xt7k0p0wqc77 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7k0p0wqc77/data/mets.xml McWhorter, Lucullus Virgil, 1860-1944. 1915  books b929754m22009 English Ruebush-Elkins : Dayton, Va. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Hughes, Jesse, b. ca. 1750. West Virginia --History. West Virginia --Biography. The border settlers of Northwestern Virginia from 1768 to 1795, embracing the life of Jesse Hughes and other noted scouts of the great woods of the trans-Allegheny, with notes and illustrative anecdotes by Lucullus Virgil McWhorter ... with preface and additional notes by William Elsey Connelley and sketch of the author by J.P. MacLean ... text The border settlers of Northwestern Virginia from 1768 to 1795, embracing the life of Jesse Hughes and other noted scouts of the great woods of the trans-Allegheny, with notes and illustrative anecdotes by Lucullus Virgil McWhorter ... with preface and additional notes by William Elsey Connelley and sketch of the author by J.P. MacLean ... 1915 2009 true xt7k0p0wqc77 section xt7k0p0wqc77 
   Border Settlers



FROM 1768 TO 1795







Life Member  of the   Wisconsin  State   Historical  Society; Member of the Washington State University Historical Society, Author of "The Crime Against the Yakimas."


By William Elsey Connelley



By J. P. MacLean, Ph. D.




Dayton, Va. 
   To the Memory of

Brother and playmate of golden childhood in the monongahela hills; and to the redolent memory of springtime with its new life and bird song and the call of the distant "bob-white." of summer, with its sunshine and showers; and the "old.oaken bucket" and great willow tree: and the tracks of little bare feet in the dust of the winding valley road: of truants fishing and the weed-fringed "swimming hole" in the violet - spangled meadow; of the orchard and the cool shadows of the deep forest with its leaping, gamboling squirrels, skipping rabbits and drumming of the pheasant's wing: of the twilight gloaming and the cry of the whip-poor-will, and the clouds sailing through the silvery moonlight. of autumn, with its dreamy haze of indian summer and the floating, streaming cobwebs and the wind moaning through the gold and crimson wood-crested hills; of the scarlet, dropping leaves of the old "sugar camp;" and the cliff and the "big rock" with the lichen moss and the burrowing wood-chucks: of a little wood-wheeled wagon and an oaken-runnered sled; of nut gathering and wild grape hunting: and the night song of the "katy _ did" and "major's" deep baying in the darksome woods, chasing the wily 'coon. of winter, with its nightmare "term" of school in the distant "low gap;" of coasting, and of nut cracking and "telling stories" around the evening hearth of the radiant wood fire; of the low trundle - bed and the hallowed prayers of .devoted parents: is this volume affectionately dedicated by one who ever dreams of his native hills and of the halcyon days of youth. 

Chapter I

First Permanent Settlement in the Trans-Allegheny. Pringle Brothers of the Sycamore     Their History     Fugitives and Hunters        Employed by Simpson the Trapper     Brings Settlers to the Buckhannon Valley. Jesse Hughes the Indian Fighter     Nationality     Personal Appearance     Dress and Habits. Other Settlers, Hunters and Explorers     What Became of Them?     Military Records.

Notes     South Branch of the Potomac.     Indian Names:     Delaware,    Shawnee,     Iroquois. Monongahela, Meaning of. The Pringle Sycamore. The Hunting Shirt.

Chapter II

Dearth of the Written Record. Withers' Recognized,Authority. Fragmentary Narrative. Who Wrote Border Warfare?        Authorship Disputed. Claim of William Hacker and William Powers     Were They Wronged of Title? Powers Commander of Scouts     His Ability as Chronicler     Achievements of Hacker   -His Education. Partisan Writers Unjust to the Indian. Incidents in Modern Border Wars     Suppressing Facts.

Notes     The Hacker Family. Captivity of Mrs. Cunningham. Simon Girty. The Bonnetts as Indian Spies. Other Scouts. Military Records. Fraudulent Pension Claims.

Chapter III

Printed Record of Jesse Hughes     Sagacity as Scout     Fatal Ambuscade     Determining a Coward     Alone in the Wilderness     Kills an Indian     The Turkey Decoy    Is the Hughes Turkey Story a Myth?

Notes     Tragedies     Capt. Shaylor at Fort Jefferson.

Chapter IV

The Hughes Family     Birth Place        Traditions of Jesse     Father Killed     A Deadly Vow. Thomas Hughes Lieut, of Scouts     Bravery of     His Pathetic Death     A Country's Ingratitude. Other Hughes. Dogs in Indian Warfare. Marriage of Jesse     A Noble Wife     Settles on Hacker's Creek     Cabin in the Wilderness     A Dangerous Bed-fellow     Poisonous Reptiles     Jesse Shoots an Indian Hunter.

Notes     Woodson's Memoranda of the Hughes Family in Powhatan Co., Virginia. French Huguenots. Lowther Killed. The Washburn Family. Tragedies. Romance. Lewis Wetzel. McClellan the Ranger. Military Records. Singleton, Pension Agent     Unjust Ruling     Wages of Scouts     Land Laws     Tomahawk Claims     Unreliable Data of Settlements. Rattlesnakes.

Chapter V

Indian Settlements on Hacker's Creek. Discovery of Prehistoric Interest. Mysterious Finds:'   Village Sites     Unusual Remains     Burial Grounds     Mounds     Ancient Art     Indian Fields     Ash Circles.

Notes     Superstitions     Buried Treasure     Ghost Stories. 

Table of Contents

Chapter VI

Shawnee Towns on Hacker's Creek     Wi-ya-ni-pe, Birth Place of Tecumseh; Old Chillicothe. Shawnee Cist Burial. Tecumseh's Pipe     Wi-ya-ni-pe, the Indian's Paradise. Wild Fruits     Game     Fish. Alexander West, Scout and Hunter     Bear Fight in the Dark. Wild Boars. Hunting Stories     Dangerous Joke     A Fearful Tragedy. John Hacker First Settler     Chases Buffaloes     Exploration. Dearth of Bread     Pathetic Incident. Deadly Cold of the Mountains.   Death of a Guide.   A Mountain Tragedy.

Notes     Traditions of Mines. The Shawnees     Summary of History. Statesmen and Warriors.   Descendants of Tecumseh.

Chapter VII

The Stroud Family Murdered by Shawnees. Delaware Settlement on Little Kanawha. Captain Bull Friend of the Whites     His Village and People Destroyed     Treachery of the Settlers     Names of the Murderers     Pathetic Story of Capt. Bull.

Notes     Gaulouise the Trapper. The Delawares     Their Home     Tribal Status     Story of the "Woman." Renegade White Kills Indians     Shawnees not the Aggressors.

Chapter VIII

Terrible Culmination to the Bulltown Massacre     Unrestrained Fierceness of the Borderers     Jesse Hughes and Capt. William White Leaders     Indians Discovered at Indian Camp on the Buckhannon     The Surprise and Butchery     A Wounded Indian's Greeting     The Leaden Reply     Were the Victims Buried? An Aged Nimrod's Gruesome Find.   Interesting Tradition.   Abundance of Game

    A Bear Shambles.

Chapter IX

John Cutright, Scout of the Buckhannon     An Indian Moccasin Maker     Confusion of Names     Indian Incursions     Shoots Indian Horse Thief   Wounded by an Indian     Primitive Surgery     Revolutionary Soldier     Declaration for Pension     Services as Scout and Soldier     Branded an Impostor     Honesty Proven     Ability as a Warrior     Errors Corrected     Personal Appearance of Cutright     Hatred for the Red Race     Attempts to Kill Indian in Time of Peace.

Notes     Virginia Hard Pressed for Troops     Loss in Battle of Germantown

    Appalling Destitution Among the State Soldiery. Disputed Boundary Between Virginia and Pennsylvania     Hauteur of the Virginia Minute Man     Efficiency in Indian Warfare     Unreliability in Open Battle.   British Estimate of the "Shirt Man."

Chapter X

Requisites of a Scout Leader     Capt. White, Chief of Buckhannon Spies     Ancestry     Associate of Col. Crawford     Kills Indians in the Glades     Imprisoned     Liberated by Mob     Status of Border Society     A Romance of the Wilderness     An Indian Runner     Cunning Ruse     Mysterious Captive     Insatiate Venom     Indian Camp Surprised     Desperate Chase     Sickening Scene     An Indian's Revenge     Death of Capt. White. John Fink Killed. Timothy Dor-man, Renegade. Buckhannon Fort Abandoned. Jacob Bush, Scout and Soldier    In Clark's Campaign 1781. Incidents     Drink of Whiskey for Brain of a Deer. Descendants     Lieut. Jacob Westfall     Military Record     With Gen. Clark     Lochry's Defeat     Failure of Expedition. "Flight of 1770"     Doubtful Narrative     Shaver the Spy     Kaskaskie Campaign     Wounded in Battle     Suffered Injustice.

Notes     Lieut. John White Killed.     Deserters or Indians? Outrages by Settlers Laid to Indians.   Col. John Sevier.   Capture of Capt. White and Petro     
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Escape of White     Fate of Petro     Mrs. White Witnesses Killing of Husband. Monument to White and Fink. Treaty of Fort Stanwix. Indian Claims to the Trans-Allegheny.   Twenty Years War.

Chapter XI

Cause of Dunmore's War. Storm Brewing     Facts Perverted. Boone in Kentucky     Long Hunters     Indians Killed     Connolly's Warning.    Creasap's Declaration of War     Massacre of Logan's Family. Death of Bald Eagle     Killing of Cat Eye     Number of Friendly Indians Murdered     Indian Law of Reprisal. Storm Bursts on Virginia Border   Bloody Sequel     Murder of Cornstalk     Vengeful Shawnees. Jesse Hughes Defender of the Border     Hacker's Creek Invaded by Indians     West's Fort Besieged     Fort Abandoned.   Beech Fort     Hughes Memorable Night Run     Signal Cry from the Hill     Dangers of the Night Trail     Panthers     Wolves     A Daring Feat     Hughes Chased by Three Indians     Remarkable Endurance.

Notes     Character of the Kentucky Settlers. Franklin on War 1774     Indians Murdered East of Mountains     Sympathy for Logan. David Sleeth the Scout     Accusation of Singleton.   Jackson's Block House.

Chapter XII

Indian Raid in Tygart's Valley     Six Families Destroyed     Col. Lowther in Pursuit     Indians Surprised     A Deadly Volley     Capt. Bull Mortally Wounded. Jesse Hughes     Fiendish Deed     A Ghastly Joke. West and the "Yellow Boy"     Indian Horse Thieves     Two are Shot     Indian Idea of Justice

    Retaliatory Vengeance     Martha Hughes Captured. Attack on the West Families. Leonard Schoolcraft, Renegade     Heartrending Scene. West in Clark's Expedition 1781     Declaration for Bounty Lands     Personal Appearance.

Notes     Moccasin Making. Vision of the Red Doe. Story of a Forty Niner.   Poison for Indian Cattle Thieves. Gen. Clark     Difficulties Encountered in Procuring Troops     Contemplated Foray Against Moravian Indians. John Gibson.

Chapter XIII

The Schoolcraft Family     Its Fate     Five Brothers Swept into Captivity     Three Turn Indian     Career as Warriors     Two Unaccounted for     Mystery Solved     Schoolcraft the Hunter     The Phantom Deer.     Schoolcraft the Scout.

    Services along the Ohio. Indian Ambuscade Near Wheeling.   Mason and Oga! Companies Wiped Out. Simon Girty. Wheeling Threatened     Village Burned. Col. Broadhead's Allegheny Expedition     Scouting in Monongahela County. Wheeling in the Revolution     Besieged by Indians and British     Col. Zane's Defense of His Cabin     Choice or Surprise?   Testimony of Jacob Scott       Swiftness of Indian Descent     Length of Siege. Scouting in Kentucky     Campaigning with Gen. Clark.

Notes     Superstitions of the Wilderness     The Silent Trailing Dog     Singular Song from the Darkness. Pigeon Roosts     Slaughter of Birds. Last Great Flight. Col. Broadhead's Coshocton Expedition     Lawlessness of the Borderers     Executing Prisoners     Village Destroyed     Lewis Wetzel Tomahawks a Chief    Massacre of the Unarmed.

Chapter XIV

Jesse Hughes     Trapped by Two Indians     Cunning Ruse and Escape     Search for Lost Child     Kills Wounded Indian     Remarkable Fleetness of Indian Athlete     His Tragic Death.   Indian Motives.   Lone Indian Shot by West     

Table of Contents

His Miserable Death.     Indian Rock     Indian Spring. Flat-boating on the Monongahela     Hughes Attempts to Kill Indian Child     Barbarity of Combatants.

Notes     Conquest of Primitive Races     Similar Throughout World     Exterminating Australian Blacks.

Chapter XV

Buckhannon River   Name a Mystery     Conjecture of Writers. Indian Habitations     Village Near the Pringle Camp. Stream Named for Buckonga-heias, Delaware War Chief     Name Corrupted     Indian Ghost Story     Character of Buckongahelas     Washington of His Tribe.

Notes     Buckhannon River     Earliest Mention     John Buchannon Missionary. Ancient Remains     Mounds     Effigy Pipe. Indian Plurality of Names.

Chapter XVI

Frontier Posts     Construction     No Adequate Description. Buckhannon Fort     Size and Character     Ruins     Mill     Traces of Dam and Race     Burned by Indians. Invasion by Indians     Battle of the Narrows.     Hughes Kills Indian Leader. Cutright     New Shotpouch. The Regers as Scouts. John Bush Builder of Buckhannon Fort     Thrilling Adventures with Indians. Other Bushes     Confusion of Names     Desperate Encounter   Heroic Woman

    Conflict with a Bear     Death of Bush.

Notes     Intended Forays Revealed by Indians. The Reger Flint-Lock Rifle. Virginia Militia Regiments Revolutionary War     Field of Action. Size of Frontier Rifles.   Bush Land Claims.

Chapter XVII

Capt. George Jackson     First Military Company of Buckhannon. Col. Wm. Darke's Emergency Regiment    British in Virginia     Siege of Yorktown     Jackson in Gen. Clark's Expedition     Col. of Militia     Memorable Night-Run     Col. Lowther's Rangers     Thomas and Elias Hughes Officers     Jesse Hughes Subaltern     Indian War Paths     Canoe Travel     Portage     Hughes and West

    Scouting Tour     Bear in "Town"       A Great Hunt     The Spoils. Memorial Names     Joseph Hall.    In Dunmore's War     Old Camp Unearthed. Henry Jackson Surveyor     A Surveying Party     Camp Alarmed     Hughes Discovers Indians     Camp Abandoned     War Party Raids on Cheat River     Intercepted by Lowther's Rangers     Uncompleted Survey     Notable Land Suit     Settlements on West Fork River     The Halls. Wm. Strange     Lost in Mountains     Fruitless Quest     Gun and Skeleton Found     Traditions     Mrs. Strange     Twice Widowed by Tragedy     Marries Joseph Hall     Descendants. Mollohan Lost     Unsolved Mystery.

Notes     The Jacksons     Streams Named by Scouts     Kanawha and Monongahela Portage   Indian Remains. Col. Duvall     Commander of Scouts     Available Military Force. Simon Girty in Settlements     Two Children Killed     Mythical Indian Town.   Incident of Seneca Trail.

Chapter XVIII

Forts on the Ohio. Cattle Drover's Camp Attacked by Tecumseh     Account by Withers   By Ilildrelh. Death of Carpenter     Others Killed. Jesse Hughes' Narrow Escape   Rapid Flight     Indian Respect for Dead     Escape of Negro Captive     Hughes in Foot Race     Charging Gun while Speeding. Traditional Account of Carpenter Tragedy     Expedition of Revenge.     Shawnees Attacked 
   Table of Contents


on Shade River     Hughes Saves Indian Baby     Doubtful Narrative. Hunters Attacked     Death of Coleman.

Notes     Red Stone and Marietta Road     Tecumseh     First War Path     Abstinence from Food. Peter Waggoner Captive. Indian Dress Adopted by Bordermen.

Chapter XIX

Waggoner Massacre     Hughes Gives Alarm     Tecumseh     Prisoners Object of Raid     Indian Parental Love     Escape of Marauders     Eighty Miles without Food. Peter Waggoner     Captive Twenty Years     Found in Ohio     His Indian Family     Persuaded Home     Promised Return     Detained     Grows Restive     Despondent, Attempts Violence     More Strictly Guarded     Marries White Woman     Stories of Captivity     Traits     His Indian Wife Visits Settlements     Her Fate     Death of Peter     Captive Sisters.

Notes     Waggoner Family in Virginia. Chillicothe Destroyed by Ken-tuckians.

Chapter XX

Hughes Last Defense of Border. Carpenter Tragedy on Elk River. Folly of Adam O'Brien     The Big and Little Indian.     Superior Skill as Warriors     Cunning Ruse     Outwitted by Hughes and Killed     John Carpenter     Soldier of Revolution     In Battle of Guilford Court House     Border Scout     House Burned by Indians. Virginia Militia at Frontier Forts. Desertion. The Carpenters' in Dunmore's War.

Notes     Adam O'Brien     Type Virginia Bordermen     Love of Wilderness     Adventure     Companion Killed. Jeremiah Carpenter Captive of Shawnee. Pleasing Episode in Indian Life. Traditions     Omen of the Red Deer. Jesse Hughes Avenger.   Carpenter's Gun. Bell Decoy.     Settlers Killed.

Chapter XXI

Wayne's Defeat of Indians.    Receding of the Border.     Jesse Hughes Grows Restive     Follows Indians to the Wabash     Adventure at Vincennes     Chills and Fever     Moves to Kentucky     Wanders Back to the Ohio     Settles in Jackson County (West) Virginia     Game and Fish     Was Hughes a Long Hunter?    Tradition of Morgan     Dead Indian Flayed     Hughes Kills Friendly Indians. War Paths     Haynes Cave     Concealed Rifles     Fate of Drunken Indians.

Notes     Remarkable Pioneer House     Defensive Features     One Hughes a Long Hunter     Character and Achievements of Long Hunters     Prominence of Hughes Family. David Morgan     Atrocious Deed     Morgan's Descendants in Oregon War     Hereditary Depravity     Mutilating Dead Body of Indian Chief     Facts Suppressed.     Debauchery of Northwestern Tribes. Description of Haynes' Cave     Indian Sagacity.

Chapter XXII

Closing Scenes in Life of Jesse Hughes     Review of Eventful Career    -Judge Brown's Eulogy     Country's Ingratitude     Loss of Home     Dotage of Old Age     Hunts Imaginary Indians     Dies Alone in the Woods     Where is the Old Scout's Grave?     Irony of Fate     Jesse Hanshaw     Death of Mrs. Hughes     Relics of the Hughes.

Notes     Boone     Hughes     Kenton     Lives Compared. Drouillard, French Trader. 

Table of Contents

Chapter XXIII

Genealogy of Hughes Family     Thomas, Sr.     Jesse     Thomas, Jr.     Elias     No Peers as Scouts on Virginia Border     Sudna     Marriage to Col. Lowther. Job     Bibbee's     Descendants of Jesse.     James Gandee     Descendants of Elias.

Notes     Hughes' Race of Warriors.   Transformation of Names.

ChapteriXXIV i     (Biographical)

Elias Alias Ellis Hughes     In Battle of Point Pleasant     Who Was the Last Survivor?     Samuel Bonifield     Incidents of the Battle     Hughes Defender of Border     Career as Told in Declaration for Pension     Rare Unpublished History

    Captain of Spies     No Equal as Leader :    Captured Indian Ornaments     Gen. Wilson's Tribute     Marauding Indians Killed     Remarkable Elk Chase.

Notes     A Ghastly Tradition     Camp Site of Gen. Lewis Army     Historic Tree     Boy Homesteader.

Chapter XXV (Biographical)

Elias Hughes Moves to Ohio     Career in Western Country     Printed Records    John Ratlin", Indian Fighter     Companion Hunters     Kills Two Indians    Builds Blockhouse     A Night of Peril     Interesting Unpublished History     "Last of Border Warriors"     Sketches     Thrilling Adventure     Lieut. War 1812     Character     Personal Appearance     Traditions     Death     Burial Under Honors of War.

Notes     Bv Canoe to the Muskingum   On Foot to Licking River     Forty Mile Walk at Eighty     Record War 1812    Death of Sons in War    Siege of Fort Meigs     Capt. Samuel Brady     Monument to Hughes.

Chapter XXVI (Biographical)

Col. William Lowther of Nutter's Fort     Commander of Militia and Scouts     Residence     Descendant from Ancient Family     Nationality     Prowess in Days of Knighthood     Family Coat of Arms     Skill as Leader     Old Cabin     Exploration of Little Kanawha     Hardships of Wilderness Life     Touching Incident     A Mother's Tears   The "Starving Year"   "God Has Sent This"     Lowther in Clark's Expedition 1781     Best Record not in Annals     Interesting Testimony

    Companions in Arms. The Bonnetts. Jacob Bush. Sotha Hickman, Noted Scout and Hunter.   Nutter Family     Builder of Nutter's Fort     Its Location.

Notes     Col. Lowther's Slaves     An Interesting Story     Wild Life of the Pioneer.     Education. Richards' Fort     Disputed Location     Stockades     The Richards as Settlers.   Scarcity of Bread     Indian Pemmican.

Chapter XXVII (Biographical)

Printed Record of Col. Lowther     Distribution of Scouts     Commissioned Captain of Militia     Charged with Misconduct     Senior Officer     Merits of the Scouts. Capt. Bogart. Capt. McCullock. Indians at Neal's Station. Arrest of Lieut. Biggs. Indians Kill Whites. Dearth of Ammunition     Scarcity of Rations. Scouts Unpaid     Pay Roll of Scouts. Descendants of Col. Lowther     Records War 1812     Genealogy.

Notes     Charges Against Capt. McCullock. Alexander Lowther     Soldier War 1812. 
   Table of Contents


Chapter XXVIII (Biographical)

Henry McWhorter     Pioneer Millwright of West's Fort     Nationality and Clan Affinity     Three Noted Brothers     Remarkable Strength     Battle with Keel Boatmen     Henry a Minute Man Revolutionary War   Battle of White Plains     Building the Chevaux-de-frisc Across the Hudson     Contractor Turns Tory     Pilots British Ships Through Gap     Battle of Fort Montgomery     Mud Fort    Barracks Burned. McWhorter Moves to Pennsylvania     Enlists Against Indians     Marries     Moves to Hampshire County, Virginia   To Hacker's Creek     The Old Cabin     Packing Salt Across Mountains     Comrade Freezing

    Warmed with Beech Limb     Builds Mill     Capacity of a Mountain "Corn Cracker"     Act of Charity. Waggoner Tragedy. Death of Henry. John McWhorter   Boy Life in Wilderness     Eccentricity of Character     Hunting Deer with Bucket     Capt. War 1812     Public Career     Amusing Anecdotes     A Scathing Rebuke. Other McWhorters     Incidents     Genealogy     Soldiers Civil War.

Notes     McWhorter     Modes of Spelling Name     The Family in New York     Minute Men     Obstructing the Hudson     Family in Pennsylvania     Soldiers Revolutionary War.   Joseph Kester     Revolutionary Soldier.

Chapter XXIX (Biographical)

The Regers     Early Pioneers     Nationality     Founder of Family in Virginia    Soldiers in Revolution     Wonderful Hunters     Terrible Conflict with a Bear     Scouting on the Monongahela     Bitten by Rattlesnake     Thrilling Combats with Bears     Carrying Eight Bushels Salt     Tossing Man in Air     The Hercules of the Border     Cowing a Bully     "Wallowing" Two Men at 80     Descendants in War 1812-1861     Battle with Indians     Entering Bear's Den     Notice of Bozarth Tragedy     Adventure with Wolves     Mysterious Quarry     Chasing the Devil     Superstitions     Occult Healing. Genealogy.

Notes     Col. Wm. Russel in Revolution     On the Border. Col. Silas Zane     Revolutionary Record.   Siege of Fort Henry.   Bozarth Children Captives

    A "Brave Boy"     "Forenash Plantation." Ludicrous Incident     Kentucky "Col." Hunting Trouble     Hurled Over Rail Fence.     Hunter's Attachment for His Dog     A Touching Scene. Entering Den of Panthers     Gen. Putnam's Achievement Eclipsed.   Bloody Run     Origin of Name.

Chapter XXX (Biographical)

Jacob Brake Indian Captive     Life Among Northwestern Tribes     Pontiac's War     Return from Captivity     Knows of Copper Mime in Michigan     Company Formed to Develop Ore   Brake Pilots Party Through Wilderness     Arrives Near the Mine     Angered     Refuses to Reveal Location     Brake of Noble Birth     Father a German Baron. Tory Uprising on Wappatomaka     John Claypole Leader     Brake's Mill Rendezvous     Militia Overawed     Tories Scattered by Morgan's Riflemen     The Baron's Estate Destroyed     Returns to Germany. Genealogy.

Notes     Mary Harris Indian Captive. Brake Family. First Census of Virginia. Augusta County Militia on Border. Col. Paston's Appeal for Aid in Suppressing Tory Element.

Chapter XXXI (Biographical)

Cozads     Settlers on Cheat River     Nationality     Different Forms of Name

    Jacob Cozad, Sr., Moves to Hacker's Creek    Indian Incursion     Jacob, Jr., 

Table of Contents

and Three Brothers Captured     Youngest Killed     Cozad Tree     Bark Inscription     Flight and Escape of Indians     Jacob's Alarm Halloo     Knocked Senseless with Rifle     Saved by Squaw     Brothers Freed at Treaty of Greenville     Jacob Remains Prisoner     Found by Brother. Incidents in Indian Life     Indian Superstition.     Jacob Rescues Child     A Mother's Gratitude. Battle of Fallen Timbers     Rage of Indians     Jacob Condemned to the Stake     Preparation for Death     Secreted by Strange Squaw     Spirited Away. Indian Nursery Song. Huntercraft. Hardships. Spartan Training of Boys. Jacob's After Life     Marriage     Settles on Hacker's Creek   Baptist Minister     Sweat Doctor. Comments. Indian Veneration for Rattlesnake     Serpent Worship     Pictographs     Petroglyphs.

Notes     Indian Women Taking War Path     Modern Instances Cited. The Wahk-puch of the Yakimas.

Chapter XXXII (Biographical)

The Hursts'     Revolutionary Soldier Head of Family     Dies on Cheat River     Widow Moves to West Fork     Life in the Woods     John Hurst Soldier War 1812     Antipathy for Reptiles   -Den of Rattlesnakes     Narrow Escape     Panthers     Hair Whitened by Fright     Adventures     Price of Two Charges of Powder     Wolves     Dangerous Night Prowler     A Close Call. Daniel Hurst     Soldier 1812. Stock Driving Across Mountains     Slave Whipping     Taming a Slave Overseer.

Notes     Poisonous Snakes     Fabulous Size of Rattler     Death from Bite     The Copperhead     Extermination.

Chapter XXXIII (Biographical)

James Belt     Typical Mountaineer     Eccentricity of Character     Born Orator     Stickler for Truth     Midnight Lecture in Down-pour. Recreant Jack Condemned to Hang    Funeral Oration on Mountain     Timely Reprieve. Tanglefoot and Stump Speaking. Land of Milk and Honey. Soldier War 1812        A Martinet     Traits of a Napoleon     Cat vs. Batrachian. Sam     War-horse of the Valley     "Pards" in the Fray     Charging the Enemy     An Army on the "Knob"     Peace to The "Pards."

Chapter XXXIV (Witchcraft)

Witchcraft and Black Art     Superstitions of Early Settlers     Witch Spells     Gun and Shotpouch Effected     Witch Doctors     Status with Bordermen     Modern Belief in Occult     Human Steed     Strenuous Night Journey     Sumptuous Repast     Malicious Persecution     Destroying the Witch     Bewitched Sugar Orchard     Achievements of Elkany Roby     Potency of the Silver Bullet and Muttered "Spell."

Chapter XXXV (Carnivora)

Carnivora of West Virginia     Present Range of Black Bear. The Timber Wolf     Early Practical Extinction     Former Packs Swarming the Great Woods        Cunning Ferocity. A Narrow Escape. Woman Pursued. Hunter Lost. The Panther     Sly Fierceness. Bozarth Stalked     Rescued by Dogs. Sleeping Baby Saved by a Fice. Unarmed Settler Attacked     Decisive Combat in the Dark. Heroic Woman. Mail Carrier's Thrilling Adventure     An Eye Dual     Lonely Ride     A Scream from the Darkness.   The Masked Camp Fire   A Surprised 
   Table of Contents


Panther. A Scared Darkey     Lucky Knife Thrust. Hunter Pursued     Saved by Random Shot. A Startled Irishman. A Gamboling Panther Killed. The Last Bear. A Daring Woman. Humorous Bear Story. The First Buck. A Modern Nimrod.

Notes     Ruse of Wolf in Securing Prey     Deer Herded by Wolves.


Appendix 1

Draper Correspondence     Rare Collection of Letters on Border History of Upper Monongahela     Light on Disputed Points     Contribution by Col. Westfall     By David Smith     Authorship of Border Warfare     Hacker and Powers Letters     Jacksons as Pioneers.

Notes     Stroud Tragedy     Battle of Point Pleasant     First Shot     Lieut. Frogg   Withers Account of Killing Capt. White     Other Incidents     John Hacker     Hezekiah Hess     Soldier Revolution     Descendants     Henry Hinz-man     Record Revolutionary War     Genealogy     Rev. Wm. G. Hacker.

Appendix 2

Buffalo in Western Virginia     Bibliography by Draper     Additional Data     Distribution Throughout Trans-Allegheny     Last Buffalo and Elk in West Virginia     Gazetteer.

Appendix 3

Archaeological Examination of Indian Camp     Relics     Human Remains     Fire Hearths     Flint Implements     Ash Camp     Why Named     Legend of the Lost Mine     Ruins     Strange Rock Inscriptions     What are They?     Old Map     Mysterious Cave     Buried Treasure     The Swift Mines     Where Located?     Swift's Journal     The Judge Apperson Copy     Connelley's Letter.

Notes    Tragedy of Powell's Mountain.   Civil War.

Appendix 4

Concerning Tory Uprising on Wappatomaka     Petitions for Executive Clemency for John Claypole     Jacob Brake and Others     Brake's Mill     Baron John Brake. 
   House Occupied by Author, Just After Marriage to Miss Ardelia Swisher 

Jesse Hughes was a pioneer in Northwestern Virginia, that region so designated in early annals and now principally included in the State of West Virginia. It was, at the time he came into it, a wilderness. It was a country of hills and clear streams and magnificent forests. It abounded in beautiful valleys, precipitous bluffs, rugged cliffs, and rolling uplands stretching away to greater elevations, ending finally in some watershed composed of steep and lofty ranges, outlying flankers of the Alleghenies. These ranges are spread out without regularity or order. They are ever-present. They are formed, fashioned and separated by the swift streams flowing by their bases to the larger tributaries of the Ohio. Trees cover them to their summits. Sometimes the country bears a park-like appearance; and again it becomes choked with thickets of bushes, brambles, vines and enormous greenbriers. Often the tops of the ranges are covered with immense masses of sandstone, from which innumerable fragments have scattered over both mountain and valley. It is a country of moods. In winter, when the trees are stripped and their branches bare, groan and creak in the north wind, it has a bleak and savage aspect. In summer it is full-leaved, delicately-lined, and lies blushing and plentifully-promising in a flood of sunshine. In autumn it is glowing, gorgeous, magnificently colored, sublime. The changing hues of the land create an environment which begets the spirit of mystery. The dweller therein is lifted above himself   charmed. Something akin to worship rises in his heart as he views from some mountain-top his native land lying spread below him robed in colors more varied and beautiful than queen or princess ever wore. The mountaineer who wanders from this land may see vast plains covered with waving harvests, and a thousand hills covered with grazing cattle; he may live where rolls old ocean; he may prosper in the riches of this world; he may attain fame and greatness and power; but his heart is in the romantic hills and enchanted valleys stretching down from the Alleghenies toward the great river which flows out to lose itself in roaring breakers and washing tides, and which so fitly typifies human life. 


When Jesse Hughes and those who came with him arrived in this mystic wilderness, it was a solitude well-nigh tenantless. Indian tribes claimed it for a hunting-ground. They roamed over it in quest of game. They hunted through its mazes for the settler who dared defile it with axe and plow. In the contest for the land Jesse Hughes bore a part far beyond that of the average settler. He was one of those woodsmen in whom was concentrated the hardihood, the daring, the fierce and uncontrollable spirit of our barbarous ancestors in the fens and on the swamp shores of Northwestern Europe. The wild life of the great woods appealed to him. It suited his rancorous humor. It was in accord