnti, who represented the Geo-
E ,4‘ graphical Society of Rome, Hunfalvy of Pesth, and Weth of Amster- '
“'25 . dam. Of the celebrated travelers whose names are more or less familiar 5
E , to the general reader, there were present, MM. Rholfs, de Schlagintweit 5 5
4.. ’l I Sakiinlunski, the Marquis de Compiegne, Pinart, and Doctors Nachtigal
lb“ = and Harpy. More than 400 of the most distinguished men of Europe ,i
l 5- were in attendance, many of whom were sent by the respective States “5,35;
E whence they came. France contributed many of the more illustrious
, members of the Institute, easily discriminated from the foreigners pres- V
1‘ . ent by the little red button worn on the left lappel of the coat, many
members of the Assembly, and many representatives from scientific ,
- bodies in different parts of the nation. Next to France, Austria, Russia, _
and England were most largely represented, each of those nations send—
inguin a representative capacity, many of their most distinguished seien— 5
5 tists. The Government of the United States was represented by Mr. - ' :J
.r Nourse, and the State of Virginia by Col. Stevenson.
sf? 5 ‘ Admiral Le Noury, in opening the Congress, dwelt upon the impor— -‘
‘i ; l5 tance of the geographical sciences, not so much from their theoretical ‘ _
E .5‘ E 5 as from their practical utility. He vindicated their claim to recognition , I
l l E upon their fruitfulness as elements of production. Out of scientific ge« 73*
E E ; ‘ E .1 ogmphy grow commercial geography, economic geography, and political V
S .5 l l geography, three sciences which modify, if they do not determine, the :5 5
, E whole fabric of modern civilization. The pioneers of commerce, of civ- ' l3
‘ 51". E ilization, and of Christianity are the hardy travelers who venture into
5% E regions hitherto unknown, in order to solve the problems which geogra- I
a l 5.34 ' .
1 Earl. }
1’ x~\._,.”m:w~‘ ‘ "3‘3" "

 l phy presents. The known has been pressing back the unknown since J E i
the first awakening of the human intellect. Most of the surface of the ,_ i '.
: earth has been traversed and mapped; but in addition to the unexplored . 1‘ l' i l
" tracks, there are fields, vast and varied, upon which our knowledge is f ‘
‘ g still meagre. There are questions of the relation of geological formation it '
, to surface and soil and climate; questions relating to the distribution of .., l
' animal and vegetable life; questions regarding the distribution of races A 1 3‘ l
and languages; questions bearing upon the activities and industries, the l, f; l
f economics and commerce and statistics of nations, which have not been - :’ l1
‘ answered, and which it will require years of patient research to investi- ‘. 4
. , gate and reduce to systematic knowledge. To. discuss these and kindred 5 7 A,
, -, subjects this Congress assembles. ‘ I,
The address of Admiral Le Noury was considered to furnish a good l
5 outline of the work to be done. A splendid banquet, which many of ‘3 f
the officers of State and civil and military functionaries attended, closed ,‘ l
_ , the proceedings of the day. I, , i
" I shall not attempt to present in chronological order the business of .':” l
‘ IV the Congress, but merely to indicate the general method of procedure, ”..1
> and the nature and scope of the questions discussed. 3 2
_ The'Congress was divided into seven sections, each of which met l
daily at 10 A. M., and sat till I P. M. The members sat grouped £1 l‘ 5
, around a large table, with writing material and papers. Papers pre- i ' l
'1 , viously prepared were read with the sanction of the section, and when ‘7 l
.3 finished, became subjects of discussion. A general sitting was held ;; i
l ~, every afternoon in the great hall of the Tuileries, attended by all the ;il l
sections, at which an abstract of the questions discussed, and the con« , 1
clusions arrived at by the sections, were reported. l
' '. Section first was designated the Mathematical, and embraced Mathe- El a-»-- l.‘
,5 matics, Geography, Geodesy, and Topography. It discussed the fol- iii; i,
lowing questions: The substitution of the centcsimal division of the- w‘s" .
:3 quarter of the circumference for the division called-sexagesimal, and the Ill: ll,
‘ ' E, ‘ ' consequences thereof relative to division of time in Astronomy; dis-. ;.é" ‘
_‘ cussion of recent inventions for measuring time and registering observa- ii, , ‘
.': ' tions; utilization of telegraphic communication for measuring differ—- :I i
ences of Longitude; measure of an arc of the meridian in~Southernu "l
. é Hemisphere, particularly in the Argentine Republic; study of the- . ii 2
5‘; variations of gravity, by aid of the pendulum; instruments the most‘ i '.
Simple, and methods the most rapid, for determining the magnetic; l! ‘i
variation. ‘ 2,: ,1

 5 ‘~:""""".‘ ' - c f . ~ - r“ 1'” ' 3
; 3‘75; i r
2 , "t: , 3??
" il 3 4
:- : 33:; Section secondfdesignatcd the Group Hydrographic, considered such ‘ Afm
5‘ ' i3 subjects as the following: Researches upon the depth to which the races
5 19%} effects of agitation of the surface of the sea extends; study of tides; ' Tc
3“: general laws; anomalies; choice of places the most appropriate for ques
531%: observation of these phenomena; study of oceanic currects and their in pl
if 3:31 causes; With the analogous phenomena in the great lakes; determma- habit
3 t3, ' :gl tion of sea temperatures at different depths. Causes of the high tem— raise
‘; ‘: peraturc of the Gulf Stream; deep sea soundings, with the physical 3 tolog
3 ‘g’ and chemical observations inseparable therefrom. 3 ' partir
l . The third section covered a wide area. It was denominated the L rior 1
3 ‘ Group Physical, and included Physical Geography, General Meteorol- ed b3
L 3; ' 3 ogy, General Geology, Botanical and Zofilogical Geography, and General decor
3 ‘,. Anthropology. Of the forty questions allotted to this section for dis- branc
l , cussion, my space requires that I should select only a few. Different ' type
3 5” , theories relative to the origin of mountains; the relations which exist “.3331
“it; i between the elevation of the surface and its geological constitution; to lJthr
i it": i‘ , investigate the origin and general movement of atmospheric whirlwinds anion
l 4 5 or cyclones, as well as their periods; to compare the meteorological What
3:; 3 condition, ancient and modern, of countries where forests have been . datal
'3 3‘; I destroyed, and to state the influence which the recovering of mountain Th:
3 ' if} 3 tracts with forest and herbage has had upon the quantity of rain—fall, and c
' 3 _" 3 and upon the outpour of waters upon the surface; the geographical dis- portai
$ " if 3‘. tribution of plants and animals during the tertiary period, with the discm
; 3 consequences which result therefrom relative to the climatology of the induo
l 3 globe during that period, and relative to the distribution of land and j the s_\
l ~ é water; geographical relations between the fauna and flora of the tertiary advan
I i 3' period and those of the present day; the influence of causes anterior to on t1],
3 "L 3 V the present geological epoch upon the area occupied during our epoch by ment
4 vegetable species; species, orders, and families of plants which are char— and 5
3: . p33 ‘ acteristic of great natural regions; tostudy the resemblances and differ- ' to ser
'3 33 ;; .ences which exist between the fauna of different islands of l’olynesia. - 3 phy ll
3 , 313-1333 Do the fauna of North and South America belong to the same zoiilogi- all otl
1‘ .; :ihi cal centre? Geographical distribution of prehistoric races of mankind, . ' 311d ii
i ,/ 13l and of those which are regarded as fossil, and the relations of these to Crating
if those of the present epoch; the migration and transplantation of races, what I
’3 ; jg '3 j: and the displacement of one race by another; the distribution of man— 01113 cc
l ‘ 5;. l 3 kind in ancient and modern times in Occanica; discussion of the classi- 0f the
l i < H fication of VVallace—Malays, Negritos. &c.; distribution of the black \Vhat
i i ‘ I upon
= r ‘
L I; T .Y :I' -t I i I
\. ‘-., . ,

 , t
g .i . t
‘ 9 l Q
, ,l it t
.uch Q African races—dolichocephalic and brachycephalic; of the American Q
the races—Redskins and lisquimaux. Q Q- Q
:les; " To section four, designated the Group Historic, were assigned such j, QI Q
for ; questions as the following: To establish upon the territory of Europe, ' Q Q
heir in prehistoric times, the existence of populations differing in instincts, Q Q Q
ina- habits, and adaptitudes, according to the monuments which they have . Q‘ i
,em— raised, and the works of art which they fabricated. Recent palzeon- ,Q Q
sical ’ l, tological researches have revealed, upon different parts of the globe, th Q
.t ' particularly in Europe, traces of the presence of man at epochs ante~ ' Q Qli Q
the ‘ rior to the most ancient documents. “that relation can be establish— Q ,Q
)rol- ed between these new nations and the most ancient authentic historic ‘3 l
ieral documents? Among the greater number, if not in all the principal i Q
dis- branches of the lndo-liuropean family, there exists a duality'of physical Q 3
rent ' type perfectly well marked, the black type and the blonde, in connection :1, Q
:xist with a unity of speech. This duality shows itself in the eastern branch ‘ ‘ Q
; to between the Persians and the l'lindoos, and has a parallel existence also lQ Q
inds among the Selavs, among the ancient Greeks, and among the Celts. QQt Q
giCfll What has been done up to the present, or what can be done with the , IQ Q
DCCD . data before us to explain this ethnological phenomenon? .3
itain The fifth section, called the Group Economic, was of especial interest, ,QQQ Q
~fall, , and comprisedGeography, economic, commercial, and statistic. Its im- Q
dis- portance can best be shown by a statement of some of the questions it Q E Q
the discussed—such as the following: \Vhat are the general causes which Q17, Q
‘ the induce populations to emigrate and States to found colonies? \Vhat are i; Q
and _ the systems of colonization which have given, hitherto, results the most QQ". Q
tiary advantageous to the mother county on the one hand, and to the colony “i Q
or to on the other? In View of the progress of geography, and the develop- Q?J Q
h by ment of commerce, what are the best means of associating commercial QI’ ' Q'x
:har— and scientific interests? In what degree are merchant ship—owners able :va g
liffer- ' to serve the interests of science in general, and of commercial geogra— .1» {h
tesia. . phy in particular, in stimulating collections, obtaining documents, and W" it
»logi- all other sources of information? \Vhat are the points where commerce Hit 5':
kind, | ' and industry can supply themselves to best advantage with fuel for gen- _ tii Q
se to ’ crating motive power, whether in depots or in workable deposits, and Q
‘aces, what is the approximate estimate of the quantity of such fuel in differ- lip-:'1
man— ent countries? \Vhat are the most available stations on different parts
:lassi- Q of the globe for fisheries, and the working of different marine products? '
black .' \Vhat are the consequences of the clearing away or destruction of forests Q
upon the commercial, industrial, and agricultural condition of a coun« j;

 i " a ..,W _..—.7 - - ~ , 'v ,, . . , ;'
2 V ' fll' , Io
; V i ; try? What are the natural laws which govern the origin, distribution, V'
'V >: i V: increase, and decline of cities? F
: ' {if Several of the questions discussed in the preceding Group are of . It
.. . ill” even more importance to us than to the States of the Old World. Our 1 Oi
,1 ' ii, resources in mineral, agricultural, and forest wealth are great, but little 1 er
if ; Eli , known abroad—little known as yet, indeed, to ourselves. ‘,.} to
i ff, Vf'V Section sixth, called the Group Didactic, gave its time to the follow— ‘ J2
Ea? Vii ing, among other questions: What are the practical means of making 3,]
4, iii a , more popular the elementary study of Geography and Topography? " G
i ' , “That ought to be the character of the geographical studies in the dif— {:V‘V
{ 'V g ferent branches of instruction, primary, secondary, and superior? ‘What * g p;
, t, V place does instruction in Commercial Geography hold, and according to -V‘ St
l what method is this instruction given in institutions founded to further , f0
,= ‘V commercial education? VVhatiare the institutions founded to further C1.
t I V the acquisition of Geographical knowledge? What are the best means ar
“:31 V . for coordinating and developing the labors of Geographical societies, and it, i. M
i ‘ reaping therefrom the largest scientific results? .1 1n
, ’ V The seventh and last section, styled the Group of Voyages and 'tit
F“. _ Travels, concerned itself with questions relating to exploration, voyages 31:
i, : undertaken for purposes scientific, commercial, and artistic. In voyages ' ar
l , V of discovery what are the principal obstacles which travelers, encounter, f m
, and how may these best be obviated? What are the best methods to V5 pl
3 recommend for the observation of latitude _and longitude What com— 5 VV ki
‘ parative value ought to be given to the determination of heights by the , ci
- barometer and by geodesic processes? What are the best methods for . ic;
VV photographing observations? V ' ., V pr
1 . All these questions, and many more, were discussed during the re
1 f ' , sitting of the sections, which continued for nearly two weeks. I at- ec
,' _ i tended principally the meetings of sections three and four, as being V i‘ ‘ to
ii . - more in the line of my previous studies than the others. On one 5c
% .'V Vi ; occassion I attended the sitting of the fifth Group, when the construc— V.V. ti<
1 , 3 1, tion of a canal across the Isthmus of Panama was discussed under the j to
,' 2, i; presidency of Ferdinand de Lesseps, to whom the world owes the Suez f»: pl
2 ‘ ‘i ll V Canal. The veteran engineer expressed himself quite sanguine of the ’Z_,_
‘. V i ii practicability of the work, and at a less cost than many of the estimates air
‘ , t ‘ previously made. , VV' ch
t i ‘1; As illustrative of geographical science in its various subdivisions, an 0‘
m it Exposition was opened in connection with the Congress. Abundant he
i 4% : it , space was appropriated to every nation which chose to participate.
1 : ‘ t ; ' Pl‘
' V-VZ'V“ - V ’ ‘ .
l “ vi,
7V» 1.,, Jams“; r M.,“: ,_ i

 ' :2? i
.- n it
‘. ' 1 El F1 - i
4.4 France was best represented. Russia, Austria, Prussia, England; and ‘ 4 44. 4
5} Italy followed in the order named. Switzerland, Belgium, and the l 44 , 4'
;. other minor States of Europe were well up. The States of the West- [3 i i
ern Continent contributed little to the Exposition, the space allotted . .4 l
to them being out of all proportion to their contributions. Even 4 4
4 Japan made arbetter figure, and contributed more than some of E 44 4
those whose facilities were greater. Much to my mortification, the '4. ‘44
United States was about the lowest in the list. Either the General 4 f; f-
, Government should have'taken no part in the Exposition, or such l"! l7 4
_ 4 part as would have been creditable. The best map of any American '4
; ' State or Territory which I saw there was executed abroad, and was 4 4
4 found outside the American part of the Exposition. Globes, maps, 4. 44?: 4
r charts, instruments of every conceivable size, scale, projection, , '44: l
5 and construction, were to be found there in the greatest profusion. 4 44' 4
i Models of towns, harbors, public buildings, and reduced fac similes of 44 :'ie 4
i4 mountain ranges in relief, were numerous in the most of the collec— 4 44 l
d 'tions, particularly that of France. Topographical maps in relief, ‘1 l
5 showing the relative altitudes and depressions of every part of France, 4
:s i: g and on a very large scale, attracted the attention andelicited the ad- ,.5 4‘ 4
r, 4