xt7j6q1sgr1h https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7j6q1sgr1h/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1951 journals 4_04 English Lexington, Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Kentucky fruit notes v.4 n.04. text Kentucky fruit notes v.4 n.04. 1951 2014 true xt7j6q1sgr1h section xt7j6q1sgr1h V01. 4 SPRING, 1951 N0. 4
  / /
. %
7 7 r
. 9 é
A. J. Olney
The winter of 1950-51 will go down in history along with others of extreme
severity. Temperatures of zero and below began on November 24. December
was very cold and snow and ice remained through most of January. On Febru-
ary 1, another cold wave began with temperatures reported from 15 to 30 de-
grees below zero in all Kentucky except the eastern section.
Some of the older folk will compare this with the winters of 1898-99 and
1917-18. These winters are remembered because of the duration of cold tern-
peratures and the amount of snow and ice; however, there have been other years
when low temperatures of shorter duration occurred and damage to fruit plant-
ings was nearly equal to that of the more severe winters. The winter of 1935-
36 was such a winter and to a lesser degree, the winters of 1939-40 and 1941-
Winter-killing of fruit trees and plants does not follow a set pattern. Much
depends on the condition of the trees, the humidity, and the rate of freezing and
thawing as well as on the degree and duration of cold.
Most of the fruit buds of peaches were killed throughout the state and trees
in most areas also show injury to some extent. ln some orchards, the tips of
the new growth have been killed back a few inches and in most areas there is
considerable browning of the heart wood. Occasionally, trees show some split-
ting of the bark of the trunk. It appears that weak trees and those that bore a
large crop last year are injured more than those that produced no crop. Many
young, moderately vigorous trees show less damage; however some over-vig-
orous, very fast growing young trees have been severely injured.
Kentucky Agriculturol Experiment Stotion
University ot Kentucky

 Severe injury has been found on sweet cherry trees and some browningof
the heart wood on sour cherries. plums and some varieties of pears, In general,
apples seem to have escaped serious injury; however, some internalbrowningof ME
· ·( apple twigs has taken place and a slight browning of tissues behind the fruit buds pr¤d¤§‘
` • has been found on some varieties, especially Jonathan, and it may be that this grew l'
l will affect the set of fruit. Grapes show considerable killing of last year's Canes ofwhcl
_ ‘ and buds, and some tender vines killed to the ground. and ¤°‘
~ ` ling tr<
' An appraisal of winter damage cannot be made until growth can be observed special
in the spring or summer. In the meantime, it is recommended that trees that lfflulld
l show browning of the heart wood or killing back of branches should not be pruned MSC Y
until the growth is well started in the spring. Dormant oil sprays should not be mdusti
used on injured peach trees since the oil may cause additional injury to the buds lucky <
l and wood. and Su
The recovery of winter-injured trees will be aided by providing the best P'
` possible conditions for growth. The use of nitrogen fertilizers or manure will practil
help to stimulate the growth of injured trees and spring cultivation of trees in trees <
sod probably will be beneficial also. ern va
After previous severe winters trees often have made remarkable recovery.
It is not recommended that orchards showing injury be removed at this time un- 5*
less there is some other good reason for doing so. As in past years, it will iarmi
likely be late in 1951 or even 195Z or 1953 before the full effect of the winter farm;
injury to the trees can be determined. Pl”°du‘
` W. W. Magill and gi
» Seedling pecan trees have been growing wild in western Kentucky for gen-
erations and during the past 30 years the income from the nuts have been a regu-
lar source of farm income on many farms. They are especially abundant in the
` Ohio and Mississippi River bottoms, from Owensboro to Reelfoot Lake. _ Il
Some of the native seedling trees are known to be over 100 years old, some pemm
trees are over 5 feet in diameter and have a spread of branches of over 100 feet. A 3D`
Yields of the nuts produced some years is over 400 pounds per tree. Most of the °$°m"
nuts are rather small and have a thick shell. However, the quality of the kernel Smce
is excellent; in fact, the quality of the kernel far exceeds that of the average I0 bri
A pecan of [ie south. gmw]
ln the
In Hickman, Fulton County, a commercial pecan-cracking organization has graft
been in operation for several years. They purchase thousands of bushels of giahl
locally grown pecans each fall in southwestern Kentucky, as well as nuts grown 130 n
in Tennessee, Arkansas, and other southern states. During October, November.
and December it is not unusual to see large commercial trucks loaded with bags V
of pecans waiting their turn to unload their cargo at the "nut factory. " Machirl- Only
p ery designed for cracking and extracting the pecan kernels is in ope ration each newi
L day, giving employment to 50 or more men and women who process and p3Cl¤ly the top-grafted pecan trees scattered over the area. 35 to 65 feet apart. The
mh ¤€w growth from the grafted trees ranges from 4 feet to as much as 8 feet. At
{age l€HSt half a dozen of the top-grafted trees produced a few nuts in 1950 and in a
few years will be producing good crops of fine nuts. A nurnber of other farmers
ofthe Hickman area have started a similar top-grafting program of their native
seedling trees. Also, a landowner near Barlow, Kentucky, in the Mississippi-
Ohio River bottoms plans to top—graft about 400 trees this spring. Where pecan
- 3 -

 seedlings or sprouts, two inches to six inches in diameter at the base, sr-,. grow F
ing naturally, it is considered more practical to have thesc top-grafted to 2,,, Mui,
improved variety than to buy and set a grafted nursery tree. ‘l`his same program M/3,,,,
( is also being used in top-working native black walnut sprouts to the improved gmdic
* Thomas black walnut variety. be hc,
. AS a pecan tree can be expected to live through the coming generations and
` produce many pounds of valuable nuts most years, such a tree of a worthwhile E
' adapted variety is valuable property on any farm. wm., (
W. D. Armstrong mdq
Though pecans bloom late in the spring and often escape frost injury, the [
crop may be lost by the nuts dropping off when quite small,. Also, sometimes both,
the nuts grow to near maturity and then fall with a small hole bored in the 5hCll_ ,0,,,,,]
` Lnjury to the nuts when small is often caused by the pecan nut casebeai-or and next,
the injury late in the season is caused by the pecan or hickory weevil.
Where an orchard spray machine is available, both of these pests can bq done,
controlled easily by sprays of DDT. A spray of 4 pounds of 50% wettablo DDT hmm
per 100 gallons applied in early June when the nuts are about half an inch in wp U
length will help against the casebearer. Where the weevil is a problem, one or dust
two sprays of 6 pounds of 50% DDT per 100 gallons, starting in early August mug,
and repeated after the next heavy rain should be helpful in crop years, gnde
_ cane
` O. M, Farrington hea`,
. (Mr. O. M. Farrington; of Lexington, Kentucky who has
‘ had outstanding success in the growing of black raspberries 5,,,,
for several years was asked to describe his methods, which pam
‘ he does in the following article. — A. J. Olney.) mic
_ or b~
Black raspberries are found growing wild from the Cumberland highlands mes
of eastern Tennessee northward. In the south, "Blacks" are found growing ;Op(
mainly in partial shade in mountain cliffs and coves, while in the north open amh
glades are the home. From this, it appears that black raspberries are not to lh
lovers of extreme heat. Growing "blacks" under ordinary field culture has not
proven successful in Kentucky. One or two good crops followed by rapid deteri-
oration of the planting, mainly due to anthracnose, is the trend of most plantings. Thy
For eleven years lhave had a small planting of New Morrison, Quillen, and 4;**
Eriston black raspberries just outside Lexington, Kentucky, Every year l have with
had excellent yields of large berries and the original "patch" is still in good C0¤· tol
dition. Usually I have sprayed with lime sulfur when the leaves were starting. outs
Most years l have cleaned out the old wood after fruiting but not every year. Al- Ber
ways there have been some signs of anthracnose but the infection has never been
severe enough to materially affect yields or quality of berries. Frankly, l think
the cultural practices followed have brought about the good results. dist
- 4 -

 row. The ground has never been stirred or cultivated after planting; instead the
berries have been mulched heavily. I have used any type of plant material
gram available, such as grass clippings, weeds, straw, leaves, shavings, sawdust,
l gladiolus stalks, and other waste material. Mulching, to be successful, must
be heavy and complete. (Three to six inches of sawdust would be good and would
require zi minimum of replacement).
le Black raspberries respond to heavy fertilization. I top-dress every spring
with 6-8-6 or 4-12-8 fertilizer and usually make a supplemental application of
ammonium nitrate after growth has started, but before blooming. Extra nitrogen,
especially if irrigation is available daring dry weather, will greatly increase yields
and quality of berries.
fl lam still experimenting as to the best pruning practices. It seems sure that
*5 both culture and pruning should be pointed toward producing heavy canes. lhave
iell. found that rapid and continuous growth of new wood gives healthy canes for the
d next crop. Here is where mulching pays.
Summer topping of new growth and selective thinning of new canes, if properly
C done, will give some very fine h€¤VY·branched canes. The secret of getting low
YI branching of canes is to "double top" the new canes during the summer. That is,
top the canes about a foot higher than the desired final height. Then after the new
3 OT cluster of branches has started in the top, cut again below the cluster and usually
Z most of the buds down the stalk will all force out, forming laterals to the ground.
Under mulch and heavy fertilization, I have experienced severe breaking of new
canes usually at ground-level during rain squalls, unless the new canes have
been tied to support wires. This is especially true with branched canes with
heavy top growth. Free-growing untopped canes usually escape severe injury.
Spring pruning should be severe. I prefer heavy bare canes with no side
branches, or if side branches are left all small branches (smaller than a lead
pencil) are cut flush with central cane or main branch. The "double topping"
referred to above or heavy thinning out and heading back of laterals in spring,
or both, tend to retard the harvest season. Hence, if earlier berries are wanted,
d5 these practices should be kept to a minimum. A cluster of small branches at the
top of a cane usually means small fruiting branches and severe damage from
l anthracnose. For support, I tie all canes to wires (either 1 or 2 wires, similar
to those for grapes).
tell' For several years Ihave done no summer pruning or topping of new wood.
ltl“S5· This resulted in long heavy canes with side branching well out on canes. The
spring pruning consisted mainly of topping canes to desired height (about 3L" to
· and ·iZ" high). In old (5 to IO yr) plantings, Ihave left from 8 to 15 big bare canes
MVC With little or no branching, per bush. Under this culture, yields were high (up
lC0“‘ t010 pints per bush) and a much longer fruiting season resulted. Canes on the
H8 outside of the cluster will throw fruiting branches from all buds down to the ground.
· Ai' Bérries on these extra heavy, low, fruiting branches ripen later.
think ln summary: Heavy mulching to reduce soil temperature and stiinulate an un-
disturbed sha low root system (which is natural for raspberries), rather heavy
fertilization, growth of large heavy canes and support of fruiting canes have given
me and several of my neighbors excellent results at Lexington. Based on this
- 5 -
‘  ( M!

 experience, 1 am of the firm opinion that well-mulched and well-fed black ms}, L E
berries can and will live wit.h anthracnose and produce heavy yields even without m
3 spray program. Furthermore, 1 feel that with some modification, this IT1(ft_hOd pi
_ or llsystgnjll cored be adapted to commercial plantings. especially in those sections to
{ of the State where mulching material is available. There arc countless "mOu,»,,,,,,,5., q,
of sawdust on or close to good raspberry land, as well as a certain amount of ma- sy
l nure and other organic matter of various kinds.
. L K.
C. S. Waltman fl
1. Melba — Three trees of this variety were set in the Experiment Station orchard
, §"A$ri1O{ 1944 and 1945 and have borne two crops since then - in 1949 and L C
1950. Two bushels were borne by three trees in 1950. 5
, · ix
The variety is a seedling of Mclntosh from Canada and is a very high quality u
dessert apple. 'The fruit is a bright crimson over a pale, waxy yellow ground- c
color and is of good size and very attractive. The flesh is white, tender, fine is
grained, pleasantly mild sub-acid, highly aromatic and of very high quality, h
It has a relatively short picking season. The fruits bruise easily but appear t
to be well adapted for roadside sales or home use. The ripening time is from
July 15 — Z0.
T. Vl
‘ Z. Early McIntosh — This variety has been growing in the Experiment Station a
orchard since 1935. It has borne well but is inclined toward alternate a
` bearing unless heavily thinned. s
The fruit is very attractive and resembles Mclntosh which is one of the c
parents. The apples are nearly solid red and of good size and round — oblate v
in shape. They are less aromatic than McIntosh and somewhat more acid 'I
· but pleasant flavored and of good quality. l`he trees are vigorous and hardy —
and have well formed branches similar to Mclntosh. The ripening time is B. li
from July 15 to Z5. E
3. Macoun - This is another variety ofthe McIntosh family and is proving to be s
a very satisfactory kind for Kentucky. It originated from a cross between i
Mclntosh and Jersey Black. The fruits resemble Mclntosh in shape but are c
darker, almost solid dark red in most specimens.
9. l
, There appears to be a tendency for Macoun to set heavy crops in favorable E
seasons and unless fruit thinning is done, alternate bearing may result The <
trees grow excellently and appear hardy and well formed, and fully capable g
of carrying heavy loads of fruit. {
The flesh is pure white, fine grained, more solid than McIntosh in texture, i
aromatic and of excellent quality and very attractive. The average size is a
not quite equal to McIntosh but there is less tendency for the fruit to drop l
prematurely. The big point in favor of this variety for Kentucky conditions is 1
its ripening date which is on the average fully two weeks or more later than l
Mclntosh. Ripening time is Sept. 5 to Z5. `
.. 6 -

 ,_ 4_ Milton - This is another variety of the Mclntosh type which ripens nearly a
it mearlier than Mclntosh. The fruits are fairly large, well formed,
yd pinkisli red, with a heavy bloom and very attractive. The flesh is white,
mms tender. crisp_ Juicy, and of excellent quality. The fr aits do not possess
iainsu quite the distinct aroma of Mclntosh but the flavor is fully as good and more
na- sprightly. l`hc ripening time is July Z0 - 30.
5_ Kendall - Another progeny of Mclntosh which ripens at about the same time
Ks-Ttyparent. This apple, handsomely covered over the entire surface with
dark red and a rich bloom, presents a very attractive appearance. The fruits
average larger than Mclntosh and possess the same white, fine grained, juicy
flesh. The quality is very good and more sprightly than Mclntosh and keeps
somewhat better in storage. The ripening time is Aug. 15 - Sept. 5.
id r_ Cortland — This variety resulted from a cross between Mclntosh and Ben
 d the fruits possess distinct Mclntosh quality. lt was introduced
in 1915. The average size is larger than Mclntosh, and generally more
ity uniform. Fruits have more color and the red coloring is lighter and brighter,
>und— commonly showing rather distinct stripings and splashings of red. The flesh
fine is firm, not as juicy as Mclntosh but still of very good quality, and the apples
.y. hang better on the tree and handle and ship better than Mclntosh. From young
·ar trees bearing their first fruits this season, the ripening tirne was Sept. 12.
T. Webster — This variety is proving to be an excellent late-summer cooking
i apple for Kentucky. The fruits are large, well colored with deep red, and
are very attractive. Several bushels of this variety were kept in cold
storage and sold during late December of 1950. The variety has borne
regularly and ripens at a time when there is a shortage of apples of good
culinary quality. The variety is a triploid and for this reason, ample pro-
late vision has to be made for cross pollination to insure a good set of fruit.
The ripening time is Sept. 1 — 10.
s B. Red Gravenstein - This variety is one of the highest quality, late summer
- culinary apples which can be grown and its only draw-back is its tardiness
in coming into production. The trees are vigorous and produce splendidly
be shaped branches which are very symmetrical. The fruits are solid dark
i red and very attractive and are especially recommended for those who
re desire apples of high culinary quality. The ripening time is July Z5 to Aug. l0.
9. Haralson - This is a variety of Minnesota origin and has been grown there for
e a number of years. lt has been grown in Kentucky only during the past ten
The or twelve years and it has performed quite remarkably. ln Minnesota it is
le grown as a late-keeping, culinary winter apple and is noted asa kind which
possesses particularly hardy buds. ln Kentucky, the variety ripens froni
September 15 to 25 and should be used at that season or soon thereafter to hav.
2,  ion. lt is not recommended for storage here. The tree is
is an upright grower, vigorous and productive, and an annual producer. l`he
fruits color fairly well and in the better colored specimens are frequently
ns is nearly solid red. There is a tendency, however, for many of the fruits to be
Ei lacking in solid red, especially where the set of fruit is heavy. lt is not
recommended as a dessert apple, but the culinary quality is very good and its
- ’] -
..T   I gg.

 regular and heavy production makes it desirable for trial.
’ 10. Prairie Spy - Another introduction from the Minnesota Fruit Breeding
{  ees of this variety were set in the Kentucky Experiment Station  
orchard in April of 1944 and have now produced two crops. l`his past season, R /
T cme of these trees bore twenty-one pecks and another ten pecks. The {,,,,,5
V are large and uniform and color fairly well with stripings of red. Th.; ,,p€,,_ [
ing time is Sept. 10-Z5. Because of its early bearing and large { 
quality, it is recommended for trial. The fruits arc pleasantly sub-and and
4 are desirable for both culinary and dessert use. E};
. ll. Minjon - Another Minnesota introduction which has performed remarkably
well in Kentucky. Two trees of this variety were set on April 8, 1944 and
. bore their first crop in 1949. One tree bore seven pecks and the other
_ fourteen pecks of very beautiful, dark red, well-developed apples. The
fruits have much the appearance of Jonathan but are much darker red and
more completely and uniformly colored. Jonathan responds very poorly
at Lexington and it is hoped that Minjon will give much better results over
a period of years. ln Minnesota, it is classified as a very hardy variety
ripening earlier than Jonathan. It is one of the most attractive apples which
we have grown here and the trees have grown splendidly and borne fruit at
an early age. The ripening time for Kentucky is Sept. 1 - 12.
_ 12. Joan — Two trees of this variety were set in the Experiment Station orchard
o-ITE-ecember Z8, 1944, and bore their first crop this past summer. One ,
. produced one bushel and the other three pecks. The variety was developed
at the Iowa Experiment Station from a cross made in 1906 of Anisim on I
Jonathan and was introduced in 1932. The fruits are large, very attractive,  
solid brilliant red, angular and roundish-conic in shape. The flesh is white,
rather coarse, tender, juicy mild, sub-acid and good quality. ln cold stor- ‘
_ age, the fruits will keep well until January lst and through November in l
common storage. `
The trees grow vigorously and are well formed, hardy, productive, and
annual croppers.
This past season the apples were harvested on September Z0.
- 8 -
` V