xt7k3j390q35 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7k3j390q35/data/mets.xml Pritts, Joseph. 18491848  books b92-95-27763579 English S.S. Miles, : Abingdon, Va. : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Indian captivities. Frontier and pioneer life Ohio River Valley. Indians of North America Wars 1750-1815. New England History Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775. Virginia History Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775. Pennsylvania History Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775.Withers, Alexander Scott, 1792-1865. Mirror of olden time border life  : embracing a history of the discovery of America, of the landing of our forefathers at Plymouth and their most remarkable engagements with the Indians ... from ... 1620, until the final subjugation of the natives, in 1679.  Also, history of Virginia, embracing its first settlement, the progressive movements of civilization ... and a narrative of the ... struggle between the white settlers and Indians in north-western Virginia, Kentucky, & c..  Also, history ofthe early settlement of Pennsylvania ... and the subsequent warfare ...  To which are added, personal narratives of captivities and escapes ... Together with numerous sketches of frontier men ... Comp. from authentic sources / by J. Pritts. text Mirror of olden time border life  : embracing a history of the discovery of America, of the landing of our forefathers at Plymouth and their most remarkable engagements with the Indians ... from ... 1620, until the final subjugation of the natives, in 1679.  Also, history of Virginia, embracing its first settlement, the progressive movements of civilization ... and a narrative of the ... struggle between the white settlers and Indians in north-western Virginia, Kentucky, & c..  Also, history ofthe early settlement of Pennsylvania ... and the subsequent warfare ...  To which are added, personal narratives of captivities and escapes ... Together with numerous sketches of frontier men ... Comp. from authentic sources / by J. Pritts. 1849 2002 true xt7k3j390q35 section xt7k3j390q35 















                      MIRROR

                OF OLDEN TIME


    B O R D E R L I F E;
                       EMBRACING A
  HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA,
OF THE LANDING OF OUR FOREFATHERS AT PLYMOUTH, AND OF THEIR
   MOST REMARKABLE ENGAGEMENTS WITH THE INDIANS IN NEW
      ENGLAND, FROM THEIR FIRST LANDING, IN 1620, tNTIL
         THE FINAL SUBJUGATION OF THE NATIVES, IN 1679.
                           ALSO,

HISTORY OF VIRGINIA,
EMBRACING ITS FIRST SETTLEMENT, THE PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENTS OF
  CIVILIZATION AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT,
     AND A NARRATIVE OF THE LONG CONTINUED AND BLOODY
       STRUGGLE BETWEEN THE WHITE SETTLERS AND INDI-
          ANS IN NORTH-WESTERN VIRGINIA, KENTUCKY,
            C., C., INCLUI)ING ACCOUNTS OF ALL
               THE BATTLES FROM THE BEGIN--
                 NING TO TIlE DECISIVE BLOW
                    BY GEN. WAYNE, AND
                    CONSEQUENT PEACE.
                          ALSO,
              HISTORY OF THE EARLY
   SETTLEMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA,
PENN'S TREATY WITH THE INDIANS, AND THE STJBSEQUENT WARFARE
  WHICH MARKED THE EFFORTS TO SETTLE THE INTERIOR WITH DE-
       VASTATION, BLOOD AND SUFFERING UNTIL TIIE FINAL
                  ESTABLISHMENT OF PEACE.
                  TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

       PERSONAL NARRATIVES
OF CAPTIVITIES AND ESCAPES-OF STRANGGE AND THRILLING ADVENTURES-
                 PERSONAL PIROWAESS, c., C.
                    TOGETHER WITH NUMEROUS

           SKETCHES OF FRONTIER MEN,
THE REMARKABLE ACHIEVEMENTS AND INCIDENTS IN THEIR CAREER-WITH
      NUMEROUS MISCELLANEOUS SKETCHES OF DARING DEEDS,
                 REMARKABLE EVENTS, c., c.

 AS flies the sun over Larmon's grassy hill, so pass the tales of old-it is the voice of years
 that are gone-they roll before iue with all their deeds-I seize the tales as they pass a.,d pour
 them fOrth.-OssrAX.
 MY Coutnrymen,-These things ought not to be forgosten; for the benefit of our Chladren,
 and those that follow them, they should be recorded ill hiStOrY.-DR. FRANKLIN.

             COMPILED FROM AUTHENTIC SOURCES,
                   BY   J. PRITTS,
                     CHAMBERSBURG, PA.

         -'ROM THE PRESS OF DENNY, REYNOLDS  GEHR.

                       ABINGDON, VA.
                   S. S. M I L E S,
              'JUBLISHER OF THE PRESENT EDI'rION.
                          1849.

 












































              Entered, according to Act of Congreyt, in the year 1848,
                              Bt JOSEPH PRATS,
in the Clerks Office of the District Court of the United States, in and for the Eastern
                              District of Pennsylvania.

 




   PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.


   In presenting the present work to the public, but few words of introduc-
tion must suffice. The circumstances that called into existence the first
edition of "Border Life," and the reasons of its being likely to prove ac-
ceptible to the community were fully set forth in the preface to that edition,
which is also prefixed to this. The hopes and expectations therein ex-
pressed were more than realized, and the compiler has yet to hear a single
dissenting voice from the general approbation which the work elicited. So
successful did the book prove, that not only was a large edition of it rapidly
exhausted, but the compiler found a ready sale for every copy he could
procure at second hand. He was obliged to decline numerous solicitations
to reprint the work, for various reasons-the principal one being a desire to
remodel the compilation by a more methodical arrangement of the narratives.
This he trusts has been effected in the present edition, which presents the
thrilling incidents of that early period in the settlement of the country more
in their natural order of time and place.
  The compiler flatters himself that he has in a measure succeeded in his
anxious endeavor to rescue from oblivion many of the most remarkable and
interesting events in Amencan History. Scattered as these were before in
dusty and worn out pamphlets and manuscripts, they were in imminent
danger of being totally lost. They are now, it is hoped, placed in a safe repo-
sitory, by which they will be faithfully transmitted to future generations.
The History of Indian warfare is always fraught with scenes of cruelty and
bloodshed; and while the reader of these narratives will be often shocked
by incidents of horror and suffering, he will be also not unfrequently called,
in their perusal, to admire the heroism and constancy of a noble ancestry,
and to appreciate better the value of that state of civilized tranquility which
he enjoys, by contrasting it with the hardships and privations of those who
have gone before him.                           THE COMPILER.

 
This page in the original text is blank.

 




                           PREFACE.


   SEVERAL years since, the compiler of this work was in company, in a
stage coach. with twvo gentlemen of the clerical profession, on our way to
Philadelphia. In the course of ilte journey, the conversation happening
to turn upon the early history of the region of country througlh xvIlich we
were passing, one of our companions was very naturally led to touch upon
some of those remarkable and stirring incidents of border life, to which the
almost constant state of hostility between the white settlers and aboriginal
inhabitants, so abundantly gave rise. The other of our companions-a
gentleman distinguished for his piety, learning, and rarely surpassed pow-
ers of oratory-became so much interested in the subject of' discourse, that
he enquired with some earnestness of maniner wfiere lie bsiould be able to
procure a work from whichi he might become inore intimate lwith the de-
tails of thosn frontier events. To this it was replied, that it was to be re-
gretted that the written history of these tiues wvas so very meagre; and
that even what little has found a record in the detached-d and hoimielv nar-
ratives of some participators in these frontier adventures, or in the equally
unpretending and fragmentary chronicles of other, but contemporary wxri-
ters of their deeds, had almost passed from the reach of the general rea-
der-books of this kind having, become extrenielly scarce. The result of
the conversation was ant expression of an increased desire on the part of the
clergyman to ol,tain a particular work devoted to the subject, and of a do
termination on our part to collect as miany of the prinited fragimntnts of that
part of our country's history as a dilligent research inight enable us to pro-
cure; and from the collectiou, and suc h ad ditional resources as might iall
withill our reach, to compile a volume embracing wlhat-er msight seein
interestiun and suitable to the Oco1 jT andl scope of the desired work.-
Though vefrs elapsed wit hout p)Utilng US in pO'SceS.'iOcl ef thel( sought for
materials as fully as we xvlwIshed, wve flatt,-r ours-lves that wvc have at length
Succeeded in bringing togre tlhe(r such a collectioi of narratives, and detail of
advetitires, as 'tfrn sUtfliCiently copious, aUth iMIC, and interesting to j1ts-
tify commli tiii them to the press and thie ji idgi evn of the reading public.
  Iii p resenting this work to his countryu jn tCie compiler feels theat Le
has mistaken the American taste and g-reatlv overrated the valtic attached
to the contents of his book, if it does not me et with a wvrleoine reception.
It would be strange, indeed, if at a period wvhen even the miost extravagant
and frivolous creations of fnicv find ready consumption in the perhaps
growing appetite for the marvellous and romiantic, a narration of exciting
scenes, kinown to be undoutbted facts, and presented in the unadorned lan-

 


VI.



guage of truth, should be less acceptable. If the admiration and sympa-
thy of readers can be so strongly enlisted in the heroism and suffering that
never existed save in the creative imagination of the novelist, how much
more readily and rationally should their sensibilities be touched by the
noble daring, the toils and sufferings of the pioneers, seeking, amidst cease-
less peril, to convert a howling wilderness into "I a land flowing with milk
and honey," and preparing the way for us, their successors and children,
to sit down in peace under our own vine and fig-tree, where there are none
to make us afraid.
  On many accounts, we think our volume must be received with great
eagerness. As already intimated, there have been but few books ever of-
fered to the world, whether of real or fictitious adventure, so rich in varied,
thrilling, and wonderful incident. From the first sound of their axe on
the borders of the wilderness, through all the successive stages of improve-
nent, until the forest was gradually cleared away, and other frontier settle-
meents formed by other but kindred adventurers, tobe in their turn the
scenes of wild and daring exploits, interposed to shield the first against the
predatory incursions of a never-tiring foe, the original settlers of any
given portion of the country whose early history it is intended to illustrate,
passed through so many strange and exciting events that the unadorned
record of the life of any one of these back-woods-men, qppears far more
like an ingenious romance than a sober and veritable biography. We do
not purport to give a book made up entirely of the memorials of individ-
ual adventurers. For the most part our volume is filled with only the
most remarkable incidents occurring in the settlements, of which any ac-
count has been preserved. It is much to be regretted that the entire lives
of many more of the pioneers of civilization, are not recorded.-A few
such, however, are to be found in the following pages.-And we defy any
reader of the least pretension to literary taste, to take up any one of these,
the Life of Col. James Smith for instance, which is contained in our vol-
ume, and perusing it as a mere story book, independent of its value as a rec-
ord of very interesting events, and not pronounce that simple and artless
narrative one of the most charming compositions he ever read. It is but
recently we heard one of our friends, (alas! now no more,) a gentleman
of a remarkably classic turn of mind, and keenly alive to all that is beauti-
ful in literature, exclaim, unconsciously to himself, as he rose from the
perusal of it, "The untutored Defoe!"  We have often thought since
how appropriately the term was applied. We see throughout the whole
narrative, told in language always plain and simple as a child's, though in
some places, it is true, not quite grammatically correct, the same minute
yet not tiresome detail of circumstances, the same descriptive manner of
relating events as they appeared to have occurred, which have made Rob-
ison Crusoe a favorite with all, from the boy just beginning to read, or the
unlettered servant girl half spelling through its pages, up to those most

 



                                   in1.
distinguished for learning and cultivation of taste. But rich in wonderful,
yet at the same time apparently natural incident, as this best production of
Defoe undoubtedly is, we deem it to be even surpassed in that respect by the
humble sketch we have just ventured to compare with it. And what has
been said of this article of our volume, might be said also, to a certain ex-
tent, of nearly every one that follows. We have referred to it as a speci-
men merely because of its place, and not because of any great superiority,
either in matter or in manner, it possesses over a number of the other arti-
cles, except that it is somewhat more complete as a biography. Our
whole book throughout abounds with scenes and adventures equally ro-
mantic, and many of them are described as artlessly and as well.
  Indeed, what almost every one knows generally of the kind of life led by
the first settlers in the middle, and some parts of the western States, will
serve to convince him that our compilation must be a work of no little in-
terest. Almost every one knows something, yet how indefinite is his
knowledge, of the early history of this now flourishing part of the coun-
try. He may have some general notion of brave men starting out, with
their families, from homes of security, and settling in little groups in the
wilderness, erecting their log cabins in their clearings, and a rude stockade
sort near the centre of each of these little colonies, to which, at the alarm
of an invasion, their wives and children were seen hastily flying-of the
whole of one of these little settlements assembled at times of extraordinary
danger, and going from farm to farm to plough their fields or to cut down
their harvest, their rifles all the time at their sides, or ready to be seized at
a moment's warning-ot savages lurking in the woods, shooting down
whoever ventured to go forth unarmed and alone to his labor, then rushing
into the undefended door to kill or to carry into captivity, all the inmates of
his dwelling-of desperate conflicts between the white settlers and their
savage foes, sometimes one party victorious, iand sometimes the other-of
fugitive Indians pursued into the heart of the wilderness, and the captives
they had carried off, perhaps the wives, children, brothers, or sisters ot
the pursuers, rescued-of other prisoners, when pursuit was either unsuc-
cessful or not made, sometimes making their escape by the way, then cha-
sed by their disappointed captors, and if not again taken, wandering days
and nights in the forest, without food or the means of procuring it, and at
length reaching their homes, perhaps only to find them desolate; some-
times, less fortunate, bound to the stake, and expiring in tortures; and
sometimes carried to the Indian villages, adopted into their families, and
becoming learned in their language and traditions, their manners and cus-
toms, modes of life and of warfare, and then perhaps after long years of
captivity, returning to their friends, and describing all the wonders they
had witnessed during a sojourn among a strange and uncivilized people.-
But beyond these vague generalities, how few know any thing of the life
these settlers led. Yet who that knows aught of that life does not long to

 



                                   Vill.

know more Who that has heard of any such incidents as we have just
now enumerated, does not feel a longing desire to hear them described at
length, with all their attending circumstances To gratify such a feeling
as this was one object of our compilation. Whether we have succeeded
to the satisfaction of our readers it is for them to determine; b'it for our
own part, we repeat, we would not know where to seek, whether in the
pages of fiction or of history, a relation of events more romantic, or pos-
sessing a more absorbing interest, than many of the narratives we have
given to the public.
   But it is not merely as a collection of entertaining and wonderful adven-
ture, to be read for a winter evening's amusement, and then to be thrown
aside as a thing of little worth, our volume recommends itself to the Amer-
ican reader. It is still more valuable as a faithfil chronicle of the times to
which it relates. Decidedly the most interesting portions in the history of
any part of our country, are those relating first to the period of its early
settlement, and secondly to that period commencing with the French and
Indian war, and terminating with the struggle of the revolution. But it so
happens, that in the greater part of that region of country whose early
condition this work is intended to illustrate, these two periods exactly coin-
cide. Partly for this reason, and partly for others we shall presently men-
tion, do we deem that very region of country the scene of more varied and
stirringt adventure than has been witnessed in almost any other section of the
land-the incidents of a frontier settlement, and the incidents of one or the
other of the wars referred to, all taking place at the same time. In the cha-
racter of the aboriginal tribes who disputed with the settlers of this region the
occupancy of the lands, and in the features of the country where their contests
were had, may be found other causes both to multiply the adventures and to
render them remarkable, beyond those of any other of our frontier settle-
ments. The Indians who here resisted the advance of civilization, were
certainly the most heroic and warlike race that ever claimed a portion of
the territory we now call our own, and they kept up a more prolonged
border warfare than was elsewhere witnessed in defence of it. During a
great part of this protracted warfare, the white settlements were on the
eastern side of the mountains, and the Indian villages on the western; the
mountainous district between, while it served as a barrier to the tide of
civilization, affording secure hiding places to small war parties of the sav-
ages, whence they could wait a favorable opportunity, and make an unex-
pected descent upon the settlements, and then again sheltering themselves
in the fastnesses of the hills until at their leisure they could make good
their retreat. And when the intrepid pioneers at length ventured to cross
the mountains and establish themselves in the western valley, they were so
fewv in number, and removed so far beyond the reach of any assistance
their countrymen might have rendered them, that they were enabled to
maintain themselves in their new homes against the formidable attacks of

 


Mx.



their far more numerous adversaries, only by engaging in the most despe-
rate conflicts. During such a period, and in such a condition of the fron-
tiers, more remarkable scenes must have been enacted every year, than
have been witnessed within the same extent of country, in any half a cen-
tury since. - But, for many reasons, it is of this very period we know the
least. The adventurers had too much to do to write their own history.-
Indeed the most of them knew far better how to wield the axe or the rifle
than the pen. And even of those who live to enjoy, in the evening of their
days, the quietness of a safe and peaceful home, and who were skilled
enough to record the various adventures of which they had been witnesses
or had borne a part, few, it is evident, thought the occurrences of their
eventful lives worth the trouble of narrating. Such incidents as to us
would appear strange, were to them of every-day occurrence, and perhaps
they thought as little of them in many instances as the men of our own
day do of the ordinary events of theirs. We suspect, however, that of the
few memorials of the times that have been in print, some have been lost.-
They may have fallen into the hands of those whose bad taste would lead
them to despise the homeliness of the style in which they wvere written,
and to cast them aside among the rubbish of forgotten things. This we
know, that it was with great difficulty we were enabled to procure a num-
ber of the most interesting narratives in our volume. The copies of them
to be found must be extremely scarce. What few remain of these homely,
but at the same time valuable and highly entertaining productions, it is
one main object of our publication to preserve. It is a duty which we of
the present generation owe to the memory of the pioneers of civilization
in the region where we dwell, to gather up with religious care whatever
records of the times there are left, and, studying them wvell, to transmit them
in as enduring a form as possible to the generations that succeed us. We,
the children of these hardy adventurers, and the posterity that comes after
us, should know how much we are indebted to them, in order to appreciate
as we ought the blessings we enjoy, purchased and secured to us at such
an expense of peril, suffering, and toil. How different from ours is the
life they led! But where, save in these fragments of history we have en-
deavored to snatch from oblivion, can we obtain a correct knowledge of
their times If we form an idea of them from a comparison with what at
present we may see going on, our impressions must be altogether wrong.
There is nothing in the world now that in the least resembles the border
scenes of that period.-The frontier adventurers of our own times, differ as
much from those of that day. in all their habits and circumstances of life,
as the open prairie lands, where the settler now finds his field ready for
the plough, differ from the thickly wooded country, where the early pio-
neer cut fiis way through the forest to make himself a farm.
  From the materials in our hands, we might have attempted a general
outline of the history of the period we have undertaken to illustrate; we

 


                                   X.

might have given a more connected narrative of the frontier events we
wished to preserve; and conclude with a general description of border
life and border character of the period. Such attempts have been often
made. But they are usually wanting in interest; they fail to give any
vivid impressions of what they describe; and very frequently they are
only calculated to mislead. We have chosen rather to give our Incidents
of Border Life in detached pieces as we found them. And especially
where the adventurers themselves, or those who were their contemporaries,
have related the events of their times, we have greatly preferred preserv-
ing their own stories in their own homely language. Their deeds are best
told in their own words. We have scarcely changed a syllable. This the
taste of some may condemn, but in our opinion it is one of the chief merits
of the work.-To have altered the style of the witnesses would have greatly
marred and weakened their evidence.-To have attempted to improve the
pictures they have drawn, would only have destroyed their identity; they
would have been no longer, as they now are, perfect representations of
border life-scenes of days gone by, fixed, at the time, in enduring colors,
by the rude but faithful artists who were witnesses of what they paint
with such untutored yet such graphic skill.



 




CONTENTS.



                                                     PAGE.
NEW ENGLAND.-CHAP. I.-Discovery of America by Columbus, 13
                       II.-Landing of our Forefathers at Ply-
                            moutM, -                   18
                       Ill.-Hostilities with the Natives,  - 25
VIRGINIA-History of,             -       -- 62
           Braddock's Defeat,                         109
           Border Warfare,            -121
PENNSYLVANIA-History of its early settlement,        - 315
                 Border Warfare,-        -          -318
PERSONAL NARRATIVES.-Of Col. James Smith, -          - 385
                          Of John M'Cullough, Esq.,    - 455
                          Ot Richard Bard, Esq.,    - 473
                          Of Lieut. Moses Van Campen, - 481
                isso      Of Mr. Catlin,-           - 609
ADVENTURES-Of Capt. Samuel Brady,-                   - 491
               Of the Whetzels,-        -- 513
               Of Col. Daniel Boone,-    -          -545
               Of Simon Kenton, -     -   -         - 573
               Of Gen. Benjamin Logan,  -         -   593
               Of May, Johnston, Flinn, and Skiles,     - 621
               Of Ward, Calvin, and Kenton, -      -  -  -644
               Of Ward, Baker, and Kenton, --   -   -648
               Of Capt William Hubbell, -   -   -   -649
               Of Alexander M'Connel, - -   -   -   -654
               Of Robert and Samuel M'Afee, --  -   -656
               Of Bryant and Hogan,                 - 657
      "C       Of Mrs. Woods,-    -    -    -       -659
               Of Davis, Caffree, and M'Clure,      - 660
               Of Francis Downing,   -      - -     -662
               Of Col. Thomas Marshall, -           - 663
               Of Captain James Waard,  -         -   664
               Of The Widow Scraggs, -  -           - 666
               Of John Merril,                      - 668
FRONTIER MEN.-Gen. Wayne, Capt. Wells,-  -           - 533
   cc     F   William Kennan,-              -       -541
BLACK HAWK WAR,-            -                        - 601
THE LOST SISTER,-Valley of Wyoming,-    -            - 669
MURDER OF MISS M'CREA,-         -                    - 673
INCIDENTS,                    ---675
THE CAPTURED CHILDREN,     -      -       -          - 678
THE DEAD CLEARING, -                                 - 685
THE LAST ARROW,-                         - -         - 691
INDIAN PARENTS AT THEIR CHILD'S GRAVE, --   -    -   - 699

 
This page in the original text is blank.


 



                    H I ST ORY

OF THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA-OF THE LANDING OF'
  OUR FOREFATHERS, AT PLYMOUTH, AND OF THE IR
  MOST REMARKABLE ENGAGEMENTS WITH THE INDI-
  ANS IN NEW    ENGLAND, FROM THEIR FIRST LANDING.
  IN 1620, UNTIL THE FINAL SUBJUGATION OF THE, NA-
  TIVES, IN 1679.-Bv H. TRUImBULL.-1812.


                        CHAPTER 1.

 DISCOVERY OF AMERICA BY COLUMBUS.

 NMANKIND owe the discovery of the Western World to the golds
 the silver, the precious stones, the spices, silks, and costly manufac-
 tures of the East; anrd even these incentives were, for a considerable
 time, insufficient lo prompt the undertaking, although the most skill-
 ful navigator of the age proffered to risk his life in the attempt.
 CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, who was destined to the high honor ot
 revealing a new hemisphere to Europeans, was by birth a (enoese,
 who had been early trained to a seafaring life, and, having acquired
 every branch of knowledge connected with that profession, was no
 less distinguished by his skill and abilities, than for his intrepid and
 percevering spirit.-This man, when about forty years of age, had
 lormed the great idea of reaching the East Indies by sailing west-
 ward; but, as his fortune was very small, and the attempt required
 very effectual patronage, desirous that his native country should profit
 by his success, he laid his plan before the Senate of Genoa, but the
 scheme appearing chimerical, it was rejected.-He then repaired to
 the Court of Portugal: and although the Portuguese were at that
 time distinguished for their commercial spirit, and JOnN 1I., who then
 reigned, was a discerning and enterprising prince, yet the preposses-
 sions of the great men in his court, to whom the matter was referred.
 caused COLUMBUS filually to fail in his attempt there also. He next
 applied to FERDINAND and ISABELLA, King and Queen of Arragon and
 (Castile, and at the same time sent his brother BARTHOLOMEW (who
 tbllowed the same profession, and who was well qualified to fill the
 immediate place under such a leader) to England, to lay the proposal
before HENRY VII., which, likewise, very fortunately for the future
well-being of the country, met with no success.-Many wvere the
years which CHRISTOPHER COLUMBES spent in ineffectual attendance
             2

 



DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.



at the Castillian court; the impoverished state into which the finan-
ces of the united kingdoms were reduced, the war with Granada, re-
pressing every disposition to attempt great designs; but the war
being at length terminated, the powerful mind of ISABELLA broke
through all obstacles; she declared herself the patroness of COLUM-
Bus, whilst her husband, FERDINAND, declining to partake as an ad-
venturer in the voyage, only gave it the sanction of his name. Thus
did the superior genius of a woman effect the discovery of one-half
the Globe!
  The ships sent on this important search were only three in num-
ber, two of them very small: they had ninety men on board. Al-
though the expense of the expedition had long remained the sole ob-
stacle to its being undertaken, yet, When every thing was provided,
the cost did not amount to more than 17,760, and there were twelve
months provisions put on board.
  COLUMBUS set sail from port Palos, in the province of Andalusia.
on the 3d of August, 1492: he proceeded to the Canary Islands, and
from thence directed his course due W. in the latitude of about 28
N.-In this course he continued for two months, without falling in
with any land, which caused such a spirit of discontent and mutiny
to arise as the superior address and management of the commander
became unequal to suppress, although for these qualities he was emi-
nently distinguished.-He was at length reduced to the necessity of
entering into a solemn engagement to abandon the enterprise and re-
turn home, if land did not appear in three days.-Probably he would
not have been able to retain his people so long from acts of violence
and outrage, in pursuing so untried and dreary a course, had they not
been sensible that their safety in returning home depended very much
on his skill, as a navigator, in conducting the vessel.
  At length the appearance of land changed their despondency to the
most exulting rapture.-It was an island abounding with inhabitants,
both sexes of which were quite naked; their manners kind, gentle.
and unsuspecting.-Columbus named it San Salvador: it is one of
the clusters which bears the general name of Bahamia; it was only
30 30' lat. to the S. of the Island of Gomora, one of the Canaries,
from whence lie took his departure. This navigator was still so con-
firmed in the opinion which he had formed before he undertook the
voyage, that he believed himself then to be on an island which was
adjacent to the Indies.-Proceeding to the S. lie saw three other
islands, which lie named St. Mary of the Conception, Ferdinand and
Isabella.-At length he arrived at a very large island, and as he had
taken seven of the natives of San Salvador on board, he learned from
them it was called Cuba, but he gave it the name of Juanna.-He
next proceeded to an island which he called Espagnola, in honor of
the kingdom by which he s as employed, and it still bears the name
of Hispaniola.-Ilere he built a fort and formed a small settlement;
lie then returned home, having on board some of the natives, whom
he had taken from the different islands: steering a more southern
course, he fell in with. some of the Carribee islands, and arrived at



14

 



DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.



the Port of Palos on the 15th of March, 1493; having been seven
months and eleven days on this most important voyage.
  On his arrival letters patent were issued by the King and Queen,
confirming to COLUMBUS and to his heirs all the privileges contained
in a capitulation which had been executed before his departure, and
his family was ennobled.
  Not only the Spaniards, but the ot