xt7h1834345b https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7h1834345b/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1956 journals 130 English Lexington. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Regulatory series, bulletin. n.130 text Regulatory series, bulletin. n.130 1956 2014 true xt7h1834345b section xt7h1834345b Regulatory Bulletin l3O
Some Items of Interest to g
Kentucky Nurserymen
For the Year Ended June 30, l956
By W. A. Price
4 Howard G. Tilson
Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Kentucky
_ Lexington

ENDED JUNE 30, 1956
W. A. Price and Howard G. Tilson
The Kentucky Nursery Inspection Law, since its enactment in 1926
has been revised and is herein reproduced as it appears upon the statute
249. 010 to 249. 990
249. 010 DEF INIT IONS. As used in this chapter, unless the context
n requires otherwise:
(1) "Commissioner" means the Commissioner of Agriculture, Labor
and Statistics.
(2) "Department" means the Department of Agriculture, Labor and
(3) "Director" means the Director of the Agricultural Experiment
A Station.
249. 020 (1925a-1; 1925a-10) STATE ENTOMOLOGIST; ASSISTANT.
(1) The Entomologist and Botanist of the Agricultural Experiment
  Station shall be the State Entomologist.
(2) The State Entomologist shall serve without pay other than his
salary as an officer of the Agricultural Experiment Station. He shall be
paid his traveling expenses.
(3) The State Entomologist shall appoint a deputy entomologist and
249. 030 (l925a—1, 1925a-10) ENTOMOLOGIST MAY MAKE RULES
AND PUBLISH DATA. (1) The State Entomologist, with the advice and
consent of the director and the commissioner, may prescribe, modify
and enforce rules, regulations and orders needed to carry out KRS 249. O20
to 249. 100.
(2) The State Entomologist may publish bulletins, circulars and re- V
ports containing information concerning inspections, insects and plant
(3) The rules and regulations and publications shall be printed from
time to time and furnished to interested persons.
- 249. 040 (1925a-1) ESTABLISHMENT OF QUARANTINES. The State
Entomologist shall, with the advice and consent of the director and the
commissioner, establish and maintain quarantines against the importation
into this state, of any trees, plants and parts of plants, whether nursery-

 4 Regulatory Bulletin 130
grown or not, from any state or from any county within the state, where
such plants or parts of plants are known to be affected with dangerous in-
sect pests or plant diseases. He shall designate in announcements of
quarantine the area quarantined, whether it constitutes a part of this state
or some other state.
DISEASED PLANTS TO BE DESTROYED. Whenever the State Entomolo-
gist or his deputy has reason to believe or is credibly informed that at any
place within the state there has been introduced, or offered for sale,
trees, plants or parts of plants infected or infested with diseases or destruc-
tive pests that are likely to spread, he shall investigate the suspected ar- .
ticles and premises. If they are found so infested or infected, he shall
notify the owner or possessor, in writing, of the nature of the infestation,
specifying the insects or diseases that have been found, and demand that .
within a reasonable specified time the affected articles or premises be 1
disinfected, or destroyed by fire, under the direction of the State Ento-
mologlst, his deputy or assistant, and at the expense of the owner or pos-
LICENSED. (1) Every resident nursery or agency selling nursery stock in
this state shall annually file credentials with the State Entomologlst. If
these credentials are satisfactory to the State Entomologist, the director
and the commissioner, the State Entomologist shall, upon payment of a
fee of five dollars by the nursery or agency, issue it a license authorizing
it to do business in the state.
(2) Every nonresident nursery and every agent, dealer or seller of
trees, representing nonresident nurseries or dealers shall annually file
credentials with the State Entomologist. These credentials shall include
the names of nurseries, nuxserymen or other persons represented. If these
credentials are satisfactory to the State Entomologist, the director and the
commissioner, the State Entomologist shall issue the license. *
(3) Any person soliciting orders for or delivering trees or plants in _
this state shall carry with him a copy of his license from this state, which
he shall show to prospective buyers, purchasers, county officials or agents
of the State Entomologlst on demand.
249. 070. (1925:1-3; 1925a·—4) ENTOMOLOGIST TO INSPECT NUR-·
ED STOCK PROHIBITED. (1) All nurseries where trees, vines, plants or
*On1y resident nurserymen and dealers are required to pay the five dollars
license fee.

 Inspection of Nursery Stock, 1955-56 5
other nursery stock are grown and offered for sale, shall be inspected by
the State Entomologist or by his assistant, once each year. He shall no-
tify the owners of such nurseries, in writing, of the presence of any San
. jose scale or other dangerous pests on the stock of these nurseries and
shall also notify, in writing, the owner of any affected nursery stock to
take such measures, on or before a certain day, for the destruction of in-
sect or fungus enemies of nurserystock as have been shown to be effectual.
(2) The owner of the affected nursery shall, within the time speci-
fied, take such steps for the destruction of injurious insects or fungus
enemies present, as will exterminate them.
(3) No person shall ship or deliver any such nursery stock affected
with insects or fungus enemies, before treatznent.
gist examines any trees, vines, plants or other nursery stock and finds the
stock free from dangerously injurious insects and fungus enemies, he shall
i make out and deliver to the owner of the stock a certificate stating that
he has inspected the stock and that he believes it to be free from danger-
ously injurious insects and fungus enemies. He shall keep in his office,
` for the information of anyone interested, copies of all valid certificates
issued by him.
TION CERTIFICATES. Whenever aresident nurseryman or seller of trees,
vines, plants or other nursery stock ships or delivers such goods, he shall
send on each package so shipped or delivered a printed copy of the cer-
tificate issued to him by the State Entomologist, stating that the stock
has been inspected as required by law and is believed to be free from dan-
gerously injurious insect or fungus enemies.
nuxseryman or other person intending to ship into this state trees, plants
or parts of plants, whether nursery—grown or not, shall file with the State
Entomologist a copy of a valid certificate from a state or United States A
Government inspector showing that the trees, plants or their parts have
been inspected and that he is authorized to sell and ship or transport
them. All packages of trees, plants or parts of plants shall bear a copy
. of a certificate of inspection from an official inspector. Transportation
companies within the state shall notify the State Entomologist at once
when any such trees or plants are received by them without a valid cer-
tificate. Nursery stock or other trees, plants or parts of plants shipped

 6 Regulatory Bulletin 130
into this state in violation of a state or United States Quarantine may be
seized and destroyed or returned to the shipper at the expense of the own-
er or possessor.
24.9. 200 (42g-1; 42g-2) ]APANESE BEETLE CONTROL. The State
Entomologist shall adopt and carry out such measures as he deems advis-
able to protect crops from the ravages of the japanese beetle (Popillia ja-
ponica). He may employ help, purchase materials and enforce such regu-
lations as in his descretion are necessary to accomplish the purpose.
249.990 (42f-4; 200; 1923; 1925a-4; 192.5a-9) PENALTIES. (1) Any
person who violates any of the provisions of KRS 249. 020 to 249. 100 or
hinders the carrying out of any of the provisions of those sections shall be ‘
fined not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.
(2) Any fine imposed for a violation of subsection (3) of KRS 249.
070 may be recovered in the county in which the nursery is situated or `
the county to which the nursery stock is shipped.
(1) It shall be tmlawful to sell or offer for sale uninspected or un-
certified nursery stock. A certificate of inspection indicates freedom
from certain injurious insects and plant diseases but does not vouch for
trueness to variety nor for grade and conditions of any nursery stock.
(2) Growers of nursery stock, for sale or shipment, shall apply in
writing before June lst of each year to the State Entomologist, Kentucky
Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington, for inspection services.
(3) Every dealer in nursery stock shall secure a nursery dealer 's
permit. Before this is issued, however, he must furnish an affidavit that
he will buy and sell only stock that is certified and will maintain with
the State Entomologist a correct and complete list of all sources from
which he gets his stock. Landscape architects and ¤·ee movers who han-
dle nursery stock are classified as dealers.
(4) Every person who solicits orders for nursery stock shall obtain —
and carry an agent's permit which is secured only upon request of the
nurseryman or dealer to   represented.
(5) All packages or bundles of nursery stock shipped by common
cauier must have attached a copy of the inspection certificate or per-
(6) Certificates and permit may be revoked for cause.
(7) Fees shall be paid as follows: Inspection certificate $5; dealer's
permit, $5. Agents' permits and nonresident DHISETYTXIBHIS certificates are

 Inspection of Nursery Stock, 1955-56 7
furnished without cost. Fees shall accompany application. Application
blanks may be obtained from the State Entomologist.
(8) Nonresidentn nurserymen shall file copies of their state certifi-
cate and secure nonresident permits. Every package of nursery stock
coming into Kentucky shall have a valid inspection certificate attached
to the package. Nonresident nurserymen, dealers, and agents shall carry
their Kentucky permits when soliciting orders or delivering nursery stock
in Kentucky.
(9) All certificates and permits automatically expire june 30 fol-
lowing date of issuance.
Nursery stock includes all trees, shrubs, vines; roses, strawberry,
raspberry, and blackberry plants; herbaceous perennial plants and roots;
grass "plugs", "sprigs" and sod; ornamental bulbs, corms, tubers, and
rhizomes; and any part of the above groups of plants capable of dissemi-
nating injurious insects and plant diseases. For regulatory purposes the
A term "Nursery Stock" includes all plants which grow out of doors and live
more than one year, whether nursery grown or native.
A summary of the major requirements for shipping nursery stock
into other states is given on the following page. It will be noted that
most states require the out··of-state shipper to file a copy of his nursery
inspection certificate with the proper administrative authority before
shipments are made. Only three states require filing fees, except under
special conditions, that are noted in a table which follows.
Special shipping tags are required by the following states and will
be furnished by them at a nominal cost to the shippers: Arkansas ($2 per
100 tags); Florida ($3.24 per 100 tags); and New Mexico ($1. 25 per 100
A special tag should be secured and attached to each bundle of nur-
sery stock shipped to any of the three states listed.

 8 Re  ato Bulletin 130
State of
State certificate Nurseryman's Agent 's Special Posted
filed filin  fee fee ta  Bond
Alabama Yes Reciprocal $1 No None
Arizona No None None No None
Arkansas Yes Reciprocal $1 Yes Reciprocal
California No None None No None
Canada Yes None None Yes 1 None
Colorado Yes None None No None
Conne cti cut No None None No None
Delaware Yes None None No None
Florida Yes None None Yes None
Georgia Yes Reciprocal $1 No None
Idaho Yes $5 to $15 $1 No $1000
Illinois Yes None None No None
Indiana Yes None $1 No None
Iowa Yes Reciprocal None No None
Kansas Yes Reciprocal None No None .
Ke ntu cky Yes None None No None
Louisiana No None None No None
Maine Yes None None No None
Maryland Yes Reciprocal None No None ‘
Massachusetts Yes None None No None
Michigan Yes $15 or Reciprocalz $1 No None
Minnesota Yes Reciprocal Reciprocal No None
Mississippi Yes Reciprocal None No None
Missouri Yes None None No None
Montana Yes $5 to $25 $25 No None
Nebraska Yes Reciprocal $1 No None
Nevada No None None No None
New Hampshire No None None No None
Ne w jersey Yes Reciprocal None No None
New Mexico Yes $10 $25 Yes None
New York No None None No None
North Carolina Yes Reciprocal None No $10003
North Dakota Yes Reciprocal None No None _
Ohio Yes Reciprocal $1 No None
Oklahoma Yes Reciprocal $1 No ‘None
Ore gon No None $1 No None
Pennsylvania Yes None None No None
Rhode Island Yes None None No None
South Carolina Yes None None No None
South Dakota Yes Reciprocal $1 No None
Tennessee Yes Reciprocal Reciprocal No $50003
Te x as Yes Re ciprocal None No None
Utah Yes $102 None No None _
Vermont No None None No None
Virginia No Reciprocal Reciprocal No None
Washington No Reciprocal $1 No None
West Virginia Yes None $1 No None
Wisconsin Yes None None No None
W omin  Yes Reci  rocal None No None
lSecurc special permit and instruction from officer in charge before making shipment.
2For nurserymen who operate through agents.
3For nurserymen who promise maintenance.

 Inspection of Nursery Stock, 1955-56 9
Alabama ..... . B. P. Livingston, Chief, Division of Plant Industry,
State Department of Agriculture and Industries,
P. O. Box 220, Montgomery 1
Alaska ....... Hon. Clyde G. Sherman, Commissioner of Agri-
culture, Box 1101, Fairbanks
Arizona ...... W. T. Mendenhall, State Entomologist, P. O.
Box 6246, Phoenix
Arkansas ...... Paul H. Millar, Chief Inspector, State Plant Board,
Little Rock
California ..... A. P. Messenger, Chief, Bureau of Plant Quaran-
tine, State Department of Agriculture, Sacramen-
to 14
A Canada ...... W. N. Keenan, Chief, Division of Plant Protection,
Departinent of Agriculture, Ottawa, Ontario
. Colorado ...... F. Herbert Gates, State Entomologist, Bureau of
Plant and Insect Control, 3130 State Museum,
Denver 11
x Connecticut .... Nealy Tumer, State Entomologist, Agricultural
Experiment Station, Box 1106, New Haven 4
Delaware ...... W. R. Hickman, Nursery Inspector, State Board of
Agriculture, Dover
District of Coltunbia. W. B. Wood, Plant Quarantine Branch, U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture, Washington 25 I
Florida ...... Ed. L. Ayers, Plant Commissioner, State Plant
_ Board, Gainesville
Georgia ...... W. E. Blasingame, Director of Entomology, State
Capitol, Atlanta 3
Hawaii ...... Wm. C. Look, Chief Plant Inspector, Board of
Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, Hono-
lulu, Box 2520 A
Idaho ....... Robert Reichert, Director Bureau of Plant Industry;
State Department of Agriculture, Boise
Illinois ...... H. F. Seifert, Horticultural Inspection Supervisor,
Room 300, Professional Arts Building, Glen Ellyn

 10 Regulatory Bulletin' 130
Indiana ...... Frank N. Wallace, State Entomologist, 311 West
Washington St. , Indianapolis 9
Iowa ........ Dr. H. M. Harris, State Entomologist, 311 Science
Building, Ames
Kansas, North .... Dr. Herbert Knutson, State Entomologist, State
College of Agriculture and Applied Science,
South . . . Dr. Charles D. M.ichener, Entomologist, Entomolo-
gical Commission of Kansas, Lawrence
Kentucky ...... Professor Walter A. Price, State Entomologist, Col-
lege of Agriculture and Home Economics, Univer-
sity of Kentucky, Lexington
Louisiana ...... Charles E. Smith, State Entomologist, State De-
partment of Agriculture and Immigration, Box _
4153, Capitol Station, Baton Rouge
Maine ....... E. L. Newdick, Chief, Division of Plant Industry,
State Department of Agriculture, Augusta p
Maryland ..... Dr. E. N. Cory, State Entomologist, University of
Maryland, College Park
Massachusetts .... Quincy S. Lowry, Assistant Director, Division of
Plant Pest Control and Fairs, 41 Tremont Street,
Boston 8
Mexico .··-· · Ing. Esteban Uranga, Director General of Agricul-
ture, Balderas, D. F. Mexico
Michigan ..... C. A. Boyer, Chief, Bureau of Plant Industry, State
Department of Agriculture, Lansing 13
»Mi.nnesota ..... T. L. Aamodt, Director, Bureau of Plant Industry,
State Department of Agriculture, Dairy and Food,
University Farm, St. Paul 1
Mississippi ..... Dr. R. E. Hutchins, Entomologist, State Plant
Board, State College
Missouri ...... Julius R. Anderson, State Entomologist, State De-
partment of Agriculture, jefferson City
Montana ...... R. O. Young, Chief, Division of Horticulture, ,
State Department of Agriculmre, Labor, and In-
dustry, Missoula
Nebraska ...... C. J. Walstrom, Entomologist, Bureau of Plant l
Industry, State Department of Agriculture and In-
spection, Lincoln
Nevada ...... George G. Schweis, Director, Division of Plant
lndustry, State Department of Agriculture, P. O.
Box 1027, Reno

 Inspection of Nursery Stock, 1955-56 11
New Hampshire . . . Dr. j. G. Conklin, State Entomologist, Insect and
Plant Disease Suppression and Control, State De-
partment of Agriculture, Durham
New jersey ..... Harry B. Weiss, Chief, Bureau of Plant Industry,
State Department of Agriculture, Trenton 8
New Mexico .... Dallas Rierson, Director, Regulatory Activities,
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, State
New York ..... H. B. Little, Director, Bureau of Plant Industry, _
State Department of Agriculture and Markets,
Albany 1
North Carolina . . . Dr. C. H. Brannon, State Entomologist, State De-
partment of Agriculture, Raleigh
North Dakota .... j. A. Callenbach, State Entomologist, Department
of Entomology, North Dakota Agricultural College,
Ohio ........ john Baringer, Chief, Division of Plant lndustry,
State Department of Agriculture, Columbus 15
A Oklahoma ..... Clyde A. Bower, Director, Division of Entomology
and Plant Industry, Oklahoma State Board of Agri-
culture, Oklahoma City 5
· Oregon ...... Frank McKem1on, Chief, Division of Plant Industry,
State Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Build-
_ ing, Salem
" Pennsylvania .... Dr. T. L. Guyton, Director, Bureau of Plant Indus-
try, State Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg
Puerto Rico ..... Luis A. Caton1,— Director, Plant Quarantine Service,
Department of Agriculture and Commerce, San
Rhode Island .... Alvin j. Lannon, Administrator, Division of Ento-
mology and Plant Industry, State Department of
. Agriculture and Conservation, State House,
Providence 2
South Carolina . . . j. A. Berly, Entomologist, State Crop Pest Com-
mission, Clemson
South Dakota .... Warren Miller, Director, Division of Plant Indus-
try, Department of Agriculture, Pierre I
Tennessee ..... Howard L. Bruer, State Entomologist and Plant
Pathologist, Department of Agriculture, 410 State
Office Building, Nashville

 12 Regulatory Bulletin 130
Texas ....... Charles Chapman, Chief, Division of Plant Quar-
antine, State Department of Agriculture, Austin
Utah ........ Earl Hutchings, State Supervising Inspector, State
Department of Agriculture, Salt Lake City
Vermont ...... john W. Scott, Director, Division Plant Pest Con-
trol, State Department of Agriculture, Montpelier
Virginia . ..... C. R. Willey, State Entomologist and Director
Division of Plant Industry, 1112 State Office Build-
° ing, Richmond 19
Washington ..... William H. Shaw, Supervisor of Horticulture, State
Department of Agriculture, Olympia
West Virginia .... F. Waldo Craig, Entomologist, State Department of
Agriculture, Charleston 5 I
Wisconsin ..... E. L. Chambers, State Entomologist, State Depart-
ment of Agriculture, 315 North Carroll St. , Madi-
son 2. `
Wyoming ...... Everett Spackrnan, State Entomologist, State De-
partment of Agriculture, Cheyenne
Federal Quarantine Number 38, because of Black Stem Rust, was
amended by the Secretary of Agriculture to become effective February
11, 1950. Among the important changes in regulations are: (1) the
elimination of the requirement to place a special permit tag on each
package of barberry, mahonia, or mahoberberis shipped interstate; (2)
shipments of seeds and fruits of approved species and varieties when pro-
duced within the eradication states, can be moved under certificate
only if going to another eradication state. Seed or fruit produced out-
side t.he eradication states cannot be shipped into any of the eradication
states. A
The requirements of Federal Quarantine Number 38 are summarized
as follows: (1) The eradication states are: Colorado, Illinois, Indiana,
Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska,
North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Virginia, Washing-
ton, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming; (2) Barberry, mahonia,
and mahoberberris, in any variety, can be shipped interstate (to any
state) only under certificate issued by the Plant Pest Control Branch;
(3) Application for Federal certificate must be filed in duplicate, not
later than May 15 each year, with the Quarantine Division of Plant
Disease Control, Washington 25, D. C.; (4) Only species and varieties

 Inspection of Nursery Stock, 1955-56 13
known to be rust resistant and approved by the Branch will be acceptable
for certification. The list of approved species and varieties is revised
from time to time as new varieties prove to be resistant to stem rust.
Species and varieties not known to be resistant to rust cannot be shipped
interstate and growers who have such rust susceptible species will be re-
quired to destroy them before permits to ship approved varieties are
granted; (5) The following species and varieties of barberry, mahonia,
and mahoberberis are designated as rust resistant:
Berberis arido—ca1ida
B. beaniana ............ Bean's Barberry
B.   . ....... · .... Magellan Barberry
l B. bggifglja gaga ......... Dwarf Magellan Barberry
B. calliantha ........... - -----
B.   · .......... Paleleaf Barberry
- B.   ........... Chenault Barberry
B.   ·...... . . . Cutle af Barberry
B. concinna ............ Dainty Barberry
V B. darwiui ............ Darwin Barberry
B. formosana ........... — -—--—
_ B. franchetiana .......... - -—--—
J B. gagnepaini . . . . ....... Black Barberry
B. gilgiana .... . ....... Wildfire Barberry
B. horvathi ............ — -—-——
B. }_@E_do-gagnepaini ....... False Black Barberry
B. insigis ............ - —--——
B. julianae ............ Wintergreen Barberry
B. }<¤1`€¤·¤ ............ Korean Barberry
* B. lempgrgiana . . ........ - - - - - -
B. lepidifolia ..... . ..... - - - - - -
B. linearlfolia ........... -· --——-
B. linearifolia var. Orange King . . . jasperbells Barberry
B. lologensis. ........... - —----
B. mentorensis .......... Mentor Barberry I
B. pallens .... . ........ Pallid Barberry
B. potanini ............ Longspine Barberry
B. renton . . . . . . . . . . . . . --———-
. B. replicata ............ Curlleaf Barberry
B. sanguinea ........... Red-pedicel Barberry
B. sargentiana .......... . Sargent Barberry
B. stenophylla ·~ .......... Rosemary Barberry

 14 Regulatory Bulletin 130
Berberis ar1do—calida
B. stenophylla diverslfolia ...... - -——--
B. stenophylla gracilis ....... - —---—
B. ste nophylla irwini ........ Irwin Barberry
B. stenophylla nana compacta .... Corallina Barberry
B. telomaica artisepala ..... . . --—---
B. thunbergi D. C. ......... japanese Barberry
B. thunbergi atropurpurea ...... Redleaf japanese Barberry »
B. thunbergi atropurea   ..... - ———--
B. thunbergi erecta ......... Truehedge Columnberry _
B. tlmnbergi "globe" ........ - -—-—-
B. thunbergi "golden" ........ ·· -· — - -· -
B. thunbergi maximowiczi ...... Coral japanese Barberry p
B. thunbergi minor ......... Box Barberry
B. thunbergi pluriflora ....... Flame Barberry
B. thunbergi "thorn1ess" ....... — —-~—»
B. thunbergi "variegata" ...... · ——-——
B. thunbergi xanthocarpa ...... — - — -· -· - n
B. triacanthorphora ......... Threespine Barberry
B. verruculosa ........... Warty Barberry
B. virgatorum ........... - —--——
B. xanthoiylon hort ......... — ---—-
Mahonia aguifolium Oregongrape Mahonia
M. bealei ............ Leatherleaf Mahonia
M. compacts. ............ - ---——
M. dictyota ............ Netvein Mahonia
M. fortunei . ........... Chinese Mahonia
M. lomarifog ...... . .... — —---—
M. nervosa ............. Cascades Mahonia .
M. pinnata ............. Cluster Mahonia
M. repens ............. Creeping Mahonia
Under provisions of Federal Quarantine Number 37 certain limita- A
tions are placed under the importation of plants and seeds from foreign
countries. Anyone wishing to import nursery stock, plants or seeds must
first obtain a permit from the Plant Quarantine Branch, U. S.D.A. ,
209 River St1·eet, Hoboken, New jersey. In applying for a permit to
import plant material the following Lmformation is required: ga) The

 Inspection of Nursery Stock, 1955-56 15
name and location of the producer from whom the plants or seeds are
to be secured; (b) the name and address of the person or firm to which
the seeds or plants are to be shipped; (c) the number and genus of the
plants or seeds for which the permit is desired.
All restricted plants imported under the conditions listed above are
limited in size and age to the youngest and smallest which can be` suc-
cessfully freed from soil about their roots, transported to the United
States, and established in this country with a reasonable degree of suc-
cess. Certain classes of plants permitted entry under quarantine 37 are
required to be grown by the importer under post entry inspection regu-
lations. Such plants are not released to the trade until such time as
their freedom from plant diseases and insect pests has been established.
The plants are therefore grown for one or more years in a place where
the state inspector may have access to them for inspection purposes,
for such time as appears necessary. When their freedom from pests
and diseases has been established, the plants under quarantine are re-
A leased. .
A comparatively new disease, oak wilt (Endoconldiophora fagace-
N arum) is threatening all oaks in the midwest. The disease is caused by
a fungus organism that can be identified by plant pathologists in one-
to-two—year old vascular tissue from infected trees.
Varieties of the red and black groups seem to become infected
with oak wilt more readily than white and burr oaks, although all
species and varieties of oaks are susceptible to the disease.
The first symptoms in the red and black oaks are shown by the ap-
pearance of leaves on the upper branches. They show dull light green
color and curl upward. Later the leaves may turn yellow or reddish
brown before falling. All leaves may fall within a month after first
symptoms occur. In white and burr oaks the disease develops more V
slowly, with one or more branches near the top showing disease symp-
toms first.
_ Spread of the disease from diseased to healthy trees within native
stands of oaks can occur through natural root grafts or unions. During
recent years it has been proven that certain insects are capable of
carrying the disease from tree to tree and that even squirrels might
possibly spread the disease.

 16 seguiamy suiieun 130
As the oak wilt fungus develops under the bark of infected trees,
fungus cushions or mats are formed. These mats enlarge and thicken,
thereby creating sufficient pressure to crack the bark and separate it .
from the wood. As soon as the cracks are formed they are invaded by
several species of sap beetles known as Nitidulids. These beetles, as
well as the common fruit flies, are attracted by the characteristic odor
of the fimgus. After crawling over the fungus mats and becoming con-
taminated with spores of the fungus, the insects move on to other trees
and wherever there is a wound in the tree the contaminated insect is
capable of bringing the spores of oak wilt into contact with the sap wood
of infected oaks, thereby starting new infections.
There seems to be some association between the long distance
spread of oak wilt and the activities and travel of man since so many ‘
of the new disease finds have been along highways and others heavily
traveled lanes.
Oak wilt is known to occur in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,
Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, Nebras-
ka, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West
Virginia and Wisconsin. Nurserymen, foresters, and all others inter-
ested in preventing the loss of oaks should be on the alert for this trou-
ble. Samples of twigs from oaks showing symptoms of the disease
should be sent to the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Federal
Building, Ashville, North Carolina.
Six twigs or branches about 6 to 8 inches long and 1/2 to 1 inch
in diameter are best for laboratory examination. The twigs should be
alive or just recently dead but not completely dry. Do not send leaves,
dead branches or decayed wood. The twigs should be tied in a bundle,
wrapped in paper so as to prevent excessive drying but should not be
wrapped in wet moss or cotton. Labels should be attached in such a
manner as to couple the laboratory report with the tree from which the
twigs were taken. I
Kentucky is fortunate in having a well organized Department of For- _
estry under the capable supervision of experienced men. Mr. H. B. New-
land, State Forester, and Mr. Harry Nadler, in charge of Forestry Manage-
ment, are well aware of the potential dangers of oak wilt disease and have
set up a well coordinated program of survey and control. They do not con-
sider oak wilt a disaster problem but one which is potentially serious and
will require long range planning.
The first oak-wilt-infected tree in Kentucky was found in 1950

 Inspection of Nursery Stock, 1955-56 17
when one tree in Greenup County was found to be diseased. In the
period of 1951 through 1955, 101 infected trees were found in eastern
Kentucky, mostly in Breathitt and Perry counties. One infected tree
was found in Todd County in western Kentucky. During 1956 the dis-
ease was found in the following additional counties: Floyd, Harlan,
Hart, Knott, Knox, Leslie, Letcher, Meade, Magoffin, Owsley, War-
ren and Wolfe.
Elm phloem necrosis and Dutch elm disease have been found to oc-
cur in the state of Kentucky. Elm phloem necrosis has been by far the
most destructive disease of elms yet known to Kentucky forests and
landscape plantings. Dutch elm disease has been found in only a small
number of elms in northern Kentucky near Cincinnati, Ohio. Although
no cure is known for these maladies, measures can be taken to protect
healthy trees from infection.
Dutch elm disease or phloem necrosis should be suspected when-
ever elm foliage suddenly wilts and the dry, dead leaves adhere to the
branches; or when the leaves of an entire branch, or the top, turn yel-
low and fall prematurely. To further identify the diseases, cut through
the bark at ground level, or below, and pry the bark from the wood so
I the inner bark will show. If the inner bark surface is yellow or like but-
` terscotch in color, phloem necrosis is indicated. If a portion of the ln-
ner bark is confined in a bottle or the closed hands for a few minutes a
faint odor of wintergreen can be detected from phloem-necrosis—diseased
To test for Dutch elm disease remove several small branches having
wilted, yellow, or dying leaves. If the cross sections where cuts are
made show several brown spots or discolorations in one or more annual
rings of wood, the trouble is probably Dutch elm disease.