xt7j9k45qz98 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7j9k45qz98/data/mets.xml Warner, Hattie H. 1895  books b98-31-40188899 English The State College, Dept. of Zoology and Entomology, : Lexington : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Lepidoptera Kentucky. Synopsis of the diurnal lepidoptera of Kentucky  / by Hattie H. Warner. text Synopsis of the diurnal lepidoptera of Kentucky  / by Hattie H. Warner. 1895 2002 true xt7j9k45qz98 section xt7j9k45qz98 




          BY HATTIE H. WARNER.




 This page in the original text is blank.







              JANUARY, 1895.


             PRESS OF
          LEXINGTON, KY.


                       A SYNOPSIS

                            OF THlE


                  BY HATTIE H. WAXRNER.

 The present synopsis has been prepared during the past school
 year (1893-94), at the State College in the Laboratory of Zoology and
Entomology, and is based upon the collection belonging to the
Experiment Station.
The number of species is not large, and probably will be increased
at least a third when they have been given careful attention.
Considering the fact that the group has not been given particular
attention, the number will compare favorably with that of other
States. The number thus far collected in Kentucky would indicate
that the State is rich in species in proportion to its extent.
  The synopsis is offered in its present condition as a contribution to
a knowledge of our species. with the intention of extending and
completing it in the future. Those having occasion to use it will
find most of the species represented which they are likely to encounter
in ordinary colltcting.

            The General Characters of Butterflies.
 The small head, with the enlarged clypeus, is characteristic alike
 of moths and butterflies. In both the maxillae are developed as a
 long tubular tongue, excepting the silk-spinners or Bombycidae,
 which have the mouth-parts obsolete  The wings are usually broad,
 regularly veined, and covered with microscopic scales. Among the
 characteristic differences between them will be noticed the clubbed
 antennae of the butterflies, rarely found among moths. The three
 divisions of the body of the butterfly, also, are more nearly equal in
 size than those of the moth. The butterfly when in repose holds its
 wings erect, and when flying they are not connected: some of the
 moths, on the contrary, hold their wings together by means of a
 bristle and socket. Another noticeable difference between the two,



we find in the pupa state, moths being often enclosed in a cocoon, the
butterflies rarely so. The bkippers alone approach the moths in
their somewhat similar manner of pupation; they form a kind of
cocoon from leaves and line it with silk. The pupae may be attached
by the posterior end to a twig, with a silken thread passing entirely
around the middle of the body. In other cases, as Dwuntis archippus,
the silken thread is wanting, the orily attachment in this case being
at the posterior end of the body. They are usually found in places
chosen with some reference to concealment and protection against
the weather. The Lepidoptera are never parasitic.
  We find few wide variations in the habits, transformations, and
even the external anatomy of the butterflies. Their wings are as
highly specialized as those of any of the insects, and are their
principal organs of locomotion, the legs, being always rather frail.
The latter are used mainly to support the animal when at rest. As
a rule, the wings are very large in proportion to the rest of the
  The spindle-like body is well formed for flying, and is covered with
microscopic scales, often also with hairs.  The head is quite small
and is covered with hairs. The very large and conspicuous com-
pound eyes are placed on the sides of the head. From between the
eyes extend the knobbed antenna, usually very slender. These are
supposed to bear the organs of smell. The tips or knobs of the anten-
na- vary in form, being oval, elliptical, hooked, or ending in a small
straight spine. In the butterflies we find only one pair of palpi de-
veloped, while in the moths two pairs are often present. The palpi
vary in length and also in the manner in which they are held. The
maxillai form a slender, hollow tube, which, when not in use, is held
as a spiral between the palpi. This is the organ by means of which
they obtain food, sucking or sipping the nectar from flowers. The
butterfly needs but little and takes but little food. living only long
enough to deposit its eggs. Nine taousand species are known in the
world, 91)') in North America, and 125 in New England.
  In its development the butterfly presents one of the most perfect
metamorphoses that occurs among animals. It passes through four
stages, (I) the egg. (2) the larva, (3) the pupa, (4) the adult.
  The eggs are deposited on the foliage of plants. Wonderful in-
stinct is shown in choosing a suitable place for the eggs. They are
placed on the leaves of plants on which, strange as it may seem, the but.
tertly herself could not live. The young can exist oaly on certain kinds
of leaves, and on these alone will the eggs be found. It is indeed won-
derful, even more, it seems a divine instinct, which teaches the
mother butterfly that this food upon which she could not live, is the
only food that can sustain the life of her young. The eggs are very



                 BUTTERFLIES OF KENTUCKY.                   5

small, spherical or round, often flattened on one side. The larva when
it flrqt emerges from the egg is a very tiny thread-like worm. It
increases rapidly in size, and the amount of food consumed by it dur-
ing this stage is astonishing. It moults the skin four times during
the larvastage and spends from a few weeks to some months in the
larval condition. As the time draws near for the next step in its
transformation, we find the animal apparently shrinking or shorten-
ing, the head often becoming g-reatly enlarged. It finally wants no
more food and recognizing the fact that a period of rest is at hand,
fastens itself securely in some place, moults its skin for the last time,
and appears to us as a queer-looking oblong body -the pupa.
  In this state it is no longer an active, moving animal; it is without
movement excepting a very slight motion of the abdominal segments.
The body wall is close-fitting and firm, with the wings indicated. In
this stage the legs are soldered to the body. The animal takes no
food. It may remain in this condition for some time. From the pupa
the butterfly emerges. All colors, from the gaudiest to the most del-
icate, we find tinting its wings. In this state it has reached its
perfection, as a beautiful, airy, butterfly. living only on the nectar of
flowers. It now forms a wonderful contrast indeed to the forms
through which it has come to us.
  A few butterflies exhibit what is known as protective coloration.
An example of this among Kentucky butterflies is Paphia andria
the under surface of whose wings is entirely different in color from
the upper surface-a very bright upper surface being accompanied
by a very dull under surface. When flying it is very conspicuous;
watching it alight it seems to disappear, so different is its color and
appearance when at rest. The shape of the folded wings is very
close to that of the leaves of many plants, while the under surface
looks very much like a dead leaf in color.  When frightened it
often alights on the ground among dead grass, or upon trees
with dying foliage, probably by so doing, rendering itself less easily
detected by its enemies, the bi] ds.


  The body of the butterfly is divided into three main divisions;
the head, the thorax (the middle division, which bears the legs
and wings.) and the abdomen. The crust of the head is divided
into the occiput, epicranium. and clypeus  The ecciput is behind
the ocelli, the epicranium bears the eyes, the clypeus is the front of
the head, and is always largely developed in butterflies. Of the
mouth-parts the labrum, the labial palpi, and the maxillac are well
developed. The eyes are compound, with numerous hexagonal facets,
and form the entire sides of the head.




            A                                          4

vei4; 1.5, internal vei1.
B. HiF d wing. 1. costal vein: 2. sub-ct.stal vein; 3. m edian vein:   4, 5 ,6 , sub-
cbstal veinlets; . 7,. 9, median veinlets; 10, sub-median vein; 11, internal vein.

  The thorax is divided into the prothorax, mesothorax, and meta-
thorax: the crust of each of these is subdivided above into the scutum
and scutellum, while the episternum and sternum lie below. The
prothorax is very much reduced in size, it being almost rudimentary
in comparison with the well developed mesothorax and metathorax.
It bears on each side the "shoulder tuft" or '-pterygoid," covering
the bases of the fore wings. The abdomen has eight segments
present or represented, and bears no appendages The two pairs
of wings are attached to the meso- and metathoracic divisions.
The fore and hind wings are more nearly alike in their veining than
in outline. The fore wings are somewhat triangular in shape, the
hind wings rounded or square. Each wing has five principal veins:
1st, the costal: 2d. sub-costal; 3d. median; 4th. sub-median ; 5th,
internal. The costal and sub-costal form the front margin of the
wing and are called the costa. Tne median vein, as the name signifies,
is the middle one, and extends from the base to the outer margin.
The sub-median follows the median and extends from the base to the
posterior angle of the wing. The internal is small, often wanting,
and follows the sub-median. The legs are attached to the thorax and
are divided into the coxa. trochanter. femur, tibia, and tarsus, termi-
nating in a double claw with the pad-like pulvillus between. The
anterior of the three pairs of legs is sometimes rudimentary.
  The digestive system of butterflies is well adapted to the kind
of food necessary to them. They suck in their food through the long
spiral tongue by mtans of a sucking stomach. The oesophagus is a
slender tube extending from the mouth through the thorax; the




sucking stomach is attached to the posterior extremity of the cesoph-
agus just anterior to the true stomach. The true stomach extends to
about the fifth abdominal segment, then becomes much smaller and
makes several convolutions, enlarges into the crop, narrows again
into the rectum and extends to the anus.
  Malpighian tubules are present. Salivary glands and silk glands
are also present in butterflies.
  The nervous system consists of a ventral cord with several ganglia:
The so-called brain sending nerves to the eyes, two thoracic ganglia
sending nerves to the legs and wings, and four abdominal ganglia.


                              TARSU S.
 C. Thorax. I, scutum of prothorax; 2, scutelluml of prothorax; 3, scutum of
 mesothorax; 4, scutellum of nesothorax; 5. scutum of metathorax; 6, scutellum of
 metathorax, 7, spiracle" 8, episternum of meqothorax; 9, epimeron of mesothorax;
 10, coxa of midd leleg; 11. episterounm Of nietatlorax; 12, epimeron of matathorax;
 13 coxa of posterior legs.
 D. Rudimentary front tarsus.

 The butterfly breathes by means of spiracles, or stigmata, never
 through the mouth. The spiracles are arranged along the sides,
 never more than one pair to a segment.  On the thorax thespiracles
 are placed between the epimera and episterna of the segment. The
 spiracle is a small opening guarded by two valves which open or close
 the spiracle and also protect it. The tracheae are of two layers, of
 which the inner layer is of special interest; it is a spiral filament. In
 breathing the butterfly lengthens and contracts the abdomen. When
 the air is drawn in, the abdomen elongates, when it is expelled, the
 abdomen contracts. The heart is a long slender, jointed organ lying
 above the intestine.



                        Tnz USE OF THE KEYS.
  The paragraphs are numbered consecutively. Before eaeh will be found the
number of the paragraph, and a second number in parenthesis; the latter refers to
the alternative or opposite of the characters given under that paragraph. For
example we have in paragraph one, the character "wings-tailed," printed "1. (17)
wings tailed," further down the page we find paragraph seventeen printed
" 17. (1) wings not tailed." If the specimen does not agree with paragraph
one then turn to seventeen. Whenever a paragraph does not agree with your
specimen; turn to the number in parenthesis and trace from there. Compare
your specimen with paragraph one, if it agrees with that, pass to paragraph two,
and so on until the name of a species is found opposite the paragraph. Then
turn to the number given by the name of the species and read the description.
  Always trace the specimen first through the synopsis of the families, then turn
to the species synopsis under the family and determine the species. The number
after the species in the table refers to the description of the species.

                    A Synopsis of the Families.

  1. (6) Antennae clubbed but not hooked (sometimes slightly
   2. (3) Cell closed. Hind wings sometimes tailed. Size generally
              large or medium. Three pairs of legs fully devel-
              oped.   Ground   colors various, often white, black,
              or yellow ......FaPm. Papilionidre. Page 8.
  3. (2) Cell open.   Hind wings not tailed or at most with minute
              thread-like appendages.
   4. (5) Front -pair of legs nct well developed.  Size variable, often
              large.   ...     ... Fam. Nymphalldiae.     Page 16.
  5 (4) All three pairs of legs fully developed. Size small. Colors
              blue, coppery, brownish, or blackish.            ......
              Fam. Lycaenidae. Page 31.
  6. (1) Knob of antennae, decidedly bent or hooked. Sometimes
              not evidently bent and ending in a minute spine.
              Six feet adapted for walking. Body generally robust
              and head broad.    Size generally small. ............
              . Fam. Hesperidae. Page 34.

                        Family Papillonidw.
  The butterflies of this family are from medium size to large, rang-
ing from about one inch to five inches from tip to tip of the anterior pair
of wings. Most of them are prettily marked, their colors bright and
clear. The antennae are not long, are slender, and terminate in a
knob or club, usually straight, though sometimes slightly curved.
The body is short and slender, generally concolorous with the wings.
Three pairs of well developed legs are present, the first pair extend-
ing forward, the two posterior pairs extending backwards.     Wing
cells closed. Hind wings sometimes tailed.




                       Table of 5pecs.
 1. (17). Wings tailed.
 2. (16). Ground color black, with spits or stripes across wings.
 3. ( 4). With stripes across both wings. A bright red anal spot.
             -Papilio ajax. 1.
4. ( 3). With rows of spots across wings.
5. ( 7). With one row of spots across wings, which are on the
             outer margin of wings (sometimes obscure or want-
             ing on the fore wings).
 6. (12), Without ferruginous spot on anterior margin of hind
             wings.-Papilio phihnor, 2.
 7. ( 5). With two rows of spots across wings.
 8. (15J. Both rows of spots near the outer margin of fore wings,
             the inner often faint or wanting in worn specimens.
 9. ( ). Ferruginous or orange anal spot.
 10. (I1). Anal spot pupilled with black.-Papilio asteria, 3.
 11. (10). Anal spot not pupilled.
 12. ( 6). Ferruginous or orange spot on anterior margin of hind
13. (14). Under surface of wings with two rows of spots across
             both wings, and with two small light spots in the
             cell.-Papilio troilus, 4.
14. (13 . Under surface of wings with only one row of spots across
             wings.  No light spots in the cell.-Papilio turnus
             (form glaucus), 5.
15. ( 8). Both rows of spots very well developed and not marginal.
             Spots very large and deep yellow.  Tail black with
             yellow spot in the end.--Papilio cresphontes, 6.
16. ( 2). Ground color lemon yellow, striped with black. -Papilico
             turntus, 5.
17. ( 1). Wings not tailed.
18. (31). Color white, yellowish white or sulphur yellow.
19. (26). Wings without continuous. black outer border.
20. (23). Color white or white marked with black.
21. (22)  With black spot at the end of cell of fore wings.-Pieris
             protodice, 7.
22. (21). Without spot at the end of cell of fore wing, -Pieri&
             rapa, 8.
23. (20). Color lemon-yellow or white.
24. (25). With spot at end of cell on under surface, sometimes
             present on upper surface. Spot brown sometimes
             with ferruginous center. Species large.-Callidryas-
             eubule, 10.
25. (24). No spot at end of cell. Lemon yellow marked with black.
             Species small.-Nathalis iole, q.




  26. (19). Wings with black outer border. Color lemon-yellow to
  27. (30). Spot in cell of anterior wings, oval or round.  Ferrugi-
              nous spot at end of cell of hind wings.
  28. (29). Outer border very broad on fore wings without spots in bor-
              der. Yellow on fore wing forming a dog's head. The
              spot at the end of cell forming the eye. -Cozas
              ccesonia, 11.
  29. (28). Outer border uniformly black, narrower. In the female
               with a row or spots developed.-Colias philtodice, 12.
  30. (27). Spot at end of cell of fore wings, a faint bent iine.-Teria8
               lisa. 14.
 31. (18). Color deep orange with cuter black border.-Terias
               nicippe, 13.

                   1. PAPILIO AJAX, L1NN.
  Wing expanse from 2.5 to 3.5 inches, upper surface velvety black,
wings crossed by bands of pale greenish blue, usually three in num-
ber. The outer of these starts at the apex of the anterior wings
and extends across the hind wing as a row of spots, 4 or 5 in number.
The two other bands are broader but do not extend continuously with
those across the hind wing. A small bar and one spot between the
end of the cell and the other bar. The tail of the hind wing is 1 to
1.2 inches long, ind is black, edged with white or light blue. Bright
red anal spot. Between tail and anal angle two crescentic spots ol
deeper blue, also traces of a blue spot posterior to anal spot. Under
surface of fore wings much the same as above. The under surface of
the hind wings has the marks more clear, and in addition, down the
middle a bright red line bordered internally with white, then black;
externally simply with black. Anal spot large and somewhat curved.
Another smaller red spot is present outside the anal spot. Upper
surface of body black, sides with two or three ye'lowish white stripes.
Antenna  brown. common in wooded regions throughout Kentucky.
The larva feeds on the leaves of the paw-paw. Specimens from
Clay's Ferry, Kentucky River, Nortonville, High Bridge, Lexington,
                 2. PAPILIO PHILENOR, LINN.
  Wing expanse 3.5 to 4.5 inches. Body and wings black; wings
crossed by one row of white spots. Spots distinct on hind wings,
about six present, but gradually fading out on fore wings and not
reaching the apex. Hind wings reflecting either a deep blue or
bluish green color; with spots between the venules. Both wings are
edged with white lunules, which lie between the venules, about seven
being present an each wing. Under surface with the spots on fore wings



                BUTTERFLIES OF KENTUCKY.                    11

much larger and more distinct; usually five preseat. Hind wings
with seven large orange spots, each almost encircled by a black ring
and tipped anteriorly with a small white spot. These orange spots
lie on a bluish background. Tail .3 to .4 inc ies. Body with one row
of yellow spats along the side. A line of four yellow points behind
the head, between the wings.   Frequent throughout the State.
Nortonville, Lexington, Bowling GreeL, etc.

                  3. PAPILIO ASTERIAS, FAB.
  Wing expanse 3 to 4 inches Color rich black; wings crossed by
two rows of yellow spots. Both rows on fore wings parallel with
outer margin of wings Outer row of spots on fore wing round or
oval in shape, on the hind wing almost cresent-shaped. Between
the rows of spots on hind wing, clouds of blue or traces of them are
present between the venules. Anal spot deep orange, pupilled with
black and bordered posteriorly with yellow. Under side of wings
with same markings as above, fore wings having a small bar present
at the end of the cell. Spots on hind wings colored deep orange,
the inner row being much larger than on upper surface. A yellow spot
or bar at the end of the cell. Tail .3 .4 inch. Body black, with
three rows of yellow spots on side Two yellow points or dots
between the eyes, and two larger yellow spots on the neck. Fre-
quent everywhere.

                 4. PAPILIO TROILUS, LINN.

  Wing expanse 3 to 4 inches. Color black, wings crossed by two
rows of pale green spots. Often not more than one row well devel-
oped. In the outer row on fore wings from nine to seven spots are
present; not more than five spots present in the inner row. White
lunules between the venules on the outer margin of wings. Outer
row of spots enlarged on hind wings, the most anterior one or costal
spot. orange. Inner row of spots on hind wings represented by a
cloud, either light blue or green. Anal spot orange, small and not
pupilled. Under side of fore wing with upper markings repeated,
also with two small spots in the end of the cell. Hind wings, under
surface with spots much enlarged, deep orange in color. In the
inner row of spots, the space between the fourth and fifth spot is
occupied by a dash of light green scales. Small clouds of steely blue
between rows of spots on hind wings. Tail .4 inches. Common
locally. Glasgow Junction, Clay's Ferry, and Fulton.

                   5. PAPILIO TURNUS, LINN.
 Wing expanse 3.5 to 4.5 inches. Color bright yellow, with ter-
 minal border of black, much broader on hind wings than on fore



wings. Within the black border one row of yellow spots. The mar-
gin of the wings opposite these spots is yellow. Costa of fore wings
black, sprinkled with yellow scales. Fore wings crossed by four
black bars, the internal one (the one closest to the body) being the
only one that extends from anterior to posterior margin. The second
extends from costa to median vein. The next is just at the end of
the cell. The outer and smallest, is half way between the black outer
border and the cell. Spots in the border on hind wings present as
iunules, 5 or 6 in number. The first often orange, a few orange scales
sometimes present on the others. Anal spot orange, edged poste-
riorly with yellow. A crescent of light blue scales just before the anal
spot. The inner half of black border often clouded with blue. Only
one, the interior, of the four black bars on the anterior wings crosses
the hind wings. Margin of wings next to the body black. Yellow
hairs present on inner part of hind wings. Tail .5 inch. Under sur-
face of wings with markings of upper surface repeated, the black
somewhat sprinkled with yellow. ,Lunules on hind wings suffused
with orange. Pale scales sprinkled over the black border. Just
below the black border on the interior terminal line will be seen
traces of a light blue line, broken by the veins as they cross it. Some
orange scales sprinkled over the yellow on the hind wings. Narrow
black bar present at the end of the cell. Body black above, yellow
beneath, with black stripes. Very common everywhere. Specimens
from Providence. Lexington, Nortonville, Clay's Ferry, etc.
  Form glaueus. Ground color black instead of yellow, spots and
lunules present as in the ot ier form. The blue clouds between the
veins on the hind wings extend in a curved line from costa to in-
ternal margin. Bordering the clouds of blue internally is a wavy
black line and between it and the base of the wing blue scales are
sprinkled. The black markings of the yellow form are indicated on
the under surface The row of yellow lunules are much larger and
more orange than in the other form.
                6. PAPILIO CRESPHONTES, CRAM.
  Wing exptnse 4 to 5.25 inches. Color rich brown or brownish
black and yellow. Wings crossed by two prominent rows of large
yellow spots. One row begins at the apex of anterior wing, extends
inward toward the body and meets the yellow bar at the base of the
hind wings. Beyond the end of cell two yellow spots are present in
line back from the costa, also three other large yellow spots are
present, which extend from about the middle of the other row of
spots back to the posterior angle.  Anal spot orange, bordered
anteriorly with black then a few blue scales, posteriorly with
black, edged with yellow.  Tail .4 to .5 inch, black with yellow
spot in center. Under surface of wings almost entirely yellow. The





markings above are all repeated but very much enlarged. Cell of
fore wings almost entirely yellow. Hind wings, the half next to the
body, entirely yellow, cell with black bar at the end. The black line
through the center of wings enclosing seven crescent-shaped blue
lunules. Next to the cell on either side of the venule which extends
to the tip of the tail, are two orange spots. Body black above, yellow
on sides and below. Rather rare. Specimens from Lexington and
Brooklyn Bridge.

                .. PIERIS PROTODICE, BD. & LEC.

  Expanse of wince 1.3 to 1.8 inches. Male: white, with brownish
black markings. Broad bar at end of cell of fore wings. A more or less
distinct row of spots, three in number, abiut three-fourths the distant
from base to outer margin.  Hind wings chiefly white, several ob-
scure marks present in fresh specimens. Traces of rays present on
fore wings, along veins.  Under surface with upper markings
repeated. Several obscure marks on anterior portion of hind wings,
one of which is at the end of the cell  Female very different in ap-
pearance from male, looking almost as though the ground color was
brownish black with markings of white. Inner half of wings almost
entirely grey. Terminal band of triangular spots, which sometimes
meet the sub-terminal row of sDots. Hind wings also with irregular
brownish black markings. Under surface of wings with markings
repeated but paler, being much lighter on hind wings; apex of both fore
and hind wings yellow. Common some seasons, but generally rather

                    8. PIEIMS RAPAE, LINN.

  Wing expanse 1.6 to 1.8 inches. Color white with brownish bl Lek
markings. With black or grayish bar across apex of fore wing.
With a round spot pres nt in the first median interspace. Hind
wings with one black spot on the costa. Base of both wi -gs and costa
of fore wings sprinkled with black scales. Under surface of fore
wings: Apex light yellow, costa. and base sprinkled with yellow
scales. Two spots present. the one from above is reproduced and in
addit on, one in the last median interspace. Hind wings completely
covered with yellow scales. No markings. Female with base of
wings much more heavily sprinkled with dark scales. Apex black
and in addition to the black spot on fore wings of male, another spot
reaching almost to hind margin. Spot on casta of hind wings larger.
Costa of fore wings somewhat yellow. Under surface as in male.
Very common everywhere.



                    9. NATHALIS IOLE, BD.

  Size small. Wing expanse 1.1 to 1.2 inches. Color yellow, marked
with brown or black. Fore wings yellow with broad dark band
across apex, posterior margin of wing with a broad dark band also.
This band does not quite reach the posterior margin, and does not
extend entirely across the wing. Traces of dark rays are present on
both wings, usually two or three prominent on fore wings; one small
spot in first media t interspace. Fringes yellow. Hind wings yellow,
broad dark band on costa, sometimes a small yellow spot enclosed by
the band, base sprinkled with dark scales. Under surface of fore
wings same color as above. Costa orange, but the margin of yellow
sprinkled with black scales. Apex sprinkled with dark scales. Dark
band of upper surface reproduced, with two dark spots above in line
from apex to posterior margin. Hind wings sprinkled with darker
scales, looking greenish in color, no distinct marks. Very rare.

               10. CALLIDRYAS EUBULE, LINN.

 Wing expanse 2.5 inches. Color bright lemon-yellow, inner mar-
 gin of hind wings paler. Extending inward, between the veins, from
 the outer margin of the fore wings,are rays of raised scales-in males.
 The first five of these reach almost to the cell. The hind wings have
 a like border, though narrower. The male is without other markIngs
 above, the female has a dark brown spot with a ferruginous center at
 the end of the cell of fore wings. Costa and fringes brown, with
 brown at the end of the veins. Under side greenish yellow with fer-
 raginous bar at the end of cell of fore wings. Hind wings with a
 white or silvery spot circled with ferruginous, in the cell. Traces of
 other marks sometimes present. Under surface of female of the same
 color but darker, costa rosy, fringe ferruginous brown. The cell of fore
 wing has at extremity a bar of five rosy spots circled and separated by
 brown and ferruginous. End of cell of hind wings with two silvery white
 spots circled is the others, in a patch of brown and ferruginous scales.
 "On the fore wings beyond the cell are two rows of elongated, wavy,
 ferruginous and brown patches, one of three spots, extending from
 near apex obliquely inward. The other of two spots, submarginal
 and almost parallel to margin." 1Hind wings marked similarly, except
 only two spots are present in the first row. Near the base are six,
 more or less, round spots-two above the cell and two below, and one
 at the insertion of the wings.  Farther out and below the cell are
 three other spots. Fore wings sprinkled with ferruginous scales.
 Antennae are rosy, ferruginous at tip.  Head and prothorax rosy.
 Abdomen and all under parts yellow. No specimens in laboratory
coilec'ion. Rather common locally in Western Kentucky.




                 11. COLIAS CAESONIA, STOLL.

  Wing expanse 2.25 to 2.5 inches. Upper surface yellow. Both
wings with a terminal black border, much the broadest on the fore
wings. The fore wings might be descr bed as very dark black-brown,
with a central irregular spot of yellow in shape like a dog's heud, the
spot at the end of the cell forming the eye. The base of wing
sprinkled with yellow scales. Hind wings yellow with dark border,
between the border and the yellow a shading of orange. Two orange
spots at the end of the cell, one large and one small one. In front of
the cell of hlid wings a large, bright orange spot. Under surface
yellow, the spots at the end of the cell being pupiled with silver. A
sub-marginal row of minute dots across both wings. Dog's head is
also distinguishable on under surface, being of a much clearer and
more lemon-colored yellow than the rest of the wing. In the female
the dog's head is not so clear a yellow, being somewhat sprinkled
with black scales, and with a slightly bluish reflection. The bass of
the wings Is much more heavily shaded than in the male. Hind
wings with b