xt7k0p0wqh0b https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7k0p0wqh0b/data/mets.xml Fairbank, Calvin, 1816-1898. 1890  books b92-164-30098390 English R.R. McCabe, : Chicago : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Fairbank, Calvin, 1816-1898. Antislavery movements United States. Underground railroad. Rev. Calvin Fairbank during slavery times  : how he "fought the good fight" to prepare "the way" / edited from his manuscript. text Rev. Calvin Fairbank during slavery times  : how he "fought the good fight" to prepare "the way" / edited from his manuscript. 1890 2002 true xt7k0p0wqh0b section xt7k0p0wqh0b 



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            "THE WAY."





            Vrcso of
   S. t. McCabe  Co.. Cbicago.



                TO THE

ZtDcrtp Guarb. anD tbctr Successors,

             WHO RECOGNIZE


               OF MAN.'


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A N presenting to the public so small a volume as a
     representation of so large and extraordinary an ex-
perience, I feel bound by sentiments of propriety to answer
beforehand the query of every one, perhaps, who has for
several years looked for its publication in a more extensive
edition, and at an earlier day.
    Upon my liberation in April, 1864, my health did not
allow me to write. Very soon thereafter the country was
flooded with books on the war.  Neither then, nor since
then have I been able myself to defray the expense of its
publication. I had written twelve hundred pages, sufficient
to make five hundred pages of readable matter; but every
one considered it too long. I had since that time prepared
what I thought could be safely published and put in market.
But men of experience, in order to avoid the risk of finan-
cial failure, advised condensation in this edition and wait
    Please accept this as my apology, and believe me
                            Yours in faith,
                                       CALVIN FAIRBANK.

   August, 1890.

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                      CHAPTER I.
Parentage Birth-Education ............................. 1- 7

                      CHAPTER II.
Slavery Unconstitutional .................................. 8-11

                     CHAPTER III.
Aiding the Fugitives-Escape of Sam Johrfson-Rescue of a
   Family of Seven-Meeting in Detroit, Mich., Twelve Years
   Later-Helen Payne-Cross the River with Fourteen Fugi-
   tives in a Scow-A Man, his Wife and Three Children in
   Peril-Cross the Dividing Waters on a Raft-"Get up
   Quick! do, Mr. Fairbank! "-Taken to a Place of Safety.. 12-17

                      CHAPTER IV.
In the Fifth Generation-A Slave Girl of Fifteen-Three
   Daughters Rescued-The Mother Would Not Leave Her
   Mother-Shotgun versus a Colt's Revolver .............. 18-19

                      CHAPTER V
Emily Ward-" I Come to Release You "-Cross the River on
   a Pine Log-The Apostle of Freedom   -- Aunt Katie"
   -S. P. Chase-Gamaliel Bailey-Samuel Lewis - "The
   Hunters are Looking for Emily!" - "There is my old
   Master! "-" Oh! I Beg your Pardon, Lady! "-The British
   Lion - John Hamilton - The Stanton Family -" Come
   Over to Kentucky, and Help Us! ........................ 20-25


Viii.                   CONTENTS.

                      CHAPTER VI.                    PAGE.
Eliza - Nicholas Longworth -The Wealth and Culture of
   Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cincinnati.
   Washington, New Orleans, Louisville, Frankfort, and
   Lexington - Hon. Robert Wickliffe - A "Black-eyed
   Frenchman "-" Eliza Upon the Block"-" Embodiment
   of Diabolus "-The Auctioneer Directs Attention to "This
   Valuable Piece of Property "-"Two Hundred and Fifty
   Dollars "-"How High are You Going to Bid"-" Four-
   teen Hundred and Fifty!"-" Who is Going to Lose Such
   a Chance as This!" - "Horrible! "-  Smote Her White
   Flesh"-" Boston and New Orleans Wept Side by Side "--
   " Fourteen Hundred and Eighty-Five!"-The Hammer
   Fell-Eliza Was Mine!-William Minnis-Left Free by
   His Master-Sold by His Master's Son-A Plan Laid for
   His Rescue-I am Selected for the Hazardous Undertak-
   ing-Go to Arkansas - Minnis Discovered after Four
   Weeks' Investigation - Disguised - Take the Boat for
   Cincinnati-Minnis Meets His Young Master-The Crisis
   Safely Passed-Pullum, the Slave Trader, Appears-Does
   not Recognize Minnis-Reach Cincinnati in Safety-On
   to Canada-" Shouldered Arms for the Union " ..... ..... 26-44

                      CHAPTER VII.
My First Imprisonment-The Case of Gilson Berry-Miss
   Delia Webster-Lewis Hayden-" Because I'm a Man!"-
   Pete Driscoll-"An Abolition Hole" -Eli C. Collins-
   Levi Collins-Dr. Rankin-Rescue of the Hayden Family
   -Three Indictments Found-Leslie Coombs- In Stiff
   Irons-Two Prisoners Escape-" I'll Fix You for Slow
   Traveling"-Petition for Miss Webster's Release-Plea
   to the Jury-"There is Not a Slave Legally Held in the
   United States of Americar'-Conviction-Fifteen Years
   at Hard Labor-Dressed in Stripes and Put to Sawing
   Stone ................................................ 45-53

                     CHAPTER VIII.
My Incarceration-Captain Newton Craig-Supplied with
   Money-Benjamin Howard-Francis Jackson-Ellis Gray


   Loring - My Father's Arrival in Kentucky - Promise of
   Pardon-Governor Crittenden-Cholera was Raging-
   Death of My Father-Buried among Strangers ......... 54-56

                      CHAPTER IX.
Pardoned by Governor Crittenden-A Lively Interest in
   Religion-Isaac Wade-Rev. William Buck-Governor
   Ouseley-A Boy Pardoned-William   Driver Gains His
   Freedom ............................................. 57-59

                       CHAPTER X.
Among Old Friends-The " Old Guard "-Escape of Two Little
   Girls-" Where Do All the Niggers Go To "-S. P. Chase
   Elected United States Senator-The Free Soil Party-
   A Revival in Progress -Visit Cleveland and Detroit-
   Meet Coleman and His Family-Sandusky-Invited to
   Speak at Chicago-Six Fugitives Hotly Pursued-They
   Escape to Canada-The Hunters Too Late-" Seen Any
   Niggers About Here "-" If You Can Run on the Water!"
   -At Buffalo--Abner H. Francis-James G. Birney-Two
   Anti-Slavery Parties-Garrison-Phillips-Smith-Pills-
   bury-Abby Kelly Foster-Samuel Ward-Fred Douglass
   -The Fugitive Slave Law-Henry Clay-Daniel Webster
   -"When the Iron Pierces Your Heart "-The Legislature
   of Massachusetta-Mr. Webster Censured--Henry Wilson
   -" Doughfaces with Their Ears and Eyes Filled with
   Cotton! "-John G. Whittier-" Conscience and Constitu-
   tion" - "You Must Conquer Your Prejudices" -' We
   Must Fight! " ............... .......................... 60-76

                      CHAPTER XI.

The Fugitive Slave Law Passed-James M. Ashley of Ohio
   Secures its Repeal-Mairiage of William and Ellen Craft
   -Theodore Parker-"Take This and Defend Your Wife!"
   - Fillmore and His Cabinet - "A Den of Thieves" -
   "Liberty Party" Convention at Buffalo - Gerrit Smith
   for President; Charles Durkee of Iowa for Vice-President
   -Sojourner Truth.................................... 77-84





                     CHAPTER XII.                   PAGE.
Second Imprisonment-Rescue of Tamar, a Young Mulatto
   Woman--Cross the Ohio at Night-Return to Jefferson-
   ville, Indiana - Kidnaped - Inmates of the Prison -
   "Axes to Grind"-Colonel Buckner-" Hallelujah, I'm
   Victorious! "-Hon. James Speed-The Higher Law..... 8.5-92

                     CHAPTER XIII.
Laura S. Haviland-" Bail or Break Jail "-Marshall Plays the
   Knave-Lovell H. Rousseau-I Was Slaughtered ........ 93-96

                     CHAPTER XIV.
Trial and Conviction-The Testimony-'; What is Linsey "-
   Leave the Jail in Irons-Judge Buckner-Judge Bullock-
   Fifteen Years at Hard Labor-Five Thousand Dollars
   Bail ..............................................  97-103
                     CHAPTER XV.
My Reception-Craig's Reign-Prison Government and Pri-
   son Life-" Black Hole of Calcutta" I................... 104-108
                     CHAPTER XVI.
My Own Experience-Craig's Conduct - The First Ten Ciffs
   from a Rawhide - Shot in the Back - The School of
   Scandal - Punishment Escaped - Zebulon Ward- If I
   Kill You All" .......................................... 109-117
                    CHAPTER XVII.
The Prisoners Overworked - The Smack of the Strap -
   " Hardy's Best"-Sixty-five Lashes-One More Scene of
   Barbarity-Playing Marbles .......................... 118-128
                    CHAPTER XVIII.
A Speech Before the People of Kentucky-'-The War is
   Inevitable '-Governor Morehead-" The Yankees won't
   Fight "-Senator K     -Senator John M. Prall .... 129-132
                     CHAPTER XIX.
The War-" Come on, Boys! Come on! "-A Prophecy Fulfilled
   -Thirty-five Thousand One Hundred and Five Stripes in
   Eight Years ......................................... 133-139




                     CHAPTER XX.                    PAGE.
Harry I. Todd's Reign-" That's My Daylight! "-"W What You
   Doin' Here" -Skull Fractured-In the Hands of the
   Government-Richard T. Jacob-General James Harlan
   -"Suddenly and Mysteriously Went Down "-President
   Lincoln Sends General Fry to Kentucky-A Bomb-Shell
   -Thomas E. Bramlette-" Come Before Me Forthwith"-
   Jacob Was Governor-"Fairbank, You are Going Out!".139-146

                     CHAPTER XXI.
Pardon-Reception in the North-"Now, Ben, I'd Give it Up!"
   -Reception at Cincinnati, Ohio-" Sing, Chillen, Sing!"
   -"After Years of Faithful Waiting "-" Barbarism of
   Slavery "-" The Horrible Whippings " -" The Staff of
   Life to Him "-Reception at Detroit, Michigan-Welcome
   at Oberlin .......................................   147-166

                    CHAPTER XXII.
Election-Vote at Oberlin-At Toronto, Canada-Field Day
   -Sir Charles Napier-" I am a Gentleman! " .......... 167-172

                    CHAPTER XXIII.
At Baltimore-Washington-Norfolk, Va.-John M. Brown-
   President Lincoln's Inauguration-The Levee-Sojourner
   Truth-" I am a Rebel, Sir! "-Fall of Richmond-Assas-
   sination of the President - "How  are the Mighty
   Fallen " ...........................173-181

The Elevation of the Colored Race-The Moore Street Indus-
   trial Society of Richmond, Va.-" The Romantic History"
   -" Pharaoh Outdone "-Death of Mrs. Fairbank-The
   Soldier's Award-A Much Whipped Clergyman-Marriage
   of Calvin C. Fairbank-Statement of Laura S. Haviland. 183-208


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           SLAVERY TIMES.

                "THE WAY."


               CHAPTER I.
M  Y parents were of English extraction. My father's
     grandfather came to New England about 1730,
and settled in Massachusetts, near what is now known
as Fall River, in the southern part of the state. My
father was born at Swansea, Massachusetts, in 1788,
during that terrible, war maintained by King Philip
against the white settlements in that vicinity.  He re-
moved to Windsor county, Vermont, while quite young.
   My mother, Betsey Abbott, was the daughter of
Jacob Abbott, a name now famous in the history of
church and state in this country, whose father settled


on Martha's Vineyard in the year 1750, where Jacob
was born.   His father, with others of the family,
desiring more room, removed to Massachusetts; and
thus the family was scattered throughout New England.
   When my grandmother was only twelve years of
age, being left alone one day, she was captured by the
Indians, and taken across the Connecticut river in a
canoe, then put on horseback, and carried twenty miles
into the forest to their settlement. She was kindly
treated, though carefully guarded; but she won the
confidence of the guard, who, after partaking-with her,
as he thought-too freely of "fire water," fell asleep.
It was her chance, and while all were locked in pro-
found slumber, she slipped her saddle from under the
head of the chief, hastily saddled and mounted the old
white horse, who knew his young mistress, and was
soon beyond the reach of her enemies, whom she heard
toward day-break, whooping on her trail. "Whitey"
knew his way home, and reaching the Connecticut
plunged fearlessly in, and swimming with vigor, soon
reached the opposite bank, leaving between him and
his savage, disappointed pursuers the broad swift cur-
rent of the stream.  He bore his precious burden
safely up the bank, and as she appeared through the
brush, a shout of joy rang out on the morning air,
from anxious parents, and friends, who had spent the



long night in searching, and watching, and praying for
   My mother was born at Stafford, Tolland county,
Connecticut, February 13th, 1787, but soon after re-
moved to Windsor county, Vermont, where she grew to
womanhood, surrounded, as was also my father, by
circumstances favorable to the cultivation of sanctified
pluck. On the first of January, 1810, at Judge Key's
residence, Stockbridge, Windsor county, Vermont, my
father and mother were married, and ever after in the
most holy manner, kept their plighted faith.
   Upon the outbreak of the war in 1812, my father
volunteered, leaving my mother, with my oldest brother
and sister, in care of the two families. He remained
in the service until a short time before the close of the
war. Then, in company with other members of both
families, he removed to a section of country considered
almost beyond the bounds of the civilized world-now
Pike, Wyoming county, New York. There in the
woods, on the third day of November, 1816, I first saw
the light of day.
   The ancestry of both father and mother, their sur-
roundiings in the new world, their experiences, all
tended to the development of energy, and courage both
moral and physical, and a sense of justice without re-
gard to race, class, or sex.




   My earliest recollections carry me back to the
forests filled with wolves howling about our cabin, the
trees so near that, falling toward it, they often crashed
upon its roof. Of society, outside of our own family, I
call up Christian communion with the neighbors. My
mother, being a pioneer, stirred up all susceptible to
gospel truth, to purity, charity, and spirituality. My
first impressions were from the Christian efforts from
house to house, in the prayer-meeting, the class-meet-
ing, and preaching by the circuit preachers. These
men were accustomed to traveling over two hundred
miles in the round of their circuits, preaching nearly
every day, and on Sundays three times, filling their
several appointments once in four weeks.
    As the time for the visitation of tfe circuit preachers
drew near, the people in the neighborhood began to so
plan their business, that all able to walk through the
forest-through mud, or snow, or both-from one-half
to two miles, might gather in the log houses-dwelling-
houses and school-houses-to listen to the preached
Word, to pray and sing praises to God, to encourage
one another, and bring old and young into the fold of
   The whole community then, so far as I knew, and
for many years after, were entirely devoted to the
work of the Methodist society there, and the promotion



of Methodism throughout that section of country; and
to this day the Methodist idea is the prevailing idea in
the neighborhood, and Methodism holds the balance of
power over an area of a hundred miles. That was Old
Genesee Conference, as it is now, and will always be.
And that wonderful growth and steadfastness of Chris-
tianity was the result, almost entirely, of the fidelity,
indomitable courage and executive ability of a noble
Christian woman. She was the instrument and power,
under the direction of the Holy Spirit, in bringing,
first, my father, then many other good men, with
their families, into the fold of Christ, following her as
she followed Him. And such a follower! I never knew
that mother to lay down the armor-to sleep on her
watch-to fail, in all kindness, to exhort, reprove, to
warn, to commend the religion of Jesus Christ to all-
up to the day of her death, December 18th, 1882, at
the age of ninety-six. So I inherited the will and the
power to be diligent in business, fervent in spirit,
serving the Lord. I very early felt the need of the
new birth in Christ, and week after week, year after
year, mourned over my alienation from God, and from
time to time promised myself resignation to His wilL
Often, when alone in the forest, I imagined myself
with an audience before me, pointing them to the
Lamb of God.




   During an extensive revival in the summer and fall
of 1832, in which Rev. William Buck, then a young
minister, labored faithfully and zealously as the cir-
cuit preacher, I was brought to see myself a sinner, in
a more distinct and convincing light than ever before;
and under the preaching of Rev. Josiah L. Parrish,
then of Pike county, New York, now a missionary in
Oregon, I was enabled publicly to resolve to renounce
the devil and all his works, and turn to God with full
purpose of soul, to lay all on the altar of consecration.
I heeded the call, and as soon as my means would
allow, began preparations for my work. I went to
Lima, New York, in 1839. At that time Schuyler
Seager was principal of the seminary, which was one
of the most efficient and popular institutions in the
   It was about that time that the attention of an
earnest class of people was turned toward a new and
growing radical institution at Oberlin, Ohio, founded
mainly through the efforts of Mr. Shepard. Rev. Asa
Mahan, of Cincinnati, Ohio, was called to the presi-
dency; Charles G. Finney to the pastorate and the
professorship of the theological department. Professor
Morgan and Professor Tomes, formerly of Lane Semi-
nary, were also called to professorships.  Professor
Tomes was a Kentuckian (from Augusta, Kentucky),



who, disgusted with slavery, had left his native state
for one in which no slavery could exist.
   I took license to preach in 1840, and in 1842 was
ordained an elder in the Methodist Episcopal Church,
and closed my course of study, graduating in 1844.
One incident, more than anything else outside of my
organization, controlled and intensified my sentiments
on the slavery question. It was this: I went with my
father and mother to Rushford to quarterly meeting
when a boy, and we were assigned to the good, clean
home of a pair of escaped slaves. One night after
service I sat on the hearthstone before the fire, and
listened to the woman's story of sorrow. It covered
the history of thirty years. She had been sold from
home, separated from her husband and family, and all
ties of affection broken. My heart wept, my anger was
kindled, and antagonism to slavery was fixed upon me.
   "Father," I said, on going to our room, " when I get
bigger they shall not do that;" and the resolve waxed
stronger with my growth.



                 CHAPTER II.
             Slavery Unconstitutional.
I GREW to manhood with a positive, innate sense of
    impartial liberty and equality, of inalienable right,
without regard to race, color, descent, sex or position.
I never trained with the strong party simply because
it was strong. From the time I heard that woman's
story I felt the most intense hatred and contempt for
slavery, as the vilest evil that ever existed; and yet I
supposed the institution provided for and protected by
the United States Constitution, and legally established
by every slave state; and when, previous to investiga-
tion, I repeatedly aided the slaves to escape in violation
of law, I did it earnestly, honestly, in all good con-
science toward God and man.
   Coming within the influence of active anti-slavery
men at Oberlin, Ohio, I was led to examine the subject
in the light of law and justice, and soon found the
United States Constitution anti-slavery, and the insti-
tution existing in violation of law. My conclusion in
regard to the anti-slavery character of the Constitution
of the United States was based on common law, on its


interpretation by the whole civilized world, and the
recognition of self-evident truth as the basis of that
interpretation, viz.:
   "Where rights are infringed, where fundamental
principles are overthrown, where the general system of
the law is departed from, the legislative intention must
be expressed with irresistible clearness, in order to
induce a court of justice to suppose a design to effect
such object."
   This conclusion enabled me to act without misgiv-
ing, as to my obligation to the General Government.
I was no longer under obligation to respect the evil
institution as protected by the Government, but was
free to condemn slavery and the slave code,-free to
follow the promptings of duty.
   This was afterward supported by an acknowledg-
ment in the United States Senate, by Senator Pratt of
Maryland, in resistance to an amendment to the pending
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, offered by William H.
Seward, Senator from New York: "That whenever any
person, in any free state, shall be claimed as a fugitive
from service, or labor, it shall be obligatory on the part
of such claimant to prove that slavery exists in such
state, by positive law."
   Senator Pratt said: "If the amendment offered by
the Senator from New York shall prevail, the reclama-




tion of any slave from any state will be an impossibility,
for not a State in the Union has slavery established b-
positive law."
   Finding, then, the diabolical institution unprovided
for-finding it positively prohibited-finding it to be a
conceded fact by our best statesmen, North and South,
that not a state in the Union had slavery established by
law, I concluded, upon the highest authority in the
universe, that slavery was chronic rebellion, and that I
was not only justified, but bound by the "higher law,"
to oppose it in defense of an oppressed people. From
that time I never allowed an opportunity to aid the
fugitives to pass unimproved; but when men and women
came to me, pleading the "Fatherhood of God," and
the brotherhood of man, I did all in my power to set
them free, subjecting myself to imprisonment and the
deepest suffering. Forty-seven slaves I guided toward
the North Star, in violation of the state codes of Vir-
ginia and Kentucky. I piloted them through the
forests, mostly by night,-girls, fair and white, dressed
as ladies; men and boys, as gentlemen, or servants,
men in women's clothes, and women in men's clothes;
boys dressed as girls, and girls as boys; on foot or
on horseback, in buggies, carriages, common wagons,
in and under loads of hay, straw, old furniture, boxes,
and bags; crossed the Jordan of the slave, swimming,



or wading chin deep, or in boats, or skiffs, on rafts,
and often on a pine log. And I never suffered one to
be recaptured. None of them, so far as I have learned,
have ever come to poverty, or to disgrace.   I have
visited a score of those families, finding them all indus-
trious, frugal, prosperous, respectable citizens.
   For aiding those slaves to escape from their bond-
age, I was twice imprisoned-in all seventeen years
and four months; and received, during the eight years
from March first, 1854, to March first, 1862, thirty-five
thousand, one hundred and five stripes from a leather
strap fifteen to eighteen inches long, one and a half
inches wide, and from one-quarter to three-eighths of
an inch thick. It was of half-tanned leather, and fre-
quently well soaked, so that it might burn the flesh
more intensely. These floggings were not with a raw-
hide or cowhide, but with a strap of leather attached to
a handle of convenient size and length to inflict as
much pain as possible, with as little real damage as
possible to the working capacity.




              Aiding the Fugitives.

THE first slave I assisted to escape was Sam Johnson
     of West Virginia. It was in April, 1837, that, as
I was gliding down the Ohio on a raft of lumber an
acre in extent, I saw, on the Virginia side, a large,
active-looking black man walking, with his axe on his
shoulder. He was singing:
       "De col' frosty mornin' make er nigger feel good;
       Wid he axe on he sholer, he go joggin' to de wood."

   I hailed him. He said he had a wife and two chil-
dren thirty or forty miles away.
   " Neber spec tu see 'em agin."
   "Why don't you run away" I inquired.
   "1 Dunno whar tu go."
   "Get on here; I'll show you where to go."
   "Ah, white man berry onsartain; nigger mo' so."
   I argued the case. He came on board. I swung
my raft to the Ohio bank, and, springing ashore, and
throwing down axe and hat, he shuffled a jig upon free
frozen soil, with a "hoop-pee ;" then picking up hat



and axe, and waving a "good-bye," he was soon out of
   There was a bend in the river, and when we had
rounded it, and came in sight of Mr. Schneider's, where
Sam had, by my direction, taken refuge, he and all the
family were on the bank waving hats and handkerchiefs.
Eight weeks after, I returned, and at midnight was
allowed to be put ashore in a yawl, as was customary in
those days, and learned that Sam had gone to Michigan,
or Canada, with one hundred and fifteen dollars, a part
of which had been contributed. I heard nothing more
of him for twelve years.
   A few days after I met Sam Johnson, we landed on
the Kentucky side, opposite the Little Miami river. A
tall, black woman of about eighty years came to the
raft, and among other things said:
   '"Chillun, yo's all frum free state, I reckon"
   "Yes," I replied.
   "Now, I'se got seven chillun, fo' boys an' three
gals, an' dey's neber married, kase ef dey do, dar chil-
lun will be slaves too."
   "Well, auntie, why don't they go away"
   "Oh, chile, ef dey had some one tu he'p 'um dey
could get erway. Now, ef yo' all'd he'p urn, dey could
go all right."
   Finally it was agreed that they should come down



after dark with their clothes in bundles, which they
did, and in the presence of their old rejoicing mother,
stepped into boats, and were soon beyond Kentucky
jurisdiction. Here we-Almon Carpenter and I-left
them in our boat with directions to land, if practicable,
just above, and make their way to the house of a
Friend-a Quaker-near, and there tie up the boat.
Next morning, visiting the spot, looking for the boat,
we did not find it; but pushing farther up the river
we found it, and learned from another Friend, of the
welfare of our charges.  Of these people I heard
nothing until after liberation from my first imprison-
ment, September, or October, 1849-twelve years later.
I was standing on the street in Detroit, Michigan, one
day, when a fine team, and wagon loaded with bags of
wheat, attracted my attention. I thought I recognized
Sam Johnson sitting on the loaded wagon, cracking
his whip with an air of importance. I hailed him.
   "1 Hello, there! Whose team is that"
   "Mine, and debts paid too."
   "Lucky for me, isn't it"
   " Don't know about that."
   "You didn't know that I was your young master,
eh "
   "Don't know about that. I had a master once:
now it depends on who is the strongest."



   Then looking at me awhile, he leaped from the
wagon, shouting:
   "Dog my skin! ef you aint' the fella helped me er-
way frum slavery!" and seizing me as I would an eight-
year old boy, he danced about in glee. I went home
with him that night- sixteen miles back into the
country, and found him independently situated, with a
good farm well improved and stocked; his wife and
children had been recovered through his old friend
Schneider, where he found his first free shelter on the
banks of the Ohio-and they were well educated and
promising. And I also found there the seven I had
piloted to the mouth of the Little Miami a few days
after Sam's liberation; every one with a farm of eighty
acres; and the men with wives, and the women with
husbands, and all industrious and prosperous.
   But to return.  Helen Payne was the next slave I
helped to escape. I met her between Washington and
Maysville, Kentucky, with carpet-bag in hand. I put
her on board a steamer, went with her to Pittsburg,
where I left her in good hands, and returned to Cincin-
nati, Ohio. She afterward went to New York City.
   Upon my return to Cincinnati, finding some colored
people in great peril, I crossed the river with fourteen
in a scow and placed them beyond danger. A hair-
breadth escape occurred during this crisis.  One




fearless, determined girl, hearing her pursuers talking,
and recognizing her master's voice, hid herself under
the body of a large sycamore tree that lay on the river
bank, so that her master, in his eager pursuit of the
others, sprang upon the log, and jumped over ber, as
she lay concealed under it.   They all made their
   A short time after, I learned that a man, his wife,
and three children. were in peril. They had traveled
from East Tennessee and were secreted in Lexington;
some one must be their Moses. I therefore started at
nightfall, traveling by a compass and bull's-eye lantern
at night, and lying in the cedars through the day. We
were four days and nights on the road, raiding corn-
fields and out-door ovens, and milking the cows, for sub-
sistence.  We crossed the river at last on a skipper
constructed out of slabs and a few planks, and were
out of danger.
   It was the very next day that, after resting until
about sunset, I was awakened by the mistress of the
   "M Mr. Fairbank, there is a boy hidden in the bushes
on the Kentucky side, and they are hunting him with
dogs. Get up quick, do, Mr. Fairbank! "
   I started up, and just in time to see the boy spring
from a clump of bushes to a narrow cove-like bayou,

               AIDING THE FUGITIVES.              17

and plunging in, crawl under the bank. Down came
the human and canine hunters, leaping directly over,
from bank to bank, where the fugitive lay concealed
with his nose just out of water. The dogs followed
his track to the very edge of the bank, then leaping
over to the other side, they ran round, and round, with
noses to the ground, in great bewilderment. I watched
with intense anxiety, expecting every moment to see
them plunge into the water, and so discover his retreat;
but it seemed providential that he should be left un-
harmed until darkness covered the world, when I went
with a skiff, and took him to a place of safety.


                CHAPTER IV.
             In the Fifth Generation.
IN June, 1842, at the foot of the mountains in Mont-
    gomery county, I think, I came upon an old
plantation, with cattle and horses and slaves. Many of
the slaves were so nearly of white blood, that they
could be distinguished from the privileged class only
by their short checked dresses, and short hair. The
lord of the estate, an octogenarian, made me welcome
to anything I desired.
   I became interested in a young slave girl of fifteen,
who was the fifth in direct descent from her master,
being the great-great-great-grand-daughter of a slave
whom he took as his mistress at the age of fourteen,
five being his own daughters, and all by daughters,
except the first, and all were his slaves. And now he
was expecting to make this girl his mistress.
   I remained there, a guest of the family, two weeks,
and became