xt7ghx15qs5j https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7ghx15qs5j/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1967-07 Bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Inside Kentucky", vol. XXXV, no. 7, July 1967 text 
volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Inside Kentucky", vol. XXXV, no. 7, July 1967 1967 1967-07 2021 true xt7ghx15qs5j section xt7ghx15qs5j ‘Q'I'U!\





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Containing information about Ken-
tucky’s past and present for school
children, teachers and others in- I

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factual material or a bibliography
of source materials on Kentucky. ‘


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Published by the

Paid for from State funds

Superintendent of Public Instruction

Vol. XXXV July, 1967 No. 7











The discovery and production of new information about Ken-
tucky’s past and present is endless. Therefore the work of sifting
this information for school use becomes itself an unending task.
We have attempted in this publication to cope with this mass of
information and source material, first, by presenting the teacher
and the pupil a panorama of information to answer many questions
about Kentucky as well as to create in the student a curosity about
the state. In one sense this bulletin is a creation by the students.
Their many requests for information about Kentucky directed to this
department have given much of the form to this bulletin as well as
being one of the major factors in determining its content.

Second, the Bulletin attempts to cope with the great amount
of factual information about Kentucky by supplementing the broad
and necessarily limited picture with a bibliography of source material
to which the teacher or student can go for more detail and more
depth. Hopefully, both teacher and student, or the general reader,
will find the information contained in the Bulletin valuable and thus
make it a worthwhile publication.







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This bulletin has come from the cooperation and special talents

of many people. The agencies and organizations who made major
contributions are listed on the following page.


The following staff members of the Division were responsible
for the writing and graphic design of the Bulletin: Barbara Ertel,
artist; Natalie Oliver, artist; Steve Fitzgerald, photographer; and Anne
Hamilton, librarian. In addition to our regular staff, special recogni-
tion is due the work of the students who were with the Department 5
of Education for the summer months: Lynda Sherrard, presently a '
teacher in Frankfort City Schools; Donna Nichols, student, Eastern
Kentucky University; Tom Bean, graduate student, University of
Florida. The staff is also indebted to Ben Kaufman, legal assistant,

Kentucky Department of Highways, for the writing of the section on



Mary Marshall

Division of Information and Publications

Frankfort, Kentucky
July, 1967




Office of the Governor of Kentucky

Kentucky Department of Highways

Kentucky Department of Mines and Minerals
Kentucky Department of Parks

Kentucky Department of Aeronautics

Kentucky Department of Agriculture

Kentucky Department of Commerce

Kentucky Department of Fish and \N’ildlife Resources
Kentucky Railroad Commission

Kentucky Division of Archives and Records

Kentucky Department of Public Information
Kentucky Department of Economic Development
Kentucky Department of Natural Resources

Kentucky Division of Forestry

Kentucky Division of Conservation Education
Kentucky Department of Education

Fort Knox Bullion Depository

Kentucky Historical Society

Chambers of Commerce, Ashland, Bowling Green, Covington,

Frankfort, Hopkinsville, Lexington, Louisville, Newport, Owens-
boro, and Paducah.

University of Kentucky
Murray State University








Cable 0! Content;



Section I

J‘tiétory of Kentucky
Section 2

government of Kentuc/ey
Section 3

Whyéicat geatured of Kentucky
Section 4

Recreational geatured of Kentucky

Section 5
Commerce anct Eranéporation
of Kentucky
Section 6
(Education in Kentucky
Section 7











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uania Cotteye, 70

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HISTORY of Kentucky




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The early history of Kentucky was a dangerous and exciting
adventure for those explorers with the courage to first enter the
wilderness, and this history is also an adventure for all those who
read about it now. Much of the region now included within the
borders of Kentucky was before the white man a land populated by
Indians who used it primarily as a hunting ground. The Shawnees
from north of the Ohio river, the Delawares, Mingos, and Wyandottes
as well as the Cherokees, Creeks, and Catawbas considered this land
of plentiful game an ideal hunting ground and gave it the name
“Kah-ten-tah-teh,” which meant “Land of Tomorrow.” These Indians
guarded “Kah—ten—tah-teh” ferociously, and the French explorer La
Salle, perhaps the first white man to see the “Land of Tomorrow,”
was driven back by the Indians in 1669 after only a glimpse.

Dr. Thomas Walker, a Virginian hired by the Loyal Land Com-
pany to explore the Kentucky wilderness, traveled in 1750 through
what later became known as the Cumberland Gap into the south-
eastern portion of the land to a point now called Barbourville. There
he and his five companions raised the first cabin in Kentucky built
by Englishmen. Five years later, in 1755, the first English woman
traveled into Kentucky, although not by choice. Mrs. Mary Inglis
was captured by a Shawnee war party in Virginia and was taken
as a prisoner into the Kentucky wilderness. Later she escaped and
was able to return to her family.

Daniel Boone, a colorful figure surrounded by as much legend
as fact, became interested in “Kah-ten—tah-teh” from stories about the
plentiful game and excellent hunting conditions to be found there.
Boone and five companions, including Charles Finlay, one of the
men who first aroused Boone’s curiosity about Kentucky, left Virginia
on May 1, 1769, on a hunting expedition into the wilderness. The
hunting expedition succeeded in gathering a great number of furs
and hides, but proved unsuccessful for Boone and one of the other
men, John Stewart, when they were captured by Indians. When
Boone and Stewart escaped seven days later, they found their other
Companions and the furs gone. One day not long afterwards Stewart
himself disappeared, this time killed by the Indians. Daniel, however,
remained in Kentucky for another year, returning to the Yadkin
Valley in North Carolina in 1771.

Daniel Boone’s stories about Kentucky encouraged others to try
settlement in this promising wilderness. In 1773, Boone and some
nelghbors left the Yadkin Valley for Kentucky, but the journey ended
lbefOre. they reached the Cumberland Gap. Part of the expedition,
1n91Ud}ng Boone’s son, James, was killed in an Indian ambush, and
thls frlghtened the remaining settlers into turning back. Boone, how-




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ever, and another scout, Michael Stover, returned to the wilderness.

Even though the Indians were determined to keep settlers Out
of “Kah-ten-tah-teh”, in 1774, a party of men led by James Harrod
established the first permanent foothold in the wilderness, a settlement
which later became Fort Harrod. Boone, too, continued his effort
to help settle Kentucky. In 1775, he and thirty other men began to
open the way for a great flow of settlers by beginning the Wilderness
Trail. With axes and knives, the men opened a path into the wilder-
ness usually following Indian and buffalo trails. On April 1, the
party reached the Kentucky River and fittingly named the settlement
they began to build there Boouesborough.


Old Fort Harrod State Park in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, commemorates the
first permanent white settlement west of the Alleghenies.

Although Kentucky had not yet become a state, the first legislative
assembly was held on May 23, 1775, at Boonesborough under a large
elm tree along the banks of the Kentucky River called the “divine
elm.” This first legislature framed nine laws for the governing of the
new Kentucky settlements: laws to preserve game, to prevent swear-
ing and sabbath breaking, to provide for a militia, to collect sheriff's
fees, and also laws to punish criminals. The impulse to begin organ-
izing a system of government shows itself here almost at the same
time as the building of the first cabins.

In 1776, Virginia claimed Kentucky as a county, creating Ken-
tucky County out of the older Fincastle County. This denied any
private claims on Kentucky land by private companieS, particularly
the Transylvania Company under the ownership of Judge HenderSOfl-
Kentucky became entitled to send two representatives to the Virginla
legislature to voice her opinions, but, in reality, the Kentucky County
was so remote that a law of individual force, particularly when the
Indians were involved, determined the outcome of many diSPUtes



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which might otherwise have been settled by discussion or courts in the
more civilized regions of Virginia.

1776 also brought the Revolutionary War, and the effects of the
war were felt by the settlers in the wilderness as well as by Americans
along the Atlantic seacoast. The young settlements were attacked
repeatedly in 1776 by the Indians under the instigation of the British,
especially Colonel Henry Hamilton, then commander of the British
fort at Detroit. Although many settlers were killed and many re—
turned East, the more courageous and hardy stayed on.

Among those who stayed and defended their homes, George
Rogers Clark was one man who particularly distinguished himself.
Clark devised an ingenious plan in which the Kentucky settlers with
the aid of some Virginian militia took an offensive rather than a
defensive approach to the war. He decided that the best way to
stop the Indian attacks and also to stop the British from encouraging
them was to attack the British forts north of Kentucky where the
Indians were obtaining arms and supplies. Clark’s scheme was
dependant on surprise, and it proved successful. The unsuspecting
British garrison at Kaskaskia fell first, without firing a shot. Later,
at Cahokia, Clark made peace with many of the Indian tribes. Finally,
after another surprise attack, the fort at Vincennes surrendered and
gave the Long Knives control of much of the Northwest.

In 1780, Kentucky was still part of Virginia. However, mainly
because of the increase in population, Kentucky County was divided
into three counties—Fayette, Jefferson, and Lincoln. About this time,
much sentiment in Kentucky arose for separation from Virginia and
recognition as a separate state. Kentuckians complained logically
enough that they were too far from Richmond and that laws applicable
to Virginians on the other side of the mountains weren’t always so
useful or applicable for Kentuckians. Mainly, the Kentucky settlers
felt that Virginia’s militia was little help against the Indians since
It took several weeks or months for it to organize and be called to
the aid of Kentuckians attacked by Indians. Consequentlv, on June 1,
1792, Kentucky was accepted into the Union as the fifteenth state.
Isaac Shelby had already been elected Kentucky’s first governor on
May the fifteenth of that year, and on June the fourth, he was
Inaugurated in Lexington.

The name of Henry Clay stands out prominently in the early his-
tory 0f Kentucky as well as in the history of the nation. In 1812, war
again broke out between England and the United States, and under
theieadership of \Villiam Henry Harrison, the Kentucky forces played
an Important role in the war both in the North and in the South. By
th? .terms of the Treaty of Ghent which ended the war in 1814, the
BrltISh military posts were removed from the Northwest, and the
danger of Indian attack from these northern territories was thus



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lessened. Henry Clay was one of the men from the United States
who went to Europe in 1814 to help frame the treaty. In 1823, he
was nominated for the presidency, but lost the election. Later, he
was the spokeman for the Compromise of 1833 which held the nation
from civil war for a few years.

During the period from the time in 1792 when Kentucky became
a state until the Civil \Var, many important changes and advances
took place in Kentucky. Among them were the opening of the
\Vilderncss Road to wheeled traffic, the chartering of the Bank of
Kentucky, a new state constitution in 1800, and the establishment
of the first public school system.



A large amount of the monetary gold stocks of the United States is stored in
the vault of the Fort Knox Bullion Depository, one of the institutions under
the supervision of the Director of the Mint, an official of the United states
Treasury. The Depository vault contains gold valued at more than
$11,000,000,000. The vault door weighs more than twenty tons. No visitors
are permitted. (This policy was adopted when the Depository Was established
and is rigidly enforced.)

Many Kentuckians had owned slaves before the Civil \Var, but
during the \Var the state tried to remain neutral. Kentucky never did
belong to the Confederacy. However, the loyalties of many Kentuck-
ians were divided, and men from Kentucky served both for the
North and for the South during this war which lasted from 1861-1864-
Kentuckians contributed officers of importance to both sides. T0 the
Confederancy went Generals Breckinridge, Johnson, and John Hunt



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Morgan. On the other hand, to the Union forces went Generals
Buell, Boyle, and Cassius M. Clay. The president of the Confederacy,
Jefferson Davis, was a native Kentuckian, as was Abraham Lincoln,
president of the Union.

After the war, Kentucky went through the pains of reconstruc-
tion. However, the problems of rebuilding Kentucky’s economy were
simple compared to the problems encountered in other southern
states. During this period from 1865-1900, several events of interest
and importance in Ky. history occurred. The famous Kentucky
Derby was first run in 1875, and during these years the first telephone
exchange in the state opened in Louisville. The present seal of the
Commonwealth was adopted as well as the present constitution.

In the years from 1900 to the present, Kentucky’s history has
been more closely than ever tied to the history of the entire nation.
Kentucky soldiers, along with soldiers from all the other states,
fought in World War I and World War II. In the early 1950’s, Ken-
tucky soldiers were again called to fight, this time in Korea; and
now, many Kentuckians are again on the battle front in Vietnam.

The 20th Century brought much more industry into Kentucky
to supplement her basically agrarian economy. During the early part
of the century, Kentucky, was, and still is, one of the largest coal
producing states in the nation. Kentucky is also, because of her
many interesting geographical features and other attractions, rapidly
becoming one of the nations most popular states for tourists. Much
of the beauty of Kentucky evident to today’s tourist is the same as
that seen by Daniel Boone; but should he again come over the
mountains and along the Wilderness Road, he would see that Ken-

tucky has come a long distance from the days when it was called

History of State Capital

The present State constitution was adopted by the people in 1891.
According to the regulations provided by the document, Frankfort
was set as the State Capital.

Christopher Cist was the first known white man to enter the
area now called Frankfort in 1751, and nineteen years later Daniel
Boone explored the area. Robert McAfee and his brother, James,
al'l‘lVéd in 1773 with their surveyor, Captain Taylor, and conducted
the flrst surveys of land in the area, including the land surrounding
the present Capitol building.

. A party of pioneers passed through in 1780 on its way to Mann’s
Llck for a supply of salt. They reached a fording place on the Ken-
tucky River about dusk and made camp for the night. In the dark-
ness they were surprised by Indians, and during the fighting which
msued one of the frontiersmen, Stephen Frank, was killed. From






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Daniel Boone’s grave.


The Old State House, in
downtown Frankfort, com-
pleted in 1830, is the home
of the Kentucky Historical
Society. The Museum con-
tains a variety of historical
displays pertaining to the
settlement of the early
west and Kentucky’s pio-
neer history.

On the grounds of one of the nation’s most

beautiful State ca itols ‘s h‘ -
clock, p 1 t 15 umque floral


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Liberty Hall in Frankfort was built by statesman John Brown for his wife,
Margaretta. Such prominent figures as Louis Philippe of France, Thomas JGf‘
ferson, James Madison, James Monroe, Zachary Taylor, Andrew Jackson and

Theodore Roosevelt have been entertained there. The house. under the operation The Governor’s Man - . . .
of the National Society of Colonial Dames. is open to the public. been the home of thjlgolvéf‘nzrtgifizg legume Capitol grounds. The mansion has



8 9








that moment the place gained notoriety and was soon known far
and wide as “F rank’s Ford.” This term and pronunciation was gen-
erally used by those who knew it until about 1830, although the legal
title became Frankfort only six years after the incident, 1786, when
the town was established by the Virginia Legislature.

The early settlers in Frankfort chose as their homesites the
gently sloping riverbanks of the Kentucky River, which today have
been heavily populated on both sides so that it forms an “S” curve
through the heart of the business district. These early homes were
in the vicinity of the ford by which they crossed the river.

A number of historically prominent men passed through F rank—
fort during its early years for brief visits, including George Rogers
Clark, Captain James Harrod (founder of Harrodsburg), and Hancock
and Willis Lee, for whom Leestown, a part of Frankfort, was named.
Some of the men who later arrived in Frankfort were of prominence
both within the State and around the world. Among these outstand-
ing figures were the Bourbon Prince Louis Phillippe, the Marquis de
Lafayette, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Andrew Jackson, James
Monroe, Zachary Taylor, and Theodore Roosevelt. Aaron Burr here
stood his first trial for treason, was acquitted, and was carried off to
a grand celebration of his victory; Henry Clay practiced his oratory
before charmed audiences; the old Indian Fighter Simon Kenton
pled for relief from taxes in his last days; and Daniel and Rebecca
Boone lay in state before they were buried on a hill overlooking the
town. In fact, it is believed that more distinguished men settled
in one particular four-acre area of Frankfort than have lived on any
similar plot of land in the United States. This area today is known as
the Corner of Celebrities.

Within the boundaries of the Corner of Celebrities lived 36 men
of national prominence: two Supreme Court justices, two cabinet
officers, nine U. S. Senators, six Congressmen, seven governors, seven
foreign representatives, and three admirals of the Navy. Many of
their homes still stand today, although some adjustment in the archi—
tecture of most of them has taken place over the years.

The Old Post Office Building was the scene of the trial of Aaron
Burr for treason. Following a charge of disloyalty by a local news-
paper, a grand jury made up of Frankfort citizens investigated this
accusation. Defended successfully by Henry Clay, Burr was acquitted
of the charge.

Present-day Frankfort now boasts a population of approximately
21,400 and encloses a much larger area than that originally Set
by the Virginia Legislature. Among its attractions besides the Corner
of Celebrities and Boone’s grave are other places of historic, gOV'
ernmental, and scenic interest. Following the destruction of the
first two capitol buildings by fire, a third building was construCt6d






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to house Kentucky governmental affairs. This building, now known
as the Old Capitol or the Old State House, is the home of the Ken-
tucky Histon‘cal Society. The circular stairway connecting the first
and second floors contains a key stone known the world over for its
perfection. This stone is believed to be so perfectly balanced that
any movement of even a fraction of an inch would result in the
collapse of the entire center section of the building. The designing
of the present Old State House was done by Gideon Shryock, prob-
ably the most noted architect in Kentucky’s history.

The present State Capitol is located across the river and is one
of the most beautiful scenic attractions of Kentucky. The building
itself is comparable in both beauty and elegance to our Nation’s
Capitol. Standing three stories high and constructed of Bedford stone
and Vermont granite, the edifice was completed in 1910. Located
just behind and beside the Capitol is Kentucky’s famous floral clock,
an attraction which draws many tourists to Frankfort. Covered by

20,000 plants, the clock is controlled by accurate mechanisms which
make necessary corrections every hour.


Sources of Information:

Bangher, Ruby Dell and Sarah Hendricks Claypool, KentUCkU> Yesterday and
Today. Kincaid Publishing House, 1964.

Collins, Lewis and Rich
Society, 1966.

Frankfort Chamber of Commerce Brochure. Chamber, 1966-

Van Hook, Joseph 0., The Kentucky Story. Harlow Publishing Corporation, 1964-

Wilkie, Katharine E. and Elizabeth R. Moseley, Kentucky Heritage, Steck-Vaughan
COmPany, 1966.

ard H. Collins, History of Kentucky. Kentucky Historical


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Issaac Shelby, first governor of Kentucky.



 Kentucky Colonel

back to 1812, when Governor Isaac Shelby, the first Governor of
Kentucky issued the first commission of Honorable Colonel. This
practice has been followed by every Kentucky Governor since that
time. Thus, as the years passed, there were hundreds of Kentucky
Colonels scattered throughout the world without cohesion or any
recognized organization to bind them together. From time to time
someone or some group, from one motive or another, would attempt
to form these Colonels into organizations called by many different
names. The task always seemed too great or perhaps not sufficiently
rewarding because each attempt was abandoned.

In 1982, however, several enthusiastic Colonels, whose standing
in the commercial world and financial position was such that the
small amount they required for organizing was no >burden, determined
that there should be an organization worthy of the name and with
the sanction of the Governor, the “HONORABLE ORDER OF KEN-
TUCKY COLONELS” came into being.

The Order was officially made a charitable organization by the
Revenue Department of the Government, making contributions tax
deductible, after which our charities have extended to many worthy


Source of information:
Governor’s office




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. . ‘

GOVERNMENT of Kentucky





Ehe Kentuc/zg Commonwealth

Ehe two deéignationé “commonwealth ” and
“Hate” were agnongmoaé when Kentuchg
joined the union in 1792. Uhe term
commonwealth goeé had: to the time of
Oliver Cromwell, when flarliament declared
that government [jg a King waé “unnec-
eééarg, hardenéome, and dangeroué,” and
thenceblorth the firitiéh Nation waé a com-
monwealth, or free-(Mate, “commonweal” . . .

[or the good of all—waé the meaning implied.

0f the four commonwealthé in the united
Stateé, Maééachuéettét Wennégluania, and
virginia were orginatlg agritiéh Colonieé.
Kentachg waé once part of Wirginia, and at
the time of 4eparation it choée to call itéetl

the Commonwealth at Kentuchy.





One day for a school assignment, Ellen, Billy, and J.B. decided to visit their
state Capitol in Frankfort. They were working on a group report on Kentucky’s
government. A guide was delighted to see the youngsters and told them she
would explain Kentucky’s government as they toured the capitol.

The first stop was the
Rotunda, where the statue
of Abraham Lincoln stood.
Ellen asked the guide,
“Why is the bronze on
Lincoln’s toe so shiny?”
The guide told them that
a, legend had grown sur-
rounding the rubbing of the
toe . . . it will bring good
luck. Ellen promptly tried
her luck.




t their
am she


In 1792 Kentucky was admitted to the Union as the fifteenth
State. The constitution of Kentucky was modeled from the constitu-
tion of the United States Government which was based on the republic
form of government. The legal definition of republic is: “a govern-
ment by representatives chosen by the people.” Therefore, the citizens
of Kentucky who vote at elections have the power to decide who
shall run the state government. This is done by representation.
Since it would be impracticable and impossible for every citizen to
come to Frankfort and say how he thinks the State should be run, a
representative of a group of people is elected to the state legislature
to represent the interest of the whole group.

Another important element that exists in both the United States
and Kentucky’s form of government is the doctrine of separation of
power. This means that there are separate branches of govermnent,
each in theory having the same amount of power as the other, or each
branch having the power to check the authority of the other branch.
These three branches are legislative, executive, and judicial. Each
of these has a function, and has its own method of performing them.
The Legislature

The Constitution of Kentucky provides that the legislative power
shall be vested in the General Assembly (the Legislature), and that
the General Assembly shall be comprised of two chambers (parts):
The House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Repre-
sentatives has 100 members who are elected for a two—year term.
The Senate is made up of 38 members who are elected for a four—year
term. The Constitution states that the General Assembly shall meet
in regular assions on January of even-numbered years, such as 1968,
1970, 1972, etc. The meeting of the Assembly shall not exceed 60
days, not including Sundays or holidays. In addition to the regular
meetings, the governor has the authority to call a special session of the
Legislature to consider those matters which he specifies for that
particular session.

The functions of the Legislature are varied, and, in perspective
with the other two branches, possibly the most powerful, although
there is much disagreement of this point. Of course, the most
important function of the General Assembly is to enact legislation
by passing bills which may become law. This is not the proper place
to have a prolonged discussion about how bills become laws, as a
gOVGrnment course will give detailed information on this subject.
But every student should recognize the fact that every member of
the legislature can introduce a bill in the House he belongs to with
the exception of Revenue hills which must originate in the House
Of Representatives. t:W-hen a bill is passed by one house, it goes to







After entering the House of Representa-
tives, the children took their places at a
roll—top desk (secretly pretending to be
representatives). The guide told. them
“The House is one of the two parts of the
legislative branch of the government, and
there are 100 members.” Billy asked,
“Where is the other part?”

“The other part is called the Senn‘n",
Billy.” . . . and it is this way. The
children stood outside the Senate room
listening and learning that the Senate
has 38 members who are elected for a
4-year term. The guide told them “it is
in the legislature that all bills are intro-


“Now children, I’ve a surprise for you. To best understand the executive branch
of the government, where would we go?” J.B. said to the Governor’s office, an
so they went. Governor Breathitt talked with the three and when his son Ne
came in . . . well, a picture was in order.





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the other House, and if passed there, it goes to the Governor w