xt7hx34mm34z https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7hx34mm34z/data/mets.xml Alden, George Henry, 1866- 1897  books b92h31w6v2no12009 English University of Wisconsin : Madison, Wis. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. United States --Politics and government --To 1775. West (U.S.) --History --To 1848. New governments west of the Alleghenies before 1780 : (introductory to a study of the organization and admission of new states) / by George Henry Alden ; a thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of History ; published by authority of law and with the approval of the regents of the University. text New governments west of the Alleghenies before 1780 : (introductory to a study of the organization and admission of new states) / by George Henry Alden ; a thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of History ; published by authority of law and with the approval of the regents of the University. 1897 2009 true xt7hx34mm34z section xt7hx34mm34z 


Historical Series, Vol. 2, No. I, Pp. 1-74.


roductory to a study of the organization and admission of new states.)


george henry alden. Acting Assistant Professor of History, University of Illinois.

A Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of History.

published by authority of law and with the approval of the regents of the university




Historical Series, Vol. 2, No. 1, Pp. 1-74.


(introductory to a study of the organization and admission of new states.)



Acting Assistant Pro/esso]***J'JiistoTii, f?nit>ergity of Illinois.

A Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of History.

published by authority of law and with the approval of the regents of the university




When this study was begun in the Seminary of American History and Institutions at Harvard University it was my intention to cover the ground occupied by this monograph in a very few pages, but as the work advanced it became apparent that so short a treatment of the early period would be quite inadequate. Gradually my introduction to the larger study on the establishment and admission of new states assumed this present form.

In the following pages I have aimed to give a fair account of the early attempts to make new governmental establishments in the West, and to show the attitude of the British government toward such establishments. The available data in regard to British policy are not as full as could be desired, but I have tried to judge them fairly and they seem to me sufficient to warrant the conclusions drawn. That there were movements which led the way to the subsequent cutting up of the West into new states, has I think, been made clear.

' The materials upon which this paper is based were collected in the Harvard University library and in the library of the Wisconsin State Historical Society. In the latter I found especially valuable the Draper Collection of MSS., to which, by the courtesy of Secretary Reuben G. Thwaites, I had free access.

I desire to express obligations to Professor Albert Bushnell Hart, of Harvard University, by whose sugges- 


tion and inspiration I began this study. Professor Victor Coffin, of the University of Wisconsin, and Professor Evarts B. Greene, of the University of Illinois, have given me helpful suggestions. But more than to all others are my thanks due to Professor Frederick J. Turner, the editor of this series, who, by his kindly criticism, helped me to bring this paper to its present form.

George H. Alden. 


   Chapter I.    Schemes for New Colonies Prior to 1766........ 1

1. Land Companies (Introductory)................ 2

2. The Albany Plan............................. 3

3. Franklin's Proposition........................ 3

4. Pownall's Proposition......................... 5

5. Hazard's Scheme............................. 7

6. Pittsylvania.................................. 12

7. Charlotiana.................................. 12

8. Charles Lee's Proposition..................... 14

Chapter II.    The Illinois and Vandalia Projects.

1. Scheme for colonies at Detroit and on the Illi-

nois and Ohio.............................. 16

2. Vandalia..................................... 19

a. Petition for Land Grant................. 20

b. A Government Suggested............... 21

c. Correspondence with Virginian Authorities.................................. 22

d. Hillsborough's Report and Franklin's Reply.................................. 23

e. Report of Council Committee, July 1,1772. 26

f. The King's Approval and Orders to Board of Trade, Aug. 14, 1772............... 27

g. Lord Dartmouth's Report, May 6, 1773.. 28

(a.)  Form of Government............. 29

(b.) Boundaries .......... ............ 31

h. The Papers Prepared................... 34

i. The Final Failure...................... 35 


Chapter III.    Conclusions From the Foregoing Chapters.

1. Most Schemes to Locate on the Ohio.......... 36

2. People Interested are Mostly from Pennsylvania

and New Jersey............................ 36

3. King's Right to cut off Old Colonies Conceded. 37

4. Attitude of the British Government........... 38

a. Administration of Colonial Affairs....... 38

b. Personal Influence of Hillsborough...... 39

c. Settlement Encouraged in 1748.......... 41

d. Proclamation of 1763.................... 42

e. Illinois Scheme in Favor till 1768........ 45

f. Defeat of Illinois Scheme................ 45

g. Purchase from the Six Nations.......... 45

h. Vandalia................................ 46

i. Policy not to be Expected Consistent---- 46

j.   But on the Whole not Unfavorable to

Western Colonies..................... 47

k.   The West in a Fair Way to Being Cut

into New Colonies.................... 48

Chapter IV.    Transylvania.

1. Probable Intention to get a Crown Grant...... 49

2. Membership of the Company.................. 50

3. Boundaries................................... 51

4. Dunmore's Opposition........................ 54

5. The "Plan" of Government.................. 55

6. Session of the " Convention ".................. 56

7. Delegate and Memorial to Congress............ 57

8. Attitude of Members of Congress.............. 57

9. Settlers'Petition to Virginia................... 58

10. New " Convention " postponed................ 59

11; Clark's Plan.................................. 60

12. Delegates Elected to Virginia Assembly........ 60

13. Clark's Threat................................ 61

14. Kentucky County Erected.................... 61

15. Probable Results had Kentucky Remained In-

dependent.................................. 62 








42 45 45





Chapter V.    New State Schemes Prior to 1780.

1. Westsylvania.....................

a. First movement, June, 1776.

b. Petition to Congress........

2. Silas Deane's Suggestion..........

3. General Conclusion...............



Hazard's Scheme............................


















61 61


BEFORE 1780.


schemes for new colonies prior to 1766.

The English colonies in America remained for a century-after their establishment in practical ignorance of the land beyond the Alleghany mountains,., TJiere.was land enough nearer the coast anil'-'.^hy sh>u:d' t'tt& settler advance be yond that forbidding line" which, jseparated .civilization from the unknowi'.ukd d^goIal-e/wiLdEitEress?-. In 1716, however, Governor Spotswpod jnad.e his Jiamo-us ride over the Blue Ridge and made linow^/to'Vi-rg'^n'iaijs the beauty and fertility of the valley of Virginia. Twenty-two years later Augusta county was created by the Virginia assembly, bounded on the east by the Blue Ridge, and west and northwest by "the utmost limits of Virginia."1 This marks the first step towards establishing English colonial government west of the mountains.2 With the increase of population on the seaboard came an increase in the number of settlers' cabins beyond the mountains; and the increasing interest in western settlement was accompanied

1 Hening, V., 79.

aIn 1718, Sir William Keith, in a report to the Commissioners of Trade (Collection of Papers and other Tracts, p. 196), recommended the establishment of four small inland forts to protect the Indian trade. There was, however, no suggestion of a civil government in connection with them. About the same time Governor Spotswood of Virginia "laid an excellent scheme for extending that trade, and raising fortifications even on the banks of the Lake Erie." It is possible that this plan contemplated the planting of a civil government in tho West, but thore is no evidence of it. See State of the British and French Cols, in N. Am., p. 109.  Cf. Spotswood Letters. 


by the formation of great land companies, the Ohio Company leading the    way in 1747, and obtaining, two years later, a grant of 500,000 acres. In the official instructions to the governor of Virginia in regard to this company, sent doubtless by Lord Halifax, then president of the board of trade, it is set forth that " such settlements will be for our interest, . . . inasmuch as our loving subjects will be thereby enabled to cultivate a friendship, and carry on a more extensive commerce with the nations of Indians inhabiting those parts: and such examples may likewise induce the neighboring colonies to turn their thoughts towards designs of the same nature."1 The grant was located between the Monongahela and Kanawha rivers on both sides of the Ohio.-

In the same year was organized the Loyal Company, which obtained a. grant o.f, 800,000 acres.

Encouraged, ".doubtjlesis.^y-ih'e.-'app.al'fenJ ease with which these two, -and other .ciQmpanies 'secured their extensive grants from ":thef 'crown;3 and'lby: #*e exjpcressed attitude of the British government toward^, western "settlement, many schemes were brougW -for'.vfayd: during the next quarter century for securing similar grants. There seemed to be almost an epidemic of interest aroused in western lands, and new colonial governments, which it was proposed, in many instances to establish.

Probably the earliest public proposition for new colonial governments beyond the mountains of which record remains, was that set forth by the Albany congress of 1754.4 The

1 Franklin's Works, V., 33.

2 Diuwiddie papers, I., 17, note. Holmes says the Ohio Company's grant comprised 600,000 acres.  Am. Annals, II., 39.

3 That the grants were given by direct ordor from His Majesty, is shown by letter of Gov. Dinwiddie to Gov. Glenn,    Dinwiddie Papers I., 272; also by S. Sato, Land Question in the U. S., p. 25. Sato gives a good account of the various land companies, pp. 24-25, for which see also Porkins, Annals of the West, pp. 50, 52,106,108,109, 135,177.

4 In 1730 Joshua Geo (The Trade and Navigation of Great'Britain Considered, p. 61) wrote concerning the land " back of all our settlements " as follows: " If we have any Sense of the Value of that commodious Tract of Land, it ought to put us upon securing to ourselves such excellent Colonies, which may, if properly improved, bring this 


Plan of Union proposed by that Congress, provided that the President General and Grand Council should make all purchases of Indian lands and establish settlements upon them; and also " That they make laws for regulating and governing such new settlements till the crown shall think fit to form them into particular governments."1 Dr. Franklin, in his notes on the Plan says: " A particular colony has scarce strength enough to extend itself by new settlements at so great a distance from the old; but the joint force of the Union might suddenly establish a new colony or two in those parts . . greatly to the security of our present frontiers, increase of trade and people. . . . The power of settling new colonies is, therefore, thought a valuable part of the plan."2

Soon after the Albany Congress, Franklin proposes a somewhat definite scheme for two new colonies to be located between the Ohio and Lake Erie. Some of the details are interesting, as showing Franklin's general idea of establishing new colonies. He begins by reciting the advantages to be expected from the establishment of the proposed colonies by way of protection to the frontiers, vantage grourid from which to attack the French, and secure friendship and trade with the Indians, besides facilitating English settlement to the Mississippi and Great Lakes. If the old colonies were united "agreeably to the Albany plan they might easily, by their joint force, establish one or more new colonies.       .   .   But if such union should not

Natiou a very great Treasure, and at least build some Forts upon the Apulachean Mountains, to secure us the Right of the Mines contained in them, to protect the Indian and skin Trade." It is just possiblo to take the expression " such excellent colonies," etc., to refer to now colonies; but from the context it seems more probable that the old colonies are referred to, they being already somewhat menaced by the advance of the French in the west.

i Franklin's Works, II., 368. (Unless otherwise stated all references to Franklin's Works are to the Bigelow edition.)

' Franklin's Works, II.. 368.'- Franklin, in the same connection, also advocated the establishment of forts on the great lakes and the Ohio, as they would not only secure the frontiers but " serve to defond new colonies settled undor their protection; and such colonies would also mutually defend and support such forts, and better secure the friendship of the far Indians." 


take place it is proposed that two charters be granted, each for some considerable part of the lands west of Pennsylvania and the Virginia mountains, to a number of the nobility and gentry of Britain with such Americans as shall join them in contributing to the settlement of those lands." In regard to the government of his proposed colonies, Franklin suggests " that as many and as great privileges and powers of government be granted to the contributors and settlers as his Majesty in his wisdom shall think most fit for their benefit and encouragement, consistent with the general good of the British empire; for extraordinary privileges and liberties, with lands on easy terms, are strong inducements to people to hazard their persons and fortunes in settling new countries. And such powers of government as (though suitable to their circumstances and fit to be trusted with an infant colony) might be judged unfit when it becomes populous and powerful, these might be granted for a term only, as the choice of their own governor for 99 years; the support of government in the colonies of Connecticut and Rhode Island (which now enjoy that and other like privileges) being much less expensive than in colonies under the immediate government of the crown, and the constitution more inviting."1 Franklin recurs again to his idea of establishing forts to protect the new colonies. A fort at Buffalo Creek on the Ohio, " and another at the mouth of the Tioga, on the south side of Lake Erie," would protect one colony. This is all the clue he gives us as to its location. He is a little more definite in regard to the other. He says, " The river Scioto . . . is supposed the fittest seat for the other colony, there being for forty miles on each side of it, and quite up to its head, a body of all rich land."2 "We may infer then that Franklin would locate one of his colonies in what is now northwestern Pennsylvania, and northeastern Ohio, and the

'For the scheme in full see Franklin's Works, II., Hi.

* Franklin adds that this is " the finest spot of its bigness in all North America, and has the particular advantage of sea-coal in plenty." 


other on the Ohio river, extending it northwards on both sides of the Scioto. Evidently the exact location of new colonies is a minor question with him at this time. But now, as afterwards, he is quite desirous to have western colonies established and wants to have a part in their establishment himself. In 1756 he wrote to Rev. George Whitfield: "I sometimes wish that you and I were jointly employed by the crown to settle a colony on -fahe Ohio. I imagine that we could do it effectually, and without putting the nation to much expense; but I fear we shall never be called upon for such a service. What a glorious thing it would be to settle in that fine counti'y a large, strong body of religious and industrious people! What a security to the other colonies and advantage to Britain, by increasing her people, territory, strength, and commerce. Might it not greatly facilitate the introduction of pure religion among the heathen, if we could, by such a colony, show them a better sample of Christians than they commonly see in our Indian traders?     the most vicious and abandoned wretches of our nation!"1

But Franklin was not the only prominent man to advocate new colonies at that time. Thomas Pownall had been a member of the Albany Congress, and Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey. By order of the Duke of Cumberland he drew up in 1756, "A Memorial: Stating the nature of the service in North America, and proposing a General plan of operations, as founded thereon." - He inserts Franklin's scheme as well as one of his own.

Barrier colonies are advocated by Thomas Pownall. In his memorial he says: . . . "wherever our settlements have been wisely and completely made, the French, neither by themselves, nor their dogs of war, the Indians, have been able to remove us. It is upon this fact that I found the propriety of the measure of settling a barrier colony in

1 Franklin's Works, II., 467.

a Pownall, Administration of the Colonies, Appendix, p. 47. 


those parts of our frontiers which are not the immediate residence or hunting grounds of our Indians. This is a measure that will be effectual, and will not only in time pay its expence, but make as great returns as any of our present colonies do; will give a strength and unity to our dominions in North America, and give us possession of the country as well as settlements in it. But above all this the state and circumstances of our settlements render such a measure not only proper and eligible, but absolutely necessary. The English settlements, as they are at present circumstanced, are absolutely at a stand; they are settled up to the mountains, and in the mountains there is nowhere together land sufficient for a settlement large enough to subsist by itself and to defend itself, and preserve a communication with the present settlements. If the English would advance one step further, or cover themselves where they are, it must be at once, by one large step over the mountains with a numerous and military colony. Where such should be settled, I do not now take upon me to say; at present I shall only point out the measure and the nature of it, by inserting two schemes, one of Mr. Franklin's; the other of your memorialist; and if I might indulge myself with scheming, I should imagine that two such were sufficient, and only requisite and proper; one at the back of Virginia, filling up the vacant space between the Five Nations and southern confederacy, and connecting into a one system, our barrier. The other somewhere in the Cohass on Connecticut river; or wherever best adapted to cover the four New England Colonies. " Further details of Pownall's scheme do not appear. It is noticeable that the location back of Virginia which he advises for one colony was afterwards taken by the Walpole company, of which he was a member. It is noticeable, too, that Pownall's scheme, as well as Franklin's, provides for more than one colony, each to cover apparently no very large extent of territory. If one or two small colonies had been established west of the mountains, the establishment 


of others would easily follow until the whole western country was cut up into colonies. In prominent circles, therefore, back colonies were being considered.

The Albany congress had discussed a plan of union which contemplated the establishment of back colonies; Franklin was exhibiting a great interest in the subject, and was bringing forward more or less definite plans; Thomas Pownall, ready himself with certain propositions for new colonies, was bringing the matter to the attention of the King's brother, the Duke of Cumberland, in a memorial upon colonial administration prepared by order of his royal highness ^himself. Nor was there a lack of interest on the part of less prominent people. Samuel Hazard, a merchant of Philadelphia, had projected a scheme for a new colony beyond the mountains, and by the spring of 1755, had engaged over 3,500 persons "able to bear arms, to remove to the said new Colony, on the footing of said scheme, and does not in the least doubt of being able to procure 10,000 if it takes effect."1 He declared then that "among those already engaged are nine Reverend Ministers of the Gospel, a considerable number of persons who are in public offices under the governments of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, as well as great numbers of persons of good estates, of the best characters for sobriety and religion in said provinces, but more especially in the Province of Pennsylvania." Hazard proposed to get "a Grant of so much Land as shall be necessary for the Settlement of an ample colony, to begin at the distance of one hundred miles westward of the Western Boundaries of Pennsylvania, and thence to extend one Hundred Miles to the westward of the River Mississippi, and to be divided from Virginia and Carolina by the Great Chain of Mountains that runs along the Continent from the North Eastern to the South Western Parts of America." 2

1 Hazard's potition to tho General Assembly of Connecticut, 4 Amer. Archives. I., 863.

3 Hazard's wholo " Schome " may be found in 4 Amer. Archives, I., 861, and in Christopher Gist's Journal, 261. In the latter, however, no hundred mile interval is proposed    west of the limits of Pennsylvania. 


This does not indicate the proposed extent from north to south, unless, indeed, we consider that extent to be indicated by the length of the designated boundary on the east, i. e., from Pennsylvania to Carolina inclusive.1 That would certainly be " an ample colony" which embraced all the Ohio, and a large part of the Mississippi valleys. Whether it was expected that this colony would be divided and subdivided as it increased in population and diversity of interests we do not know. It is not impossible that the petitioners had little idea of the extent of the territory indicated, as little was commonly known about it at that time.

It was proposed " That humble Application be made to His Majesty for a Charter to erect said Territory into a separate Government, with the same Privileges which the Colony of Connecticut enjoys," and "That application be made to the Assemblies of the several British Colonies in North America to grant such Supplies of Money and Provisions as may enable the Settlers to secure the Friendship of the Indian Natives, and support themselves and Families till they are established."

There is evidence that the design was to establish a Presbyterian colony.2 Certainly the religious element was to be very prominent. Only Protestants believing in the divine authority of the Old and New Testaments and the trinity of the Godhead, and with lives and conversations free from immorality and profaneness, could hold office. Roman Catholics were debarred from holding land or having arms or ammunition in their possession, " nor shall any Mass Houses or Popish Chappels be allowed in the Province."

1 This view is supported by the fact that in the fall of 1755 he made a journey, probably of investigation, " chiefly on the frontiers of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina."  Hazard to Pownall, Almon's Remembrancer, III., 133.

3 The petition to Connecticut recites that New England, having lands of her own to settle, a new colony would be able to obtain recruits that could be depended upon for fidelity to the king only among members of the Church of England, the Presbyterians, Quakers, and Baptists. The Church of England had shown no disposition to settle colonies in the wilderness. Quakers would not go because " principled against war to remove and defend the country." Baptists were too few. So Presbyterians only remained by whom a new colony could bo settled.  4 Amer. Archives, I., 863. 


The above will sufficiently show what Hazard's plan was. Having drawn up his " Scheme " and being assured of colonists to undertake the settlement, of course his next step was to endeavor to secure the grant. The design seems to have been at one time to petition the General Assembly of Connecticut " to make Application to His Majesty for a Charter" in behalf of the would-be colonists,1 but it was finally decided to ask Connecticut for nothing more than a relinquishment of her claims upon the desired lands. In May, 1755, a petition to that effect was presented to the General Assembly, and was granted on condition that " the Petitioner obtain his Majesty's Eoyal Grant and order for settling the said Colony."2 Hazard's son relates that his father, after getting this relinquishment from Connecticut, " procured the subscription of between four and five thousand persons, able to bear arms, some of whom were worth thousands,    that he personally explored that part of the country proposed for the situation of the new colony; that he had corresponded with some of the nobility, and with other persons of note and influence in England, who appear to have favoured and encouraged the design; and that having, as he apprehended, brought the scheme to a proper degree of maturity, he proposed embarking for England in the fall of the year, 1758, in order to procure its final accomplishment. "3 A petition to the king said there was no doubt that the " Royal wisdom and penetration has discovered the necessity and importance of settling strong and numerous

1 See the petition in Christopher Gist's Journal, p. 266, "To the Honourable the Governor, Council and Representatives of the Colony of Connecticut," to which "were affixed more than two thousand names."

* Colonial Records of Conn., X., 382, and 4 Am. Archives, I., 865.

' Memorial of Ebenezer Hazard of New York, 1774, in 4 Am. Archives, I., 865. The sod goes on to say that his father's death left the associates " without a guide sufficient to conduct so important an enterprise," but that he himself proposes to take up the Scheme and make " a settlement under the claim and jurisdiction of the colony of Con. necticut," so as " not to be obliged to carry tho matter to England." He offers to Connecticut   10,000 for the land which he proposes to bound on the west by the Mississippi, and on the east by tho western boundary of Pennsylvania. The Connecticut General Assembly, however, rejected his offer, and we hear nothing more of the Hazard Scheme. 



Colonies in the neighborhood of the Ohio and Mississippi," and prayed for " such countenance and assistance ... as will be necessary for the encouragement of a people on whose fidelity your Majesty may with the utmost confidence rely, and who, at the same time, esteem themselves bound by the most sacred and indissoluble ties, to hand down the blessings of civil and religious liberty inviolate to their posterity."1 This was quite probably intended as a plea for a charter granting a liberal government. Such was what he desired, for we find him writing to Thomas Pownall as follows: "Even the wildest anarchy could hardly be worse than government managed as it frequently has been in the colonies southward of New England. ... If any schemes be gone into for settling a new colony, I hope things will be put on such a footing as will prevent those jars and contentions between the different branches of the legislature which have almost ruined some of the colonies."'2

But enough has been said to show the main points of Hazard's scheme. Whether, if he had lived, he would have succeeded in securing a grant of even a portion of the territory asked for, we are of course unable to say. He himself and his supporters doubtless had faith in the success of the undertaking or they would not have proceeded so far in it as they did. With his death in the summer of 1758 we hear nothing further of his attempt to plant a new colonial government beyond the mountains. In that same year, however, another proposition was made for a new colony.

A few days after the capture of Fort Du Quesne a writer from that place "suggested that the King should grant a charter for a western colony ' with a full liberty of conscience ' and a separate governor; and another writer

1 4 Am. Archives, I., 863.

' Hazard to Pownall, Jan. 14, 1756, Almon's Remembrancer, III, 134. He tells Pownall that " you will undoubtedly have an opportunity of communicating what has boon done to the Earl of Halifax, and such others at the head of affairs as you think proper." This would indicate that Hazard expected assistance from Pownall. 


shortly after proposed for it the name of Pittsylvania . . . and that all Protestants who should come under the denomination of King David's soldiers, mentioned by the prophet Samuel, and that everyone that was in distress, everyone that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, should be invited to settle in that ' extraordinary good land.' "1 This seems to have indicated a movement to establish a new colony from philanthropic motives. So far as we know nothing ever came of the proposition.

With the close of the French and Indian war, projects for new western colonies appeared faster, and now not only in America but in Great Britain as well. A pamphlet was published in London urging the " Advantages of a Settlement upon the Ohio in North America." - In the same year there appeared in Edinburgh a pamphlet recommending " That Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania be terminated by a bound to be fixed thus: From Lake Erie, up the river Miamis3 to the Carrying-place, from thence down the river Waback to where it runs, into the Ohio, and from thence down the Ohio to the Forks of the Mississippi."' The author of the pamphlet further recommends " That the country betwixt the Mississippi and the fresh-water Lakes, extending northwest from this proposed bound, be formed into a new Colony, which might be called Charlotiana, in honour of Her Majesty, our present most excellent Queen.' It was urged that this location was the most fertile and healthful in North America, and a town at or near the " Forks of the Mississippi" would become " the common Emporium of the produce and riches of that vast continent. A colony located there would give the British " the entire command of that Continent", secure the Indian trade, and defend the country and the old colonies from hostile French

1 Draper Collection.  Draper's MS. Life of Boone, III., 266, citing Maryland Gazette, January 12, and March 22, 1759.  For " King David's soldiers " see I Samuel, XXII, 2. 2Draper's MS. Life of Boone, III., 266. 8 Now called the Maumee.

* Expediency of Securing our American Colonies, p. 13. 

or Indians.1 It was advised that the new settlers be furnished "a stock of cattle, furniture, utensils" et cetera; that they be given lands on easy tenure; that t