xt7j6q1sfr4r https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7j6q1sfr4r/data/mets.xml Lafferty, Maude Ward 1869-1962. 1916  books b92-143-29441998 English University of Kentucky, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, : [Lexington, Ky. : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Lexington and Ohio Rail Road Company History. Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company History. Pioneer railway of the west  / Maude Ward Lafferty. text Pioneer railway of the west  / Maude Ward Lafferty. 1916 2002 true xt7j6q1sfr4r section xt7j6q1sfr4r 

A Pioneer Railway of
      the West

   By Maude Ward Lafferty

 This page in the original text is blank.


    This restoration of a portion of the original track of the Lexington
and Ohio (now Louisville and Nashville) Railroad laid at Lexington in
1 831, is dedicated to those men of forethought and courage who were
pioneers in railroad development in Amenica.
                    Erected Anno Domini

         Dedication Exercises
                    10 A. M.
               May 30, 1916

College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering
           University of Kentucky

 This page in the original text is blank.


    During the month of July, 1915, there appeared in a local newspaper
an account of the finding of "Old Rail Stones" and "Old Strap Iron
Rails" which had been used in the construction of the railroad generally
known as "the old Lexington and Frankfort Road," though it was
incorporated under the name of the "Lexington and Ohio Rail Road.'
It is believed by many to have been the first railroad west of the
Alleghany Mountains. Be that as it may, the quaint and interesting
relics had just been dug up that week by the workmen who were recon-
structing the freight yards of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. The
workmen were moving more recently laid tracks back to the old original
road bed of the pioneer railroad, and in doing so they unearthed those
curious relics of 1831.
    Although just starting that very day for a summer vacation, I hurried
down town a little before train time, and went to the Main Street offices of
the Louisville and Nashville Railroad where the interesting relics were on
    As I stood gazing at that worn and rusty bar of iron with its single
bent and rusty spike, I was whisked back across the years by some
strange trick of memory and I saw, instead, a dimly lighted sick room, on
a hot summer night-myself a little sufferer, and sitting beside me, fanning
my fevered brow, my beloved father, who, notwithstanding the fatigue of
a heavy and exacting practice sat thus night after night, soothing me
to sleep by telling me entertaining stories of his youth, and as he was born
one hundred and one years ago, the strange experiences of his boyhood
were thrilling indeed to his youthful adorer.
    And so, I saw in my mind's eye that familiar room of my childhood-
the open window, the breezes blowing the curtains to and fro, the moon-
light casting strange shadows on the terrace outside, and I heard again
that voice which has meant so much to me telling how "when the first
railroad started" and all the people had gathered from far and near "to
witness its departure," he and a group of fellow students from Tran-
sylvania University, mounted on fast horses, galloped ahead "to see if the
Wonderful Thing could round the curve without running off the track";
and how "it came in sight, thundering along, muffing out clotuds of black
smoke, the engineer adding to the confusion by incessantlv blowing his
shrill whistle," all of which so terrified his horse, he had great difficulty in
keeping his seat, but vet, how tremendously impressed he was by the
"gallant way in which the gentlemen seated in the coach raised their
stovepine hats in greeting as they passed by like a streak of lightning."



   He said the locomotive had been invented by his old friend Tom
Barlow, in whose honor he had named our Tom Barlow, his favorite race
   He also said the old locomotive looked like a "thresher engine
mounted on a flat car," and that the coach was for all the world like an
"omnibus with seats on top as well as inside," and furthermore, he added,
when it had been proved safe he rode upon it himself, and then "rode
home on horseback" (a distance of thirty miles) to tell his mother all
about it.
    And this was all that was left of that Wonderful Thing, this bit of
scrap iron and a few stone sills!
    Finding myself Gazing vacantly at that relic of the Past, and that
people were noting my abstraction, I hastily gathered myself together and
crossing the street to our beautiful Union Station, I started on my journey.
In a magnificent chair car, luxuriously furnished and upholstered, a liveried
porter raised the windows and adjusted screens, turned on an electric fan,
offered me the latest magazines and papers fresh from the press, placed a
footstool at my feet and a cushion at my back. My safety was provided
for by double tracking and tunseen but perfectly trained employees, but
neither the reading matter in mv lap, the comfort of my surroundings,
nor the always charming scenery from the car window, could drive from
my thoughts the quaint old railroad; and when I came back to Lexington
in the fall, in my eager desire to know more about it, I immediately began
my research which has grown into this history of
                   "A Pioneer Railway of the West."
                                            MAUDE WARD LAFFERTY.



    The first locomotive engine in the world was built just one hundred
years ago by George Stephenson and used at Newcastle, England, at the
Killingworth Colliery.
    According to the Encyclopedia Britannica railways had their origin
in tramways which were used more than two hundred years ago in the
mining districts of England to carry their output of coal to the sea.
    The Stockton and Darlington Railway, about thirty-eight miles in
length, was operating a locomotive driven by Stephenson, with a signalman
on horseback, in advance, in i825. The passenger coach in this instance
was named the "Experiment," and carried six persons inside and from
fifteen to twenty persons outside. But it was the year i829, which became
famous in the annals of railways, not only for the opening of the Liver-
pool and Manchester line, but for the invention and construction of the
first high speed locomotive of the standard modern type. Robert Stephen-
son's engine, "The Rocket," was made under competition for the Liverpool
and Manchester Railway and it gained the prize of five hundred pounds
for lightness, power and speed, awarded by the directors.

    The newspapers of that period were filled with the wonderful
"performance" of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway and the people
of the United States, as well as those of Great Britain, became interested
in the question of railroad transportation. As early as i828 charters were
obtained in several Eastern States and railroad companies organized.
    The first locomotive engine used in this country was operated on the
Delaware and Hudson Canal Company's railroad between the mines at
Carbondale and the town of Honesdale, Pennsylvania. This locomotive
was built at Stourbridge, England, and made its trial trip in August, i829.

                     KENTUCKY'S FIRST RAILROAD.
    Kentucky, which was one of the leading States in the Union in those
days in all progressive movements, was wide awake to the great
advantages to be gained by railroad transportation. And Lexington, whic:a
seetms to have been the "self-starter" of Kentucky, was aroused to the
highest pitch of excitement. The various "performances" of the English
railroads were published at length in the Kentucky Gazette, and the Ob-
server and Reporter. Lexington was the very heart of the great Blue Grass
region of Kentucky. The amazing richness of the soil had lured the first
settlers from the safety of their transmontane homes to the hardships of
Indian fighting and primitive living. Here they had built an ideal city



adorned with beautiful Colonial homes; established the first great seat of
learning west of the Alleghanies; built the first insane asylum; started the
first newspaper; established the first public library, and surrounded by
culture, wealth and refinement, with every want seemingly supplied and
every wish apparently gratified, their business men declared there was vet
one thing lacking-they needed an outlet to some great water course.
The town branch was beautiful to look upon and a never-failing delight to
those first inhabitants but useless for navigation. Their bountiful crops
demanded transportation to the markets of the world. And now, like a
miracle to solve their difficulties came this railroad proposition. They
read the local papers with interest, discussed the question at public
meetings, sent a man to England to obtain all available information
concerning it, and with a push and energy which would startle the town
today, they set to work to obtain a charter from the Kentucky Legislature,
then in its session of I829-30, asking for a railroad from Lexington,
Kentucky, to some point on the Ohio River.

    The Reporter for February 3rd, i830, just one week after the
Charter was obtained, had the following article: "As considerable
interest has been excited in this community on the subject of Railroads by
the Act of the Legislature authorizing the formation of a Company to
make one from this town to the Ohio River, we have copied into this
paper several articles going to show their immense utility and importance.
    However great the advantages of Railroads may be to any country we
are convinced that there is none where this beneficial influence could be
more intensely experienced than in this section of Kentucky."

    Then follows a notice calling attention to Section I of the Charter and
asking that subscription books be opened. On Monday, February 8th, 1830,
just eleven days after the Charter was obtained, the books were opened at
Brennan's Tavern from ten a.m. until two p.m. on five successive days.
And in this increditably short space of time the money was raised by
those public spirited, enterprising men. What a magnificent achievement!
    Digressing a moment here, it must be remembered that Brennan's
Tavern, which plays so conspicuous a part in this history of the railroad,
was none other than the famous old Postlethwaite's Tavern, known to us
as the Phoenix Hotel, which has been making history for Lexington since
i8oo. At this particular time it was leased and conducted by Mr. Brennan,
and so took his name for the time being.

    In the next issue of the Reporter, February ioth, 1830, we find:
"Agreeable to the notice published in our last, the subscription books for




stock in this company were opened on Monday last, and before two o'clock
p.m., the amount of stock subscribed was for 2o4,ooo. We have procured
the following list of the names of the subscribers with the sums sub-
scribed by each respectively, which we publish by way of showing to
those who are yet in doubt as to the practicability and policy of this
work, how the subject is viewed by men of practical experience."
    Then follows a list of twenty-two subscribers.
    "These liberal subscriptions by persons who have carefully investigated
the subject afford conclusive proof that they consider the project not only
a feasible one but one that offers to the Capitalist an opportunity for a
profitable investment of funds. They have doubtless taken into consid-
eration the peculiar advantages of the country in which the road will be
located.    It is impossible to imagine the full extent of the varied
mutual influences which the prosperity of this section of the country and
the Rail Road will exert, all tending to the convenience, wealth and
happiness of the community.   
    P. S.-At the closing of the books at two p.m. on Tuesday, the fol-
lowing additional subscriptions had been taken."
    (Follows a list of forty-two subscribers.)
    "Which makes a total amount of 3io,800; 300,ooo being all that is
necessary to vest corporate rights.
    "At a meeting assembled for the purpose, Mfr. Elisha I. Winter was
elected President and John Brand, Benjamin Gratz, George Boswell,
Walter Dunn, Richard Higgins, Henry Clay, Joseph Bruen, Henry C.
Payne, Elisha Warfield, Benjamin Dudley and Charlton Hunt, Directors
of the Lexington and Ohio Rail Road Co."

    The succeeding newspapers published a great deal on construction, and
when it is remembered that all of it was experimental at that time, it will
be interesting to note that the Lexington and Ohio Railroad Company,
patterned most closely after the English models, undertaking, however, to
improve upon them by the use of our native limestone sills which they
believed to be indestructible and found, to their sorrow, to be most
    The Reporter of November 24th, I830, says: "A great deal of
information on the subject of Rail Roads has been disseminated by public
spirited individuals in the course of the past two or three years. A number
of such works have been projected in the United States and some of them
completed within that period. The Baltimore and Ohio is first and most




important in every point of view. To the efforts of the enterprising
Directors and Stockholders of that Company, we shall be indebted for the
creation in a short period of time of a greater extent of Railway communi-
cation between the several parts of the Union than Centuries have produced
of artificial or canal navigation. We firmly believe that the digging of
canals in all parts of the country will cease and that many now in use vill
be abandoned and railroads substituted in place of them.     
As to the mode of construction-the route is selected upon a minute
survey, with as little elevation as possible, with a view to econon-
the line is then graded by excavating the earth to near a level, say so
feet slope to the mile. The excavation for a single line of rails need not
be more than one-third the width of a turnpike and, of course, this part of
the work is proportionately cheaper than grading for a turnpike. Large
pieces of limestone, two feet or more in length and from 3 to T2 inches
thick, made straight on the upper edge, are then firmly imbedded alona the
graduated road in two lines, 4 feet 3 inches apart. On these lines of stone
sills are laid iron bars or rails, 2 inches wide, IV2 inches thick, fastened
with iron bolts. Bridges to pass water courses and drains to carry off the
water are to be made in the common way.    The work is now.- done.
As to its cost-Unless the route be through hills and vallies and. of
course, a very unfavorable one, the necessary grading of a narrow line for
a railway will not cost more than the like work for a wide turnpike.
-    The next item of expense is stone work. The stone sills will
cost 20 cents per foot, or 2,II2 per mile for two rows. The iron rails and
bolts will cost 57 per ton, or 969 per mile, allowing I7 tons which will do,
fastening the same from I to S200 a mile.    No greater difficulty
exists in fixing the precise cost of a railway than of a hotrse of given
dimensions or of a brick wall. In reference to the Lexington and Ohio
Railroad the requisite data to form true estimates of the cost of each
separate mile will soon be in possession of the Company. The Engineers
are of the opinion that it is throughout an eligible cheap line. The whole
cost then is less than 8,ooo a mile."

    The Reporter of December 1st, 1830, makes an interesting correction:
"In speaking in our last of the iron rails, we should have described
them as half an inch thick instead of an inch and a half. The engineers
have run the experimental line on a grade thirty feet to the mile instead of
fifty feet as we supposed. A locomotive engine will act advantageously
upon a grade of forty feet or more, but the country between Lexington
and Louisville will admit of as low a grade as thirty feet without
expensive excavations or embankments, there being no natural obstacle on




the whole line except at Frankfort where an inclined plane and stationary
power will be required to reach the Kentucky River."

    In the issue of March 30th, i83i, the Reporter makes an interesting
calculation, proving in dollars and cents the value of the prospective
railroad. It says: "It appears by a statement of the performance on the
Liverpool and Manchester Railway that an engine has transported i42 tons
of freight i8o miles in one day, making six trips between the two towns,
and that on the next day, the steam engine travelled i20 miles with similar
loads. The transportation of i42 tons in I8o miles is equivalent to the
conveyance of one ton 4620 miles. Now, if as it is stated, the cost of fuel,
oil, attendance and all other charges requisite to the operations of a
Locomotive Engine be only 5 a day, it follows that when once a Rail Road
is completed and all its machinery prepared for operations 462o tons may
be transported one mile for 5.oo, or ioo tons one mile for I2Y4 cents.
When these results are applied to our own road it will be seen that
estimating ten barrels of flour for a ton, the transportation of ioo barrels
ioo miles would cost 1064 cents. It is true that no one can suppose that
this full result can ever be reduced-to continued practice but the simple
fact of its having once been accomplished will be sufficient to place Rail
Roads far above all other artificial means of transportation. At the same
time it should not be forgotten that the wagons on the Liverpool and
Manchester Rail Road are of the old construction and are known to re-
quire double the power to draw them that the wagons do on our Rail

    "Our Stockholders" pushed the work on "our Rail Road" with all
speed; the engineer submitted his report, and from the Kentucky Reporter,
September ist, 1830, we find: "The examinations of the route for the Rail
Road from Lexington to the Ohio River has been made as far as Frank-
fort which exhibit the following results:
    i. There will be one Inclined Plane at Frankfort about 2200 feet
long, descending one foot in fourteen. All the residue of the road can be
graded to 30 feet or less in a mile which is a fraction over one-fifteenth of
an inch rise in a foot.
    2. On that grade there will be no "cut" deeper than i9 feet at
the apex and hut one of that depth.
    3. There will be no embankment over 20 feet high, no bridge
over 30 feet high.
    4. The distance to Frankfort will not be increased two miles
in length over the present travelled road.




    5. There will not be as much rock excavation in the grading as
will be required to construct the road.
    6. On the thirty feet grade which has been tentatively adopted,
a single horse is capable of travelling with seven tons weight with as
much ease as five horses can draw two tons on our present roads in their
best condition. Hence it follows that one man and two horses can trans-
port on the Railway as much weight in the same time as 35 horses and
seven men on our present roads."

    That part of the road from Lexington to Villa Grove, six miles west
of Lex. was known as the "first division"; from Villa Grove to
Frankfort was designated "second division."

    Mr. Kneass, the chief engineer, submitted "a grade table and a table
exhibiting the length of straight line, length of curve and radius of
curvature" to the Directors on October 14th, i83i.

    John Holburn and Company were employed to furnish stone rail sills
at 37Y2 cents per perch.

    On April 2oth, 1831, The Reporter, which by the way, was known as
"Mr. Clay's organ," gives a most entertaining description of a Directors
meeting. It says:
    "The Stockholders of the Lexington and Ohio Rail Road Company
met at the Court House in Lexington on Saturday last. H. Clay was
called to the Chair and H. I. Bodley acted as Secretary.
    The meeting was large, most of the Stockholders, representing
upwards of six hundred thousand dollars, were present. The Stockholders
at Louisville were represented by Messrs. J. S. Snead, B. Lawrence, S. S.
Nicholas, J. I. Jacob and George Keats.
    Mr. E. I. Winter (President of the Company) addressed the meeting
an hour and a half. He described the route as surveyed by Mr. Kneass,
the Engineer, entered into explanations respecting the estimates and made
various calculations as to the probable cost of the work. He presented a
very satisfactory and clear view of the means of the Company-its flatter-
ing prospects-the great resources of this section of the country c.
    After much discussion it was
    Resolved-That the Directors of the Lexington and Ohio Rail Road
Company be requested to take measures to put a proportion of the road
under contract, not exceeding eight miles at Louisville and seven at
Lexington, provided the same can be done at a cost not exceeding by IO
per cent the estimate made by Mfr. Kneass, Engineer.




   Resolved-That the Directors be authorized to call from the Stock-
holders a sum not exceeding 150,ooo pro rata. for the completion of the
55 miles of Road named in the foregoing resolution, in such proportion
and at such times as the exigencies of the Company may require, and
that they are not authorized to extend their expenditures beyond the said
I5o,ooo until after the Stockholders shall have been legally convened and
a report laid before them of the progress made in the work."
    "The meeting then adjourned, but before the Company dispersed a
number of persons came forward and entered their names for stock. The
Stockholders dined together with the Louisville delegation at Postleth-
waite's Inn. We congratulate the friends of this noble enterprise on the
results of the meeting. We especially congratulate the citizens of Lex-
ington on the bright prospects ahead-the 'Winter of their discontent being
made glorious summer'-by the proceedings of this glorious day."
    The Trustees of the town of Lexington later took 25,000 worth of

    At last the great day arrived for the laying of the first rail stone,
and the Lexington Observer of October 28th, i831, gives a brilliant
description of this most momentous occurence. Gives it with a vividness
which brings the picture so clearly before the reader that in spite of
himself he joins the merry throng and takes his place in the spectacular
parade which marks a new epoch in the history of Lexington. The
Observer says:

                      LAYING FIRST RAIL STONE.
    "Agreeable to the arrangements published in our last paper the cere-
mony of Laying the First Rail Stone of the Lexington and Ohio Rail Road,
was performed in the presence of a large concourse of citizens and
strangers on Saturday last.
    At Is o'clock the three Military Companies which formed the escort
marched from their place of rendevous to the College lawn, where 'they
were met by the various societies and individuals named in the order
of the Marshal. The procession was then formed in the following order-

    Col. Leslie Combs, Marshall, with J. B. Coleman, Esq., (his aid)
                             on horseback.
              Maj. Gen. Pendleton and Staff, on horseback.
                  Field Officers and Staff, on horseback.
                      Officers of the Line-on foot.
                   Capt. Hunt's Artillery, in Platoons.




Gov. Metcalfe, supported by
    Prof. Caldwell, Orator of the Day, and
    Rev. N. H. Hall-Officiating Clergyman.
Judges Underwood and Buckner-Court of Appeals.
Judge Hickey, Fayette Circuit Court.
Hon. R. NI. Johnson, R. P. Letcher, T. A. Marshall, Members of
Several Members of the Kentucky Legislature.
Capt. T. A. Russell-Ass't. Marshal.
President and Directors Lexington and Ohio R. R. Co.
Samuel H. Kneass, Chief Engineer-His Assistants and Treastrer of
    the Co.
Contractors and Pioneers with their implements of Labor.
State Board of Internal Improvement.
President, Engineers and Directors of Lexington and Maysville
    Turnpike Road.
Mayor and Aldermen of Louisville (who did not come).
Capt. Neet's Rifle Guards-in Platoons.
Military Band of Music.
Trustees of the Town of Lexington and Clerk.
Justices of Fayette County Court and Clerk.
Trustees and Professors of Transylvania University.
Reverend Clergy.
Surgeons and Physicians.
Members of the Bar and Officers of Fayette County Court.
Union Philosophical Society of Transylvania University.
Medical and Law Students.
Tutors and Students of Transylvania University.
Principal of Preparatory Department and Pupils.
Principal and Pupils of Wentworth Seminary.




    Principal and Tutors of Shelby Female Academy and Pupils.
    Principal and Professors of Eclectic Institute and Pupils.
    Stockholders of Lexington and Ohio R. R. Co.
    Capt. Postlethwaite's Light Infantry Company-in Platoons.
    Lieut.-Col. A. Stevens-Ass't. Marshal.
                          CITIZENS ON FOOT.

    "For many years we have not witnessed so imposing a pageant and
never one more interesting. A Federal Salute was fired by Capt. Hunt's
Artillery at sunrise and seven guns when the first stone sill was laid,
indicating the seven sections of the road under contract. The procession
first moved in a circle around the lawn where it was formed at which
time the bells in the various churches in town commenced a merry peal
which continued until the procession reached the place where the cere-
mony was performed. The Military Escort then formed a hollow square
within which the whole civic procession was, enclosed. Thousands of
delighted and anxious spectators were on the outside, among whom we
were gratified to see a large concourse of ladies for whose accommodation
the Marshal had directed the adjacent Market House to be appropriated.
     A blessing on the stupendous undertaking was then invoked by the
officiating clergyman, after which E. I. Winter, Esq., President of the
Company, handed a hammer to the Governor of the State, who drove the
nail attaching the first iron rail to the beginning stone sill. The music
struck up "Hail Columbia" and afterwards "Yankee Doodle," which was
played until the Artillery ceased firing.
     Prof. Caldwell then delivered a highly interesting and appropriate
address. The procession then returned to the University lawn after which
the Military marched to the Arsenal and were dismissed, having received
the thanks of the Directors and President of the Rail Road and the compli-
ments of the Marshal for their excellent marching and exemplary good
order on the occasion.
     The arrangements for this interesting ceremony were hurried
perhaps by the zeal of those immediately concerned and a desire to
proceed without further delay with the work. A little more time and a
little more preparation would have been better but the whole proceeding
was conducted very handsomely. The procession was very numerous. The
streets through which the long line marched were crowded with spectators
and every window and every balcony were filled with ladies. The Mili-



tary looked uncommonly well. The pupils of the various institutions wore
appropriate badges. The ceremonies at the place of laying the corner
stone were not tedious. The ommission to prepare a rostrum for the Orator
was a grievous oversight-thousands were unable to hear the speech, but
those who were more fortunate pronounced it appropriate and eloquent
and considering the very short notice upon which it was prepared, the
effort was worthy of the distinguished orator, which alone, is saying
enough in praise.
     The prayer of the Rev. Mr. Hall, by which the occasion was preceded,
awakened the best feelings of the human heart. The Governor and the
President of the Company quickly dispatched the duty assigned them and
the procession moved from the ground in good order, nothing having
occurred in the slightest degree unpleasant. All were happy that the
good work was now in progress and delighted at the bright prospects now
dawning upon the towns and country through which the road is to pass.
Owing to the short notice the expected guests from Maysville and Louis-
ville did not attend but the Company was honored with the presence of
the Governor and several distinguished members of Congress and two of
the Judges of the Court of Appeals. These with other notable guests
dined with the President, Directors and Stockholders at Postlewaite's
Inn and during the even the Governor visited the Theater where he was
received with many rounds of applause."

    Down in our hearts we are truly thankful for the present century
and all its benefits and we would rather be plain Kentucky people living
today than any royalty in history. And yet when we read a great
thrilling tale like this we cannot overcome a strange sense of loss, a
feeling of regret that we too, could not have been there to see that won-
derful pageant pass by. The Military with its pomp and music; the
professors and their students; the officials and the rank and file; the
lawyers, and the doctors and the ministers; the contractors and "Pioneers
and their implements of Labor"; the old, the young, the great, the small-
all banded together in one great masterly pull for Lexington! What a
picture! What a privilege! What an inspiration! What would we not
give to have seen it with our own eyes, to have applauded it with our own
     And yet, perhaps that is what we are doing now, applauding and
 giving praise and credit to those splendid citizens whose generosity, fore-
 sight, energy and progressive public spirit made Lexington a leading city
 of its day!





    But to return to our subject, the newspapers kept the people advised
as to the progress of the work and the Observer of February 3rd, 1832,
    "Those who feel an interest in this great work will be pleased to learn
that the grading of the first six miles put under contract last fall is
already in a state of much forwardness. The stones for the Rail Sills are
excavated from a quarry a short distance below the city. The ease with
which they are split out and fashioned into sills is truly surprising. They
are about twelve inches wide and many of them are twenty or twenty-
five feet in length."

    And again on May 24th, i832-
    "The grading of the first division of six miles is nearly completed.
Part of the Iron Rails for the first division have arrived at Louisville from
Liverpool by way of New Orleans, and the laying of the stone sills will
be forthwith commenced."

    The work progressed steadily in spite of many obstacles-chief of
which seems to have been the indifference of Louisville and lack of ready
money, and so in the Observer for March i6th, i832, there is an interesting
and eloquent appeal:

"To the Citizens of Lexington and Fayette County-
    "Now is the time for every man, who is a man and will act like one,
to come forward and put his shoulder to the wheel. The Lexington and
Ohio Rail Road can be finished to Frankfort before the ist of November,
1832, if those who are able will do their duty and take stock, or increase
their present subscriptions.  Not one should hang back and let his-
neighbors do for him what he ought to do for himself. If he loves
money, this is the way to improve his fortune; if he loves his country,
this is the sure way to advance her power and glory.
    The work can be done and will be done in the time I have named if
you are true to your best interests and will act promptly on this
occasion. No time is to be lost-Come all-Come quickly. Let us have
no more theorizing but in its stead, efficient action."

    And again in the same month the Directors authorized the Presi-
dent, Mr. Elisha I. Winter, to let the grading of the twenty-three sections
of the "Second Division."




      The Observer and Reporter, June 28th, i832, says:
      "Laying the stone sills is rather a tedious operation. Messrs. Hol-
  burn and Benson, who are the contractors for this branch of the wo