xt7jdf6k269g https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7jdf6k269g/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1937 journals kaes_circulars_242_04 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 242 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 242 1937 2014 true xt7jdf6k269g section xt7jdf6k269g ight
mm. Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
(4th Edition, Revised)
_ Practices in Seeding Meadow and Pasture Crops
Lexington, Ky.
March, 1937
V Published in connection with the agricultural extension work carried on by c0—opera—
non of thc College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, with the U. S. Department of
Agnculture. and distributed in furtherance of the work provided for in the Act of oongress
OI May B, 1914.
d 011

 (I () N T E N T S
Choice of pzisiure und inezidow crops . . . . ........... . ...., fl . CNW
_ _ _ the i
1 imc ol seeding ...............................,,...._,__ , Em.
Full seeding ....................,.................A, . J ml']
_ crezne
Spring seeding .,.,......,......,..............,.... , > in SC
Summer seeding ..........................,,......... U mhc
` ` whu
Reseeding old meadows and pastures ...,.......4....4...., IU mm
Nurse crops ..............................4............,. IU (mw
are 1
Sowing the seed .......................................i. ll mm
Rziie oi` seeding when sown sepzirzuely ......,........,4..... Il Hm
Pasture und meadow mixtures und rule of seeding .........., I3
is Lo
_ this
_ midi

‘ (Revised)
` Practices in Seeding Meadow and Pasture Crops
Frequent failures in seeding pasture and meadow crops are
_ I; extremely discouraging. These crops are expensive to seed, and
the money loss, in the event of failure, is an item of importance.
· l Even more serious, however, in many instances, are the losses which
4 7 result because of shortage of pasture or hay, soil erosion, and de-
creased soil productivity. \\’hile the chances of failure are greater
· N in seeding pasture and meadow grasses and legumes than with most
t, other farm crops, it is unquestionably true that many of the failures
i i ` which occur can be attributed to poor judgment in seeding or an
· lll unwise choice of seeding practices, rather than to unavoidable
_ ll, causes. It may prove highly profitable, therefore, where failures
are a common occurrence. to give the question of seeding practices
- ll careful consideration. Only in this way can the best choice of prac»
I ll tites he made.
V The choice of crops for pastures and meadows in Kentucky
depends upon a number of factors. The most important of these
are: (l) soil conditions, (2) length of time the pasture or meadow
is to stand, (3) kind of livestock for which the forage is to be used,
and (4) the frequency with which certain diseases occur. Cost of
seeding also determines the choice of crop in many instances. but
this consideration should not have as much weight as is often
given it.  
Kentucky bluegrass is perhaps the most desirable pasture crop,
under many conditions, that can be grown in Kentucky. The only
part of the State where it is sufficiently productive to be prohtable
without soil treatment is in the limestone region of central and
northern Kentucky, known to all the country as the "Bluegrass

 4 Kmz/ur/cy E.vlen.rion CI.)`('lIf(l)` No. 242 ·
Region." Experiments 011 so111e of tl1e soil experiment fields outside 3 crop
tl1is area l1ave shown [hilt excelle11t bluegrass can be grow11 by the plioe
liberal use of li111estone and phosphate fertilizers. Bluegrass in . mos
connection witl1 wl1ite clover, or other legumes, gives practically . oro];
per111ane11t pastures; and \\’l1Cl`C\'C]` the C()llLl`()l of soil erosion nutty I
sitates keeping rolling and steep land i11 pasture more or lcs 1 grov
l)Cl`l11£ll]Cl][ly, no otl1er pasture crop is so valuable as vigorous blur. pho!
grass. past
Orchard grass is 11ot so lZlSKll]g as bluegrass, but is fully my tiint
productive on good land a11d ll1LlCll more productive on soils of fivlil
moderate fertility. It should be regarded 1)1`lll1Zl1`lly as a pastuit ’ i-
crop, but it is also a fair hay crop. A mixture of orchard grass ami lcgu
lespedeza produces more pasture lll}(lCl` average soil conditions out Ulm
side tl1e Bluegrass area tl1a11 lilly otl1er (C()lHl)ll]llLl()1}. past
Redtop is not so long-lived as orchard grass, except on wu, he
heavy soil. For soil of this character tl1e best pasture inixture iv ‘ fm C
redtop a11d lespedeza. O11 uplands, redtop is valuable chiefly tri _ fm`;
furnish pasturage while slower-growing crops are becoming estab- l"' ll
lished, as it usually disappears i11 a few years. It is excellent to sow ll l`
witl1 bluegrass. l_lmi`
Timothy is tl1e best hay grass for Kentucky, except 011 wet laml. ml
where redtop is superior. Timothy is also perhaps tl1e best gras will
for short-ti111e pastures. Tl1e cost of seeding ti111otl1y is small. aml (lug]
getting a S[?lll(l is easy. Timothy is not a good poor-land gras. hm
however. l
A grass tl1at may prove of 1]lll(Qll value 011 wet land is reed canzuy gw
grass, wl1icl1 is not injured eve11 wl1e11 Hooded for quite long periwtly. Ul"'
lt is adapted for botl1 pasture and hay. Farmers who have wi gw
bottom land sl1ould give tl1is grass a trial. flllfl
There is 111ucl1 difference of opinion among farmers in Kentudy lm]
1 as to tl1e relative 111erits of various legumes, botl1 for hay and pasture. Us
Certainly 110 ()[llCl` legume produces so large an Zll]]()llI][ of hay <¤f fw
the highest quality as alfalfa, where soil conditions are favoraf>f<‘· Ml
This is generally admitted. It is often argued, however, that il f~ Cm)
11ot a practical crop because of tl1e cost of preparing land for ib  
growth, particularly tl1e cost of liming, and the difficulty of csliilt Ul
fishing it. It is 11ot 111ore difhcult to €S[lll)llSh than any otl1e1‘111cil€l0“' [Mm

 Pmclices in Seeding zlifeurlow and Pusltzrc Crops 5
Oumdc · (.,.0},, as any experienced grower will testify. The use of linie and
by [hc Phospliate is expensive but, at the same time, highly profitable on
TM in g most Kentucky soils outside the Bluegrass region, whatever the
cticalli <`l`<’l’ ¥l""m·
yum; Legpedeza is perhaps the inost productive legume that ean be
Ol. lg) gmwii in the State without soil treatment; yet liming and the use of
[S htm Phtispliate usually increase the yield of hay—and of course of
pasture also —— sufiiciently to pay for the cost of treatment in a short
ui],. N [inte, This has been proved conclusively on the soil experinient
mj]; or fields of the Kentucky Experiment Station.
[mum, . The annual lespedezas are by far the most extensively grown
M my legumes in Kentucky, which is indicative of their usefulness. Their
Us out innotluction has greatly simplihed the problem of producing good
pastures, because of their ability to grow well on worn land that
m wl has had an application of lime and phosphate. Alone, they are not
hmm i` . an entirely satisfactory pasture crop because they furnish pftstttrage
idly U) for it Sl1<>l`t time only; l1CI1CC they sllotlltl always be sown with one
_ Cm} ` or more grasses. The natural period of growth of the lespedezas
imw is when grasses are more or less dormant, and they furnish the
nitrogen necessary for a good growth of the latter during spring and
I hmyly fall. They reseed themselves almost indehnitely, and the forage is
I gm_ palatable to all kinds of livestock. In Kentucky, where pastures
Hrml ought to occupy a large part of the area of farm land, there is justi-
U ;)_m__` fitation in ranking the lespedezas as highly valuable legumes. ·
B Korean and Kobe lespedeza produce excellent crops of hay on
wm, good land, and a large acreage is used for hay production, partie
|Cl.i0d;_ ularly in western Kentucky. The hay is easily cured and of very
VC W good quality if cut at the proper stage. lt is not equal to good
alfalfa hay, however, according to feeding tests conducted at the
Hum`, licntucky Experiment Station. \\'hether or not the popularity of
Ilsllm lllC lespetlezas for hay production will continue is not (`Cl`l2\lll. Tlley
hm. Hy ¤tt‘<* more susceptible to tlrouth than alfalfa. .»\ dry _]uly may prevent
m.n'b[(,_ lit>t‘can—the most extensively grown variety—from getting tall  
in it p Cllnllgll to mow. and a dry ,·\llgll$I may similarly affect Kobe. \\lCC(lh
[Ul. ih are often troublesome because of the slow growth of lespedeza.
CMI} H"WC\'Cl‘. the lespedezas have many advantages. the two nl<>Sl inl-
mdow lltlllillll of which are rheapness of seeding and the certainty of

 (S Ken/tzc/cy Ex/cnsion Circular N0. 242
getting a stand. Korean lespedeza occupies a very large proportitm T pas
of the lespedeza acreage in the State, but there are enthusiasrie iml
supporters of Kobe, particularly in southwestern counties. The lim
Korean matures much earlier than the Kobe, and produces entrr the
mous crops of seed. There is thus little danger of its not l`CSCC(llIlg
itself in pastures. The seed yield is so much larger than that al abi
Kobe that seed can be sold profitably at a lower cost. It seemy lilo
likely that Korean is preferable for hay production, both because ir elot
can be seeded cheaper and because its early maturity is an advantage all}
in curing the hay. However, its early maturity is a disadvantage as
from the standpoint of pasture production. On the other lraml. rea
the Kobe remains green until frost and furnishes pasture two ai uev
three weeks longer than the Korean. It is possible that the laucr
may be used widely for pasture wherever it reseeds itself regularly. val
Common lespedeza, or Japan clover, is now seldom sown lll prc
Kentucky, but appears as a volunteer crop in many parts of ihe gra
State. lt probably is almost as valuable for pasture as the larger su].
l varieties. Tennessee 76 is much like Kobe; both are giant varietie~ `
of the common.
Too little is known regarding I.cs]2ctIc;a sericca, the perennial _
species, to estimate its value for either hay or pasture. Ul _
Red clover is not surpassed as a hay and pasture crop in slum  
rotations, and the fact that much land must be ll1]lC(l and phar xm
phated to grow it successfully, does not make it less desirable, lar. QM
as has been said, this treatment is necessary to profitable producriera
of any crops on 1nost Kentucky soils. Poor soil is not the only cause
of failure of this crop, however. It has been proved experimeutalli ml
that many failures are caused by sowing kinds of red clover that art ml
unadapted to Kentucky conditions. Varieties grown in or new gm
Kentucky for a long time, on the other hand, are well adapted. mi
.»\ small-growing annual clover known as hop clover (Trifaliraa (M
T /H`U('l(}llf)I’}I.S`) has become very abundant in Kentucky in retval [lll
years. lt has small, yellow blossoms which appear in _]une. lllllf WH
mature heads resemble a small hop » whence the name. lllllf [ll
extremely small seeds ripen in june and _|uly. The plant l~ il liu
winter annual. that is. the seeds germinate in the fall and tllt `ml
winter is passed in the seedling stage. This small clover ]>1`t*\l*ll" IW

]))'(I('[l(`U.S` lll Ser¢rI1'11g‘illzrrulow mn! l’u.vlu1c (1t.1,~pe~ Z
portitm pasture lor only a short time and cannot be reg;mlt;1ll as ol tttmtttttdltt
ttsittsett jmptlettttitte as a pasture crop. It may be of consirleratlstlte tsttltuttt ·-__
. "llte however, in adding to the sttpply ol` available iritrogettt tion ttttsstw wil
s ettttr tlte grasses with which it grows.
seeding .—\nother annual legume—yellow treloil, or hlatl;. ntttettlliitt :-7ii+
that ttl abttndant on limestone soils in Kentucky. This has sntt.;¤llll.i tstt;·ll§ltw=$t¤·
seems blooms which appear at the same time as those ol hop tlottttztt;. lltt
attse it tloes not grow so upright as the latter. The seeds att; ttttnttlltt llilllsttc
antage allalla seed in size and shape. Yellow treloil has been rettettgttttiwttll
‘ant:tgt· H, ;t valuable constituent ol pastures lor many years. lwtt swtt iu productivity ol old bluegrass pastures is undoubtedly tlttn; to ttlete
ol tlte growth which white clover makes in the pastures. thus retrettrltng tttltte
larger supply ol` available nitrogen.
Ulmyll Seeds ol pasture and meadow crops tnust be coveieel yell. slt;ttlll»»·»ws
K or the delicate seedlings will be unable to lorce their tray in ttlny
Mlm sttrlace. ll the surlace soil dries even slightly. the ge~t’nttttuatttEttttg;
I Pm- seeds may be destroyed. Evidently the chances ol gettntg ·gt»»~·»~·tl
lcv [my. stands depend greatly, therelore, upon seeding when tncwttsttttute tntttr I
Umm] dtttons are lavorahle.
V CHM I·`<1/{ S(’(’(ll}Ig'. Fall is a particularly good time lor seetlltttttg t.tt·~·tE¤~~t
mmm llttl easily injured by cold weather, because the soil does tttttt tltrtct
ml my rttpidly dttring this season. Practically all the grasses except t=t~l`tlE~.l.littll
I. nw grass may be sown early in the lall; and this practice is so getttt¤tt‘;tlll’¢~
dy sttttiesslttl that it ought to be [followed whenever possible. ltitdliitliti
{0/mm t>|`(ilt2tt`tl grass is not so winter-hardy as the other grasses atttl. ttl`1l=e*~.>
mm tlte seed is sown by the Hrst ol October, it is better to wait ttntll l..¤.¤t=¤
Thr tttmter. Not only is the chance ol` getting a stand* mutlt llttettmtt till ,.
‘[`],, llls §l"i|>¤l‘$ are sown in the tall, bttt the danger ol losing tln ~tt.·.ttt~:~l.
rl i` il llt<‘ lttllowing season is lessened. 'l`he plants betonte well e~t.tltllt.-ltr~;·~l.
H] [Ill. illltl lite tlttts better able to\vitl1st;m(l the competition ol tttt~tl.~ t.tt*‘ttt·~ll
`tl\llll" ' In the sense that a stand is obtained when germination is eutnplvteel. L5 Tl I·fJ¢"·i‘
lll the tttmearanee of the plants above ground.

 8 Kentucky Ex/tattsiott Circtt/ur N0. 2—l2
nurse crop the following season. Fall seeding of Kentucky blttegttttt Cum
is particularly advisable; as a 1t12tlLC1` of fact, it is usttally a waste oi Expt
seed to sow the grass at any other titne, under field conditions. In mn-,
Kentucky, the period when grass may be sown successfully in tht- mlm
fall extends from September l to October 15. September lt) to El} wits:
may be regarded as the most favorable time. Good stands may be 'l
obtained, as a rule, by sowing as late as November l; but the plantv bv ct
make such a small growth before freezing weather that they may be if es
lifted out of the ground during the winter. follo
. Few of the legumes are sufliciently winter—hardy itt tlte earlt ttsntt
stages of growth to be sown safely in the fall. Alfalfa is a very rapid- 4 oftet
growing legttme and, if sown early in September, usually becontes oltta
large enough to survive a moderate winter, especially in the sottthent l
part of the State. Summer seeding, to be discussed later, is mttdt dovt
better, however. Hop clover seed germinates naturally in tlte fall pero
and, apparently, the small seedlings are seldom winter—killed. l’rolt» grott
ably I`all seeding is necessary for the development of the plants of ;t fet
this legutne. Yellow trefoil, or black medic, is similar to hop clover ` gern
in ability to withstand cold weather in the seedling stage. invet
Sjzring S(’(?{fI·}Ig. \\'hen it is impossible to sow in the fall, grassts totttt
should be sown in late winter or very early spring. Good stands ol fottn
all the grasses except bluegrass may often be obtained by sowing in intpz
oats, provided the oats are sown in late Marclt or early ,·\pril and kept
not seeded too heavily. It should be emphasized that most of tlte tlttce
grasses are very cold-resistant attd are able to withstand freezittg so tl
weather and heavy frosts much better than hot, dry weather. Even taint
the sprouted seeds are not often injured by freezing weather. gent
There is considerable difference of opinion, even among vet`} .‘
experienced farmers, as to what time in the spring is best for seeding lteez
any particular legume. Getting a good stand is not the only consid- kille
eration, and the use of a practice very successful itt producing good late
S stands may often be responsible for tlte loss of the stand later. I·`ot X
example. tlte chances of getting a good stand of Korean lespedexzt and
are probably better front seeding itt early spring than front latet field
seedings: but lespedeza is easily killed by heavy frosts and there i~ tttetl
danger, itt early seeding. of losing the stand front this (nttse. hléllll » tititt
experienced growers therefore prefer to wait until late i\l2ll`i`ll ttl *"l\‘i‘

 ])l`(I(`ff(`(f.S` in Seeding tlleatloztt and Puxlttre Crops S)
egrass early April rather than to run the risk of losing the stand. On the
tste of Experiment Station farm, rather early spring seeding in a fall-sown
S. lu muse crop, or on an unprepared seed bed when sown alone, proved
n tht- more reliable than later seedings, but not better where the lespedeza
to El} was sown in spring oats or on a loose seed bed.
tay be The young plants of red and alsike clover are not easily injured
plants In cold, bttt the sprouted seeds often are killed by freezing weather
tay be if exposed on the surface of the ground. The old and widely
followed practice of seeding clover in late winter or early spring is
early usually successful if the seeds become well covered. This fails so
rapitl- · often, however, that a larger percentage of good stands is possibly
comes obtained from later seeding.
them The sweet clovers, or melilots, are similar to red and alsike
ntudt dovers in cold resistance. ln many lots of sweet clover seed a large
te fall percentage of the seeds are hard. Some hard seeds will lie in the
l’rol>» ground for a year or more without germinating. In most instances
tlfS of a few weeks’ exposure softens the seed coats sufficiently to permit
glorer ` gerntination. The poor germination of sweet clover seed led to the
invention and use of a scarifying machine which scratches the seed
rasst·~ toats. This treatment ensures prompt germination. lt has been
tdsol found. however, that scarification injures seed to sotne extent and
ng in impairs its keeping quality. Scarified seed should therefore not be
l and kept long in storage. Some growers think that scarihed seeds pro-
if the tlute weak plants, and prefer unhttlled seed. By sowing in winter. '
·exiug so the seed coats have time to soften, good stands usually are ob-
Erett tained. l·`or spring seeding, the seed should be scarified. unless
Ql‘I`Illflli1fl(')ll tests have shown it to be unnecessary.
ver} i\lfalfa probably should not be sown until danger of severe
edittg free/ing weather is past. l~\pparently the young plants are not easily
rnsitl- killed by freezing. but seem to be stunted and are slow in recovering.
good late Marclt or early April seedings may be regarded as safest.
l·`ot Xttmnzwr S('('(f/illg`. For summer seeding. land should be plowed
edexzt and worked down as long as possible before seeding time. The if
fatet field must be harrowed at intervals, to keep down weeds. This
srv f· Htkiftotl of handling· gives a mellow seed bed which absorbs the
fltmt , rainfall for the use of the crop. Seeding by the 2(lth of .-\ugust is
·h ol zttlvisahle if moisture conditions become favorable. In late summet.

 10 l{1»11I111‘/cy E.Yf(’ll.SlvO}l C1`1111/111‘1\'1;. 2~l2
soil 11oes 1101 pack so 1lZ11`(1 as in the spring`, and (Trusts very 1it11e_ [1 P;111
is possible, therefore, to cover tl1e Slllllll see1ls 11eep Cll()llg11 111:11 g111111 s1:111
stands of so111e l)2lSlll1`C :11111 ]11C2l(1()\\’ crops can be ()1)l2lll1C(1 on \\`U11» 11C\'1
1)l`C[)2ll`C(1 seed be1ls, with li111ited 1`2llI1[ll1l. l)C1`llZl1)S only :111:111:1 eros
[111l()1.1ly and ()1`Ch2ll`(l grass can be sown 10 2l(1\'2lllLllgC 111 l:1t0s11111- 110 ‘
IIICI`, :111110 lair success can be 11ad with tl1e clovers. \V11Cl1 see11i11g1 1110:1
are 111:11le 111 August without :1 nurse crop, alfalfa, ti111ot111‘, :11111 '
clovers give good crops of clean 11:1y tl1e following seztson, :11111 111111. gm
ard grass 111:111es excellent p:1st11re. WM
Slll]lIllC1` see1li11g of all`alf`a 11:1s l)CC1l practiced 111 lie111111·111·1111 ml,-1
llllllly years, and llllllly growers think it is tl1e best way to get :1 g11111|_ . mak
clean fiel1l of tl1is 1CglII11C. It aflords almost perfect control 011100111, yum
which is fil} llIll)O1`l£l1lL feature 111 sowing 011 weedy lfllld. POS:
Probably it is 11ot pr:1ctic:1l to sow [11110111)* Zlll(1 orcl1ard grass 111 pm
tl1e SLIIHHICY except where failure 1`ron1 fall or spring seed111g11;11 [hc
()C(Tlll`l`C(l, beca11se ol tl1e greater expense. is H
Reseeding old 111e:11lo1vs :11111 pastures is seldo111 ])l`()11l§l1)1('. |11·» 1
cause :1 depleted soil is usually t11e 1::1use ol` l1lC poor st:11111. 111111 ‘1"‘
so1l is fairly good, it lllily be top-dressed 1111111 11111e or :1 1)ll1)S1)11i111‘ 11111
fertilizer, or both, :11111 resee1le1l. O(`(12lS1()ll2lll>', 1l()\\'C\'€l`, ])1lSll1l`n practice 111 li011111<11 mil
:11111, as a rule, it is a wise o11e. The cl1ief 2l(1\'IlI]L{lgC ol` 1110 11111*1 wil]
crop is that it checks development of weeds. In many seasons 1111 111
1 practically lI'llI)()SS11)lC to prevent weeds 1·l`()l]\ (1CSll`()}'11lg $1211111% 111 W.]
young grasses :11111 leguines sown alone 111 1:111 or spring. 11 1S11l|1' 1111
111:11 l11e nurse crop (`1lC(`1iS 111e growtli of 11lQ grasses :11111 11·g111111* IUI
:11111 is111`te11 responsible for 11lL‘ loss 111`sl:11111 1l11ri11g 1)(?1`11l(1S111l1l`1
\\'C2l111C1`. Ho11·e1‘er. (11C(`t)1ll1)(}11l11)1l 11111113 nurse crop is not 11s11:11|1
so (1£lllgC]`()Ll§ :1s l11L' (`t)1Il1)C11114)11 of \\'(’L‘(_15. Lodging of 1111· g1;1111
(1111) isz1no1l11·r1::111seo1`1osso1`st:11111s, 1)111 111is 111:11 be :11‘11i<1<‘11 1" '1"`

 l’mclicc.s in Seeding Meadow and Paslure Crops l l
ttle. lt pasturing helds where growth is too rank. Pasturing in such in-
at gootl stances usually benefits the grain crop also. Besides checking the
inwell- tlevelopment of weeds, the nurse crop affords protection against
allallzt, erosion, and in Kentucky this is extremely important. Erosion may
te sum- be very serious on even slightly rolling land where pasture and
eetlingy meadow crops are sown alone on a specially prepared seed bed.
iy, auitl The amount of hay or pasturage furnished the hrst year by most
tl onli grasses and legumes is little larger, as a rule, where sown alone than
where a nurse crop is used. \lVhen grain brings a fair price, the
cky lot nurse crop adds to the return from the land. Low price of grain
a gootl. · niakes it more prohtable to pasture the grain crop. Many Kentucky
`weetlv. litl`lUCl`S, particularly in the Bluegrass region, sow rye as early as
possible and get good returns from both fall and spring pasturage.
grassin Pasturing the small—grain crop largely avoids the danger of losing
illg lien the stand of grasses and legumes in the event of dry weather, There
is no more certain way of establishing pastures or meadows than
this. It is especially valuable in establishing bluegrass pastures.
)lp_ Ik., i The advantage of a nurse crop for alfalfa, and possibly for sweet
Imp (lover. is doubtful. Both these legumes grow very rapidly under
WIN favorable conditions, and a good stand usually survives weed com-
`Hm.0, petition successfully. On the farm of the Kentucky Experiment
Jsimlylp Station. results in seeding alfalfa with a fall—sown nurse crop have
gym, il not been very satisfactory. Better stands were obtained by seeding
V with spring oats or by seeding alone, either in spring or summer. i
l·`or Kentucky, wheat is probably a better nurse crop than rye.
_ unless the rye is pastured. \’Vinter barley, if not too thick or if
gllllll" pasuired, is very satisfactory. Unpastured barley on very fertile
illllllll soil often makes such a rank growth as to smother the crops sown
C llllllf with it. Spring oats are rated as a poor nurse crop in the North.
msllli lu Kentucky, oats do not often grow very rank, particularly the
llllll lll early varieties best adapted to the climate. A light seeding of one
ls Hm. ul these early varieties makes an excellent. nurse crop, especially for  
“`gl_lll;li` ll’\[l<`~· lm
seeding attachment of the drill, when the nurse crop is sown. The .
seeds should fall behind the disks or among them, rather than ill md

I’racI[c‘es in Seeding Meadow and Pas/ure Crops 13
due tn front. Orchard grass and bluegrass seed cannot be sown with the
xls are t»·rass-seeding attaclnnent unless the seeding is to be very light.
reezing U A desirable practice in summer seeding is to use the culti-
ure tn packer before sowing the seed and to cover with a light harrow.
Heavi ff the soil is very loose, a plank or brush is better than a harrow.
sowing The clover seed drill gives effective covering if the seed bed is fairly
getting firm; otherwise it is difficult to regulate the depth of the covering.
honey ln sowing alfalfa or other crops in late summer, the seeding
lasting should be made either when there is sufficient moisture in the soil
WC in tt, firing the plants up or so little that the seeds will not sprout until
ted ln ‘ it rain occurs. Perhaps the latter practice is safer. A fairly good
sing tt shmver furnishes enough moisture to bring up the plants, as a rule.
l` nlm In sowing after a shower, however, the moisture evaporates very
n lantl rapidly from the stirred soil and may all be gone before germination
sks set is completed. In such instances the sprouted seed usually is de-
. gontl. ~ stroyed. Rolling the field after the seeding is done may prevent the
small surface soil from drying so rapidly.
t even i The horn seeder is the device most extensively used in Kentucky
cover- for sowing pasture and meadow crops, probably because it costs so
l“lll"‘l little. After considerable experience, it is possible to sow most of
*l‘l'l‘l‘ the heavier seeds quite evenly with this seeder. It is much easier to
l0*ll"~ get uniform (listribution with one of the ]`OfZll`>' S€€(l€1`S, l10\\'C\’Cl`,
’C“"*· and the amount of seed sown can be regulated more accurately.
causes The vvlteelbarrow seeder is decidedly the most satisfactory of all I
l, it t~ hand broadcast seeders on fairly level land. It sows evenly, and any
  ntzty tlesiretl amount of seed can be sown with accuracy. It can be used
fro/CH on windy days also, which is a great advantage. Since it sows a
strip l—l feet wide, from 25 to 30 acres can be seeded per day.
tloose Double-hopper wheelbarrow seeders are adapted for sowing light,
mill W (illilffy seeds, such as orchard grass and l)lllCgl`2lSS, EIS well IIS ClO\'€1`,
tohc timothy, and other heavy seeds. There is no other satisfactory
llmifl ` wetler for sowing these chaffy seeds, so far as the writers are ZlWHl`C,  
lic my ilfltl hand lnoatltjgtstittg is slow and difficult. \\lltCCll)Zl1`1`O\\' SCC