xt7hhm52g76n https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7hhm52g76n/data/mets.xml Crandall, A. R. (Albert Rogers), 1840-1926. 1877  books b96-12-34887731 English Stereotyped for the Survey by Major, Johnston & Barrett, Yeoman Press, : [Frankfort, Ky. : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Geology Kentucky. Coal Kentucky. Report on the geology of Greenup, Carter, and Boyd counties, and a part of Lawrence  / by A.R. Crandall. text Report on the geology of Greenup, Carter, and Boyd counties, and a part of Lawrence  / by A.R. Crandall. 1877 2002 true xt7hhm52g76n section xt7hhm52g76n 

  Charts, Maps and Plates for Kentucky Geological Survey Reports of
                Progress, Series II (New Series), Volume 2

Crandall, Albert Rogers. Report on the Geology of Greenup, Carter, and Boyd
      Counties, and a Part of Lawrence.
      31 plates to be filmed as placed following p. [781.
      "Profile Section No. I to Accompany the Report of A.R. Crandall on the Geology
      of Greenup, Carter and Boyd Counties" to be filmed as placed following p. [781.
      "Profile Section No. 2 to Accompany the Report of A.R. Crandall on the Geology
      of Greenup, Carter and Boyd Counties" to be filmed as placed following p. [781.

Moore, Philip North. Report on the Geology of the Noaln River District, Embracing
      Portions of Grayson, Edmonson, Hart, and Butler Counties.
      "Cross Section No. I from Leitchfield to Green River, at Mammoth Cave" to be
      filmed as placed following p. 134.
      'Cross Section No. 2 from Grayson Springs Station to Green River" to be filmed
      as placed following p. 134.
      "Cross Sections to Accompany the Report of P.N. Moore on the Edmonson Coal
      and Iron District" to be filmed as placed following p. 134.
      "Sections of Subcarboniferous Rocks in Grayson & Edmonson Counties" to be
      filmed as placed following p. 134.
      "Map of the Nolin River District" to be filmed as placed following p. 134.

Page, William Byrd. Topographical Report of the Nolin River District
      Refer to "Map of the Nolin River District" included with Report on the Geology
      of the Nolin River District, Embracing Portions of Grayson. Edmonson. Hart. and
      Butler Counties by P.N. Moore and filmed following page 134 of this volume.
      Adelaide Hasse in Index of Economic Material in Documents of the States of the
      United States. Kentucky 1792-1904 (Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1910)
      concurs with the placement of this map with Moore's publication.

Norwood, Charles Joseph. Report of a Reconnoissance on the Proposed Line oj
      Railway from Livingston Station to Cumberland Gap.
      "Preliminary Section from Yellow Creek Valley to Livingston Station" to be
      filmed as placed following p. 244.

Norwood, Charles Joseph. A Reconnoissance Report on the Lead Region of Henry
      County: With Some Notes on Owen and Franklin Counties.
      "Sections to Accompany the Report of Mr. C. J. Norwood on the Henry County
      Lead District, Plate I" to be filmed as placed following p. 276.
      "Sections to Accompany the Report of Mr. C. J. Norwood on the Henry County
      Lead District, Plate 11" to be filmed as placed following p. 276.
      "Sections to Accompany the Report of Mr. C. J. Norwood on the Henry County
      Lead District, Plate III" to be filmed as placed following p. 276.


Crandall, Albert R. Report on the Geology of the Proposed Line of the Elizabethtown,
      Lexington and Big Sandy Railroad:from Mt Sterling to the Big Sandy River.
      "Geological Section from Mt. Sterling to the Chattarawa or Big Sandy River on
      the Proposed Line of the Elisabethtown, Lexington and Big Sandy Railroad" to be
      filmed as placed following p. 360.
      "Geological Section from Mt. Sterling to the Chattarawa or Big Sandy River on
      the Proposed Line of the Elisabethtown, Lexington and Big Sandy Railroad" to be
      filmed as placed following p. 360.
      "Profile Section Along the Route of the Lexington & Big Sandy R.R. from
      Licking River to Mouth of Soldiers Fork of Tygerts Creek" to be filmed as placed
      following p. 360.

[Shaler, Nathaniel S.] A General Account oftthe Commonwealth f KentucAy.
      "Map of the Southern Part of North America Designed to Show the Position of
      the Commonwealth of Kentucky" to be filmed as placed following p. 468
      "Kentucky Geological Survey 1875. Preliminary Map Compiled from Various
      Surveys" to be filmed as placed following p.468.



To His Excellency, JAMES B. MCCREARY,
                                 Governor of Kentucky:
  SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the Reports
forming the second volume (new series) of the Reports of
the Geological and other Surveys of the Commonwealth. All
necessary explanations concerning the same will be found in
the introduction preceding the Reports.
            Very respectfully,
                      Your obedient servant,
                                 N. S. SHALER,
                                 Director of the Surveys.
  FEBRUARY 10, 877.
                                                   111 M lY

 This page in the original text is blank.



  The order of succession and the character of the reports ol
this volume require some discussion. The reader is respect-
fully requested to bear in mind the following conditions, which
have determined the character of the work of this Survey:
First, that, though in name a geological survey, it is practi-
cally, by the wording of the several enactments providing for
its institution and continuance, charged with the study of a
wider range of subjects than is commonly included within that
science. Topography, zoology, botany, archeology, detailed
studies of the forests, and streams as well, are all required
from this Survey. It is, moreover, limited in its action by the
obligation laid upon it of continuing the work of the first Sur-
vey of the State, the progress of which was arrested by the
death of its able Director, Dr. David Dale Owen, and the
outbreak of the civil war. Furthermore, as the Survey was
instituted with an especial view to the economic development
of the Commonwealth, it has been deemed best to hasten the
publication of reports of progress with the greatest rapidity
consistent with accuracy, leaving the matter of the natural
sequence of subjects quite out of the question.
  It has been deemed best to divide the publications of the
Survey in such fashion that the economic results should be
grouped in one set of volumes termed Reports, and the purely
scientific matter, that having no immediate relation to the
development of industries, should be placed in another series
of publications termed Memoirs. Of these series, the first
volume of reports was published in 1876, the volume to which
this is the introduction forming the second of the series. The
third, containing principally the general annual reports of the
Director of the Survey for the years i873-'4-'5, and '6, to-
gether with the preliminary geological map, is expected to be



through the press in April of this year. Parts of the fourth,
fifth, and sixth volumes of reports will also be ready for deliv-
ery during the present year. The first volume of memoirs, or
the series of purely scientific publications of the Survey, is
already stereotyped, and a limited edition, designed especially
for use at the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, has been
printed. The plates of the second volume are in preparation.
Those memoirs and reports, &c., already printed, or prepared
for printing, will be furnished separately to those entitled by
law to receive them, and will be sold at the cost of press-work,
paper, and carriage to others, who may apply to the State
Cabinet, at Frankfort. A list of these publications of the Sur-
vey will be found at the close of this introduction.
  The several reports and memoirs contained in these and
subsequent volumes will, in time, furnish the data for the
making of a final report on the physical and vital history of
the Commonwealth. They should all be considered as essen-
tially preliminary statements, and not as the final work of the
  In accordance with design to give, in the introduction of
each volume, a brief system of cross-references to the work
contained in the other publications of the Survey, I shall now
point out some special features in the several treatises con-
tained in this second volume of reports, with a view to aiding
the reader in connecting the information which is scattered
through these several volumes.
  The first of these reports, that by Assistant A. R. Crandall,
"On the Geology of Greenup, Carter, and Boyd Counties,
and a part of Lawrence County," was the first work under-
taken by the present Survey. A beginning in the study of
this very important district had been made during the Survey
of Dr. Owen. Very great changes had taken place in the
economic conditions of these counties since the discontinuance
of his work in i86o, so that it was necessary to go over every
stage of the work from the very beginning. The reader, who
is desirous of extending the study of this field beyond the
limits of this report, should consult the " Report on the Iron




Ores of Greenup, Boyd, and Carter Counties, the Kentucky
Division of the Hanging Rock Iron District," by Assistant
1'. N. Moore; the ', Report on the Geology of the Counties of
Bath, Menifee, Powell, and Lee," by Assistant A. R. Crandall;f
the " Preliminary Report on the Geology of Martin County,"
by Assistant A. R. Crandall. The timber resources of this
field are treated in the " Report on the Timber Growth of
Greenup, Carter, Boyd, and Lawrence Counties," by N. S.
Shaler and Assistant A. R. Crandall.Q The reader will also
get much information from the four volumes of reports of the
Survey made by Dr. David Dale Owen in the years 1854 to
i86o, inclusive. Owing to the discursive nature of these re-
ports, the matter can only be found by reference to the indexes
of the several volumes, under the head of the names of the
several counties.
  The second report, "s On the Geology of the Edmonson Coal
and Iron District," in this volume, is intended as the first of a
series designed to set forth the geology of the most difficult
district of the Commonweath-the western coal field, or that
part of its area which is covered by the southern end of the
Illinois coal field. The studies for this series of reports were
begun in the Edmonson county district, for the reason that
this district presents us with very good sections along its
deep-bedded streams, thus showing the relations between the
several members of the lower carboniferous and the coal meas-
tires. The present work of the Survey is extending the ob-
servations thus begun to the district lying to the north of the
Louisville, Paducah and Southwestern Railroad, and between
that line and the Ohio river. The results of these explora-
tions will be contained in the fifth volume of this series of re-
ports. This work of investigating the structure of the coal
field will be continued, on the western part of the field, by
special geological and topographical reports, which will, if the
Volune 1, Reports Kentucky Geological Survey, new series, part III.
tVo.lume IV, new series.
  Volume IV, new series.
  Reports of the Kentucky Geological Survey, new series, vlorine I, part L.




Survey is continued for a sufficient length of time, come to
include the whole of the outline of the field. The interior
of the basin is also undergoing investigation at the hands of
Mr. C. J. Norwood, who has already prepared an extensive
report on the geology of the country adjacent to the line of
the Louisville, Paducah and Southwestern Railroad. A set
f reports on the geology of the districts adjacent to the north
and south-running railways of Western Kentucky has also
been prepared by Mr. Norwood, and will be published in the
fourth volume. The reader is also referred to the several
parts, in the four volumes of reports published under the direc-
tion of Dr. Owen, for various reports concerning the geology
of this district. Although these reports are discursive in their
nature, and are so scattered through the several volumes as to
make reference to them, except through the names of the sev-
eral counties, not very easy, yet they contain the results of a
careful preliminary reconnaissance of this district, which is
singularly accurate in its results, considering the limited op-
portunities for observation enjoyed by this explorer.
  The third report of this volume, that - On the Chemistry
of the Hemp Plant," by Dr. Robert Peter, is one of a series
of important contributions to the chemical history of the most
important of our Kentucky agricultural products. These sep-
arate monographs will, it is planned, in time be collected into
a special report on the agricultural chemistry and geology of
the Commonwealth. Reports from the same source, having a
more or less direct bearing on the questions raised in this
report, on the chemistry of the hemp plant, will be found in
each of the annual reports of the Survey made by Dr. Owen,
and in the first volume of the new series. Other similar re-
ports will be found in the four volumes of reports published
Luring the Survey directed by Dr. Owen, which has already
been referred to.
  The fourth report in this volume, that by Mr. P. N. Moore,
Assistant, is not closely connected with the other work of the
Survey.  It was designed to meet an especial need arising

 See volume I, part VII, new seies.



from the apparent failure of the working of the great furnace
described in this report. This case shows the criminal nature
of human blunders. A man of vast fortune was seized with
the notion of making an experiment in the manufacture of
iron. Knowing nothing about it himself, he put the matter in
the hands of men to whom the region where he designed
operating is quite unknown.  Lavish expenditure prepared
the ground for a great industry in an efficient manner; but a
little friction in the starting disgusted the owner with the
business. So, without having tried his works, he left them to
be a scarecrow to frighten capital from this field. I have long
believed that the Green River possesses advantages for the
manufacture and shipment of high-grade iron at lower rates
than in any other part of this country. Cheap ores, good
coking coals, or abundant charcoal timber, and permanent
water navigation to great markets, all combine to make con-
litions so advantageous that they could not have been left
unused had it not been for this great monument of seeming
failure, the Airdrie Furnace. I sincerely hope that the study
Mr. Moore has given to the matter, the results of which I
have corroborated by personal inspection of the furnace and
its surroundings, will serve to remove this unfortunate obstacle
to the industry of a very important iron district.
  The topographical report of W. B. Page, which is the fifth
of this volume, is designed to furnish the data for an under-
standing of the conditions of surface in this district, and inici-
(lentally to give some account of a matter closely connected
with the topography of the region, viz: its water-powers. In
the fourth volume of these reports, and also in the fifth, re-
ports containing the studies on the surface-conditions of this
part of the Commonwealth may be sought for.
  The next report, that " On the Geology of a Proposed Line
of Railway from Livingston Station to Cumberland Gap.' is
(lesigned to give the results of a detailed reconnaissance along
this very important line of communication between the south-
vest and southeast parts of our country. For the first half
century of our history this was one of the most important




routes of trade between the Ohio Valley and the sea-board
States south of the Potomac. The exigencies of the present
time demand that this should be made again a line of travel.
It will be seen from this report that there is a certainty of se-
curing access to a very important coal and iron district through
this way. The reader is also referred to the general report
on the conduct of the Surveyo and also to the report on the
lines of communication necessary to the development of the
mineral interests of the State, in the same volume.
  The report " On the Geology of the Henry County Lead
District" is a part of the same matter as that which is discussed
in the previous report. The known exposures of lead-bearing
rocks in this district are given in detail. It will be seen that
these deposits have a very interesting character. The origin
of the crevices in which the deposits occur, as well as the
nature of the processes by which the metals have been intro-
duced into them, deserve especial study. The Survey is gath-
ering facts bearing on these questions, which will be elaborated
in subsequent reports.
  The second report, on the conditions of occurrence of the
galena deposits in the State of Kentucky, is especially designed
to set forth the essential character of our mineral deposits of
this character. There has always been a natural desire to prove
the existence of silver ores within the Commonwealth of Ken-
tucky, which has led to the building of a great many castles in
the air, which have, sooner or later, met the fate which over-
takes all such structures. A great deal of capital and labor
have been wasted in this search for precious metals within our
borders.  If there is anything in geological conditions, we
may accept it as certain that this search is entirely hopeless.
While hundreds of thousands of dollars have been expended
therein, not one dollar's worth of silver, gold, or copper has
ever been secured.
  There is good reason to hope that in time the lead ores of
both the Kentucky river and the lower Ohio lead districts
may become of sufficient value to make them sources of profit
ISee Biennial Report of N. S. Shaler, volume 111, new series.




to the State; but at present, so great is the product of lead
taken from the mines of precious metals in the far West, that
the cost of production in Kentucky much exceeds the value of
the product.
  Especial attention is called to the extended extracts from
the works of Professors Whitney and Pumpelly and Dr. T.
Sterry Hunt, printed as appendices to these reports.  The
matter taken from the works of Dr. Hunt and Professor Whit-
ney is of difficult access to any one not near great libraries;
and the lecture of Professor Pumpelly is hitherto unpublished.
By bringing these important contributions together in this vol-
utme, the reader is put in possession of the latest views of the
great masters of this branch of geology. I can confidently
assert, that nowhere else will be found the question of the
origin of metalliferous deposits more completely presented
than in these appendices. The Geological Survey owes its
especial thanks to the above named gentlemen for the permis-
sion to publish these important extracts from their works.
  As these reports must, in many cases, serve as the only
means whereby their readers will come in contact with the
literature of certain subjects, it will frequently be found desir-
able to make similar appendices to the reports of the Survey,
embodying the results of the studies of leading authorities on
the most important economic questions that concern the Com-
monwealth. I deem this method of printing such matter pref-
erable to paraphrasing the writings which it is necessary to
present to the reader.
  The next report in this volume, that "IOn the Timbers of
Grayson, Breckinridge, and Hancock Counties," by Assistant
L. H. DeFriese, is the third of the series of reports on this
class of subjects already printed in the reports of the Survey.
I attach a high value to these examinations of our woods. It
will be observed that the statistical method is used in this as
in the other reports on the same subject. So far as is known
to me, these reports are the first made in this country that
give the conditions of our forests in great detail. I know of
no other in this or any other country where the statistical




method has been applied to their study. The frequency of
replacement of our white oaks by the inferior species of tLack
oak, pin oak, and Spanish oak, is a matter that demands atten-
tive consideration, both on account of its scientific and its
economic aspects.
  The - Report on the Geology and Resources of the District
Adjacent to the proposed Line of the Lexington and Big Sandy
Railway," which comes next in the series, is intended to fur-
nish an outline of the geological and other economic condi-
tions of the country which will be immediately tributary to this
important road. I have elsewhere in these reports frequently
called attention to the great importance of this line to the
development of our industries. I know of no line of equal
length which will provide access to so much mineral wealth,
and at the same time do so much to open new markets to our
present productions.
  The last report of this volume is entitled " A General Ac-
count of the Commonwealth of Kentucky." This was pre-
pared for the Centennial Exhibition, but it has been thought
desirable to give it a more permanent shape in the publica-
tions of the Survey, as it serves to assemble the general facts
concerning the Commonwealth that have as yet been ascer-
  The third volume of the reports of this Survey is now nearly
ready for the press, and can be issued within two months of
the appearance of the present volume. It will contain vari-
ous special reports of the Director, and his general reports on
the conduct of the Survey for the years 1873-'4-'5, and '6,
together with the general preliminary geological map of the
  Separate parts of the fourth, fifth, and sixth volumes will be
ready for issue during the year.
                                        N. S. SHALER.




        NATHANIEL SOUTHGATE SHALER, Diatr.- .ad wdpa! GeoLgis.
        ROBERT PETER, Prin-ipal Chernist.
        ALBERT ROGERS CRANDALL, irst .istnin Gc;agy.
        PHILIP NORTH MOORE, Assistant in GeaAy.
        CHARLEzS SCHENK, Assistant in Ttarphy.
        CHARLES JOSEPH NORWOOD, Assistant in Gecbgy,.
        WILLIAM BYRD PAGE, Assistast in 7bpsgraphy.
        LUCIA N CARR, .4ssistl-t in Ethni,4,gy.
        JOHN 11OI.LLDAY TALBUTT, Asistal- in, Ctemistry.
        JOHN ROBERT PROCTER, Assista-t in, Geliqoy.
        HERMANN HERZER, Assistnt in Geal,;y.
        CHARLES WICKLIFFE BECKHAM, Assi4tat1-i, fpoe-rntpy.
        EUGENE UNDERWOOD, JR., A.isstat i.n Thp,np)9y
        LEOPOLD TROUVELOT, Artis nf th, Sarssy.


               TABLE OF CONTENTS.

                   (The r.et      to th e tab     in  . to . Table)

                                    PART L.
Thickness of the coal-measure rocks in Eastern Kentucky, and description of the under-
    lying formations, p. 3 to S. Height of top of Waverly sandstone above tide water,
    p. 7. Lithographic stone, p. 7. The coal measures, p. 8. The lower limestone iron
    ore, p. 8. General formation of the coal measures, p. 9. Block ore, limestone, kid-
    ney, and bastard limestone ores, p. 9. Coals, ores, and fire-clays, p. io. Analysis
    of Boone Furnace fire-clay, p. 10. Coal No. 1, p. It to 15. Analyses of Coal No. z,
    pp. 14, 15. Coal No. 2, pp. 15, x6. Analysis of Coal No. 2, p. 16. Coal No. 3, pp.
    x6, 17, 18, 45, 68. Analyses of Coal No. 3, pp. 18, 40. Coal No. 4, pp. 18, 19, 57.
    Coal No. 5, pp. 19, 20, 67. Analyses of Coal No. 5, p. 20. Coal No. 6, pp. 20, 21,
    59. Analyses of Coal No. 6, p. 21. Coal No. 7, pp. 22, 24, 58, 59, 6i, 64, 65. Red
    kidney ore, p. 24. Coal No. 8, pp. 24, 59, 62, 68. Coals Nos 9, 10, ii, and prob-
    able occurrence of coal, &c., p. 25 to 27. Special geological features in relation to
    coals, &c., p. 27 to 72. Section at Shultz Creek, p. 29. Section at Plum Fork, p.
    30. Coal No. 1, pp. 30, 31, 36, 49. Section at mouth of Brushy Creek, p. 31. Sec-
    tion at Thompson's bank, p. 32. Section on Grassy Creek, pp. 32, 33. Coal replaced
    by sandstone, p. 33. Section on Smith's Branch of Buffalo Creek, p. 34. Section on
    road between Trough and Smoky creeks, and at Olive Hills, p. 35. Section at Potato
    Hill, p. 36. Section at Smith's Hill and Tygert's Creek, p. 37. Section at different
    points, p. 4.0 The Grey ore, p. 40. General section for the region, p. 41. Section
    at -alley of Old Town Creek, fire-clay, &c., p. 41. Stewart section, p. 43. Section
    at head of Dry Branch of Little Sinking Creek, p. 47. Cannel coal, p. 48. Sections
    on Deer Creek and Wolf Creek, p. 49. Depression of coal measures eastward from
    Graham's Hill, p. 50. Section at the head of Dry Fork, p. 51. Section near Mt.
    Savage cribs, and on Star Furnace road, p. 53. Slate ore, pp. 55, 56. Hunnewell
    cannel coal, p. 56. Building stone, p. 56. Kidney and main block ores, pp. 57, 58,
    59, 69, 70. Section at Buena Vista Furnace, p. 6j. Limestone ore, Honey Comb
    ore, pp. 63, 67, 68. Geology of Lawrence county, p. 65. Coal of Lawrence county,
    p. 66. Section on Muddy Branch, p. 68. Section on Blaine, below the mouth of
    Daniel's Creek, p. 69. Section on road to Haw's Mill, p. 69. Analyses of limestone
    ore, p. 71. General remarks, p. 72. Thickness of workable coals, p. 73. Tabular
    view of coals, &c., p. 74. Soils, p. 74. Analyses of soils of Eastern Kentucky, p.




                                    PART II.
Introductory letter, p. 8X. Area and surface features, p. 82 to 86. Geology, p. 86. St.
    Louis limestone, p. 86. Chester Group, p. 87. Record of boring on branch of Dis-
    mal Creek, p. 89. Record of boring by Kentucky Oil Company on Nolin Furnace
    tract, p. go. Thickness of Chester and St. Louis rocks, p. g1. Grayson Springs, p.
    92. Dip of the Chester rocks, p. 93. Marly shales, p. 94. The Chester coal, p. 95.
    Section at Mr. Wise's, near Brownsville, p. 95. The coal measures, p. 96. The Bee
    Spring Sandstone, pp. 99, io5. The conglomerate, p. 99. Section near mouth of
    Dismal Creek, p. zoo. Section of Dismal Rock, p. tot. General section, pp. xo6,
    107. Section at Stevens' coal bank, p. to8. Changes in the rocks of the region, p.
    109. Section near Miller's Fork of Bear Creek, p. iog. Main Nolin coal, normal
    height above the Chester limestone, p. uo. Section on Long Branch of Bear Creek,
    p. III. Iron ore, ibd. Coal in various localities, p. ito to ti6. Quality of coals,
    analyses, &c., pp. 116, 117. Tar Springs, 117. Iron ores and analyses, p. XiS to 133.
    Nolin Furnace, p. 133. Analysis of the iron, p. 133.

                                   PART III.
PETER, M. D., ETC., CHEMIST OF THE SURVEY. Page 135 to ,60.
The hemp crop in Kentucky, p. 137. The common method of its culture, &c., pp. 138,
    139, 145, 147, 152. Humus, utility of, pp. 138, 153. Dew-rotting and water-rotting,
    relative influence on the soil, p. 139. Description of samples submitted to analysis,
    p. 140 to i42. Table of the chemical composition of the ash of the entire hem1,
    plant, p. x4z. Influence of moist or dry season, of age of plant, plaster of Paris,
    soil, &c., on the ash composition, p. 142 to 146. Table of the ash constituents of the
    hemp plants, carbonic acid excluded, p. 143. Exclusion of the silicious dust, p. 143.
    External incrustation of plants resulting from evaporation, pp. 144, 146. Influence
    of dry seasons on soil fertility, p. 145. Relative proportion of silica in the leaves, p
    146. The leaves, stems, and roots separately analyzed, p. 145. Table of the relativ,.
    ash ingredients of leaves, roots, and stems of the hemp, carbonic acid excluded, p.
    146. Remarks on same, pp. 146, 147. The changes which occur in dew-rotting, p.
    147. Table of the ash analyses of dew-rotted hemp plants, carbonic acid excluded,
    and remarks, p. 148. Table, comparative, of the ash of unrotted and dew-rotted
    hemp plants, carbonic acid excluded, and remarks; why dew-rotting exhausts soil less
    than water-rotting, p. 149. Table, comparative, of ash ingredients of dew-rotted hemp
    fibre and hemp-herds, carbonic acid excluded, and remarks, p. 150. Quantity of ash
    ingredients removed from the soil in a hemp crop, as compared with wheat, corn, and
    tobacco, with table, pp. t5o, 155. Burning the hemp-herds, effects of, p. 152. Causes
    of the exhaustion of soil in hemp culture, p. 152. The remedy, use of rye, P1'- 155,
    156. How can we improve old fields for hemp culture: use of clover, pp. x56, 157.
    Table of ash constituents of clover and hemp plants, p. 157. Use of the buckwheat
    plant as a fertilizer, and table of composition of its ash, pp. i58, 159.

                                   PART IV.
                     TUCKY. BY P. N. MOORE. Page .6. to .18.
Introductory letter, p. 163. Situation; the furnace, p. i64. The property, p. 165. Th,
   coals-Coals Noa II and i2, pp. i66, 168, 169. Coals Nos. 5 and 9, and quality



   of coals, p. i67. Analyses of the coals, pp. i6, 169. Coke of Coal No. 12 and
   analysis, pp. i69, 170. The iron ore and analyses, pp. 170, 71. The carbonate ores
   and analyses, p. 172. Remarks on coals and ores, pp. 172, 173. Attainable Ores from
   other regions, p. 173 to 8ii. Buckner Furnace property, pp. t66, 174 Black-band
   ore and analysis, and Edmonson county oblitic ore, p. 174. Beaver Dam Bran.h and
   Little Reedy Creek ores and analyses, p. 175. Muhlenburg coun ty ores and analyse,,
   p. 176 to 178. Cumbertand river ores and analyses, p. 178 to x8o. Missouri specular
   ores, pp. x80, 18i. Average cost per ton of iron, p. i81. Limestone, for fi.a, and
   analysis, pp. x8S, 182. Mud river coal and analysis, pp. 182, 183. Use of charcoal,
   p. 183. Why this furnac has not been successful, p. '84 to i86. Quality of the
   iron produced and analyses, pp. 186, 187. Cost of needed changes and repairs, p.
   187. Cost of fuel, &c., cost of iron, per ton, &c., p. i88.

                                    PART V.
                                  Page .a9  w A.
Introductory letter, p. 191. Method of the Survey; drainage, p. 192. Heights of table
    land, &c., &c., p. 193 to 197. Lines of access, p. 196. Rivers, p. 196. Slack-water,
    p. 197. Volume of springs, p. i97. Water-power and springs, pp. i9, 198. Vol.-
    ume of Nolin and Green rivers, p. i98. Roads, p. i98. Establishment of a test-
    meridian at Brownsville, p. 19.

                                   PART VI.
Preliminary note, by N. S. Shaler, p. 2o3. Introductory letter, p. 2ao. Distance and
    routes traversed, and time occupied, pp. 2o6, 207. General structure of the country,
    p. 207 to 2o9. The region divided into three areas, p. 20g. Order of the rocks on
    descending to Powell'