xt7k9882k506 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7k9882k506/data/mets.xml Spalding, M.J. (Martin John), 1810-1872. 1876  books b92-264-31852041v2 English J. Murphy, : Baltimore : This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Reformation. History of the Protestant reformation  / in a series of essays ; reviewing D'Aubignbe, Menzel, Hallan ... and others ... ; by M.J. Spalding. (vol. 2) text History of the Protestant reformation  / in a series of essays ; reviewing D'Aubignbe, Menzel, Hallan ... and others ... ; by M.J. Spalding. (vol. 2) 1876 2002 true xt7k9882k506 section xt7k9882k506 




       THE H1ISTORY
                OF TIIE


Protestant Reformation,
                  IN

  GERMANY AND SWITZERLAND,
                AND IN



ENGLAND,



IRELAND, SCOTLAND, THE NETHERLANDS,



       FRANCE, &ND NORTHERN EUROPE.

         IN A SERIES OF ESSA YS;

REVIEwiNG D'AUB3IGNE, MIENZEL, HALLAM, BISHOP SHORT, PRESCOTT,
           RANKE, FRYXELL, AND OTHERS.

             IN TWO VOLUMES.

       BY M. J. SPALDING, D. D.
            ARCHBISOP or BALTIOia.

               Vol. II.
REFORMATION IN ENGLAND, IRELAND, SCOTLAND, THE NETHER-
       LANDS, FRANCE, AND NORTHERN EUROPE.

    SEVENTH EDITION, 11EVISICD AND ENLARGED.




             BALTIMORE:
   PUBLISHED BY JOHN MURPHY & CO.
          182 BALTIMORE STREET.
                 1 8 7 6.

 

























ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860, by R T. R E V.
  M. J. SI'AL DING, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the
  United States for the District of Kentucky.



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S75, by
                J O 1! ,1N U. P IJ Y,
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

 


PREFACE TO VOLUME II.



  IN this Volume, I have endeavored to trace the history of the Protts.
tant Reformation in the principal European countries outside of Gcr many
and Swvitzerland.
  As, among these, England and its dependencies possess most interest
for the American or Engdiszh reader, more space in proportion has been
devote'] to the history of the Anglican Schism than to that of any other
European country. Besides an introduction, in which the religious his-
tory of England preliminary to the Reformation is discussed, four Chap-
ters are devoted to the English Reformation, besides separate Chapters
on the Reformation in Scotland, and Ireland. The statements of the great
Englih historian, Lingard, are show n to be substantially confirmed by
Hallam, Mfacaulay, Bihop Short, Sir James Mackintosh, Agnes Strick-
land, and other accredited Protestant historians; and, unless I am greatly
mistaken, it will be seen from the comparison of authorities, that not one
important fact alleged by Lingard has ever been successfully contro-
verted, even by the most determined opponents of the Catholic Church.
  The excellent Miss Strickland, in her Lives of the English and Scottish
Queens, has incidentiy thrown much additional light on what may be
calle1i the internal history of the Anglican and Scottish Reformation.
Though a decided Protestant, she has done justice to the memory of
Mary of England and of Mary of Scotland: and also, in another sense,
to Queen Elizabeth and John Knox. Availing herself with much indus-
try and fidelity of her ample opportunities for investigation, she has
published several new documents from the English State Paper Office;
and, what is still better and more commendable, she has dared tell a
considerable portion of the truth, in spite of fashionable obloquy and
stereotype misrepresentation. She has drawn, what might be called a
Daguerreotype likeness of John Knox in his relations with Mary Stuart,
whom the Scottish -eformer fiercely hunted to death in the name of the
Religion of love I
  In the Chapter on the fruitless attempts to thrust the Reformation on
Ireland, I have endeavored to present, on the most unexceptional Pro-
testant authority, together with a summary of the principal facts, a con-
densed but somewhat detailed account of the truly infamous Penal Code
enacted by the British parliament against the members of the ancient
Church in that faithful Island, which, in spite of almost incredible hard-
ships and the most atrocious persecutions, has preserved untarnished the
precious jewel of faith bequeathed to her by St. Patrick.
  The Chapter on the Reformation in the Netherlands is a Review of
Prescott's Philip II.; and it presents an appreciation of the stern Spanish
monarch and of his cruel lieutenant Alva, together with a portraiture of
the atrocities committed against the Catholics by the Dutch Calvinists,
who are shown to have raged more fiercely than Alva himself. The
history of the French Huguenots, together with that of the great central

 




tragedy in this history-the M1assacre of St. Batholouisew-is sketched in
the Chapter on the French Reformation, which is a Review of Rank6's
I1istory of the Civil Wars of France. It will be seen, that Catholics
have nothing whatsoever to fear from the verdict of history, even as the
facts are furnished by Protestant historians, in the comparison between
the cruelties committed by the French Huguenots and those charged on
their opponents.
  Two Chapters are devoted to the Reformation in Northern Europe.
These review the statements of the Protestant historians of S'w-den,
Fryxell and Geijer, and present a summary account of the manner in
which the Reformation was introduced into Dcnmark, Norway, and
Iceland. Here, as elsewhere, I have relied chiefly on Protestant autho-
rity, copious extracts from which I have sought to interweave with the
narrative.
  In the eight Notes appended to this Volume, the reader will find sev-
eral useful and interesting documents confirmatory of the statements
made in the text; besides some brief Essays on important matter con-
nected with the history of the Reformation in England and Scotland.
  To the lovers of historic truth I confidently present these Essays, com-
posed with the sincere desire of exhibiting the Protestant Reformation in
its true light. Those who have derived their information on this import-
ant subject from prejudiced or partisan writers owe it to themselves, as
well as to the cause of justice and truth, to examine the other side.
Though I have written plainly, I trust that I have employed no lan-
guage which may be justly construed as harsh or offensive, and that I
have sought to meet fairly and roundly, if summarily, the various issues
of fact and argument presented by the great religious revolution of the
sixteenth century.
BALTIMuoPE, Eastcr Momday, 1865.

              ANNOUNCEMENT OF A NEw EDITION.
  Ancsimisnop SPALDINO had intended to issue a complete and uniform
edition of all his works; and he was occupied with this task when his
last illness came upon him. The new and revised edition of the IIISTORY
OF TlE REFORMATION, the EVIDENcEs or CATHOLICITY, and the MrsK
CELLANEA, which is now offered to the Public, was prepared by Arch-
bishop Spalding himself-the corrections and additions being from his
own hand. To the Evidences of Catholicity, as the reader will perceive,
he has added his Pastoral Letter on the Infallibility of the Pope; and to
the History of the Reformation, he has appended an Article entitled:
Rome and Geneva.
The Ltfe of Bishop Flaget and the Sketches of Kentucky, which Archbishop Spalding
intended to re-write and publish in one volume, are not contained in present edition
of his works, since the corrections and additions, which it had been his purpose to
make, are incomplete.
BALTixOaE, Sept. 8, 1876.



is



P REY1   I 1L

 




CONTENTS OF VOLUME LI.




               INTRODUCTION.

ENGLAND BEPORE THE REFORMATION, Pp. 17-58.



PuturwstARY view       useful ............................ 17
Early religious history of England ........ ..... 18
England indebted for every thing to Rome_. 18
Testimony of Bishop Short ......................... 21
11er conversion through St. Gregory the
  Great.....................................23
The early British Churches ........................ 23
Their controversy with St. Augustine, first
  Archbilhop of Canterbury . ..................... 23
Morality of their Clergy ....................   ........ 24
Gildas.....................................24
Massacre of British Monks ......................... 24
The Anglo-Saxon Church ..................       ......... 25
St. Wilfrid.......                      26
Testimony of Bishop Short .....................        26
St. Dunstan.................................28
The Primacy recognized ............................. 28
Nomination of Bihops . ............................. 29
Growing en roachments of the Civil power... 30
Under the Anglo-Saxon Princes .................. 30
And    nuder the Norman Kings .................... 30
Archbishops of Canterbury ......................... 30
Lantlranc awl William       the Conqueror .......... 31
William    Rtufus and St. Anselm .............   ....... 33
Varied fortunes and persecution of St. An-
selm..............................    34



Two English Prime Ministers, Flambard
  and Oromwell, compared ....................... 34
General remarks and intrences .................. 37
St. Thomas a Becket .3.................. ,3
And St. Edmund Rich .................     40)
Increasing assumptions of English Kings . 41
Statute ot Provisors .41
And of Priennunire .41
Dr. Lingard reiewed..     .             45
And Bishop Short roltert on. lnvestitures.... 46
The Prinmacy alwas recgiiized   . .47
Superiority ol the L- jIs ro aied by itone.. 47
Prote-staunt authority..     .
Cardinal Langton..                      4b
And Lanfrac...                          4h
Simon ot Sudbury..                      49
And \ illiasu of Wykeb..  ...          4'
Monastic Chronicles...                  50
Curious developments..                     )
And tragical incidents...                5
Modern historic justice .     :
The trite key to the contest, l,etween ELni
  lish Kings and Roman Poirtills iin mid-
  dIle es.           .            
Eve of the tefiation...   ..            54
Spirit of servility aind slavery increasing  54
Recapitulatio.                          55



                CHAPTER I.

HENRY VIII. AND EDWARD VI., Pp. 59-119.



The way now       prepared .............................. 59
The " pear ripe" ...................................... 60
Henry VIII. the  founder of the English
  Reformation ......................................      60
Two theories ......................................        61
One of them      refuted ................................. 61
And the other defended .............................. 63
Bishop Short ......................................        64
And the Book of Homilies .......................... 64
What we propose to examine .....................6 5
Five questions ......................................      656
Was Henry sincere ................................         6 66
Auspicious beginning of his reign ............... 67
Defender of the Faith ..................................67 I
The Divorec ......................................         68
llenry's scrples...........................68
Anne Boleyn...........................  68
Sir James Mackintosh and Miss Strickland.. 68
The Sweating Sickness a test ..................... 70
D'Anbignd's moral standard ....................... 72
heroism of Clement VIL  ..   .................. 74
Noble answer of Campeggio ....................... 75
Cardinal Wolsey.     ..........................75
Thomas Cromwell ........................... 76
Was Henry licentious and cruel ................ 77
Treatment of his six wives.    ................ 77
Anne Boleyn, Anne of Cleves, and Catha-
rine Howard...........................77
Satanic conspiracy...........................80
Catharine Parr...........................82
Was lIenry a tyrant...........................82
Conlfiscation of monasteries ........................ 82
Bishop Short testifies again ........................ 84



Protestant testimony .    ................................ 84
Exorbitant taxation .................................. 86
Atrocious tyranny .     ................................... 86
Trampling on ancient Catholic liberties of
  England      .       ........................... 86
Hlallam's testimony  .     ..................... 87
Means of Reformation .   ............................. 90
Cromwell's advice .................................... 91
Royal supremacy _   ..   ..................... 91
Cromwell Vicar-General .   .......................... 93
Degradation of bishops ........................... 93
Testimony of Bishop Short .    ................ ...... 94
Imaginary and real despotism .  ................. 94
IHorrid butcheries .     ........................  9
Fisher and More .    ........................   965
Pole's brother and relatives . ..................... 96
And his mother    .      ....................... 96
The Friars Peyto and Elstow .  .................... 98
Hlallam's testimony .........................   100
Bishop Short on Henry's murders .............. 100
A system of espionage established ............. 101
Curious examples ................................... 101
Froude's idea of law .............................102
Hliisdefending Henry Vm. and persecution. 102
Character of the Anglican Reformation..... 103
The Six  Articles ............................. ......... 104
Catholics and Protestants butchered to-
gether.       ....................................105
Cranmer aids and abets   .    .................. 105
Edward VI      .       ........................... 107
Reformation has now an open Ifield ............ 107
Cranmer and Somerset   .    .107
Gradual Reformation   .    ............... 108
                                   V

 



Vi                                    CONTENTS.

Book of Common Prayer .......................... 109  Put down by foreign soldiers ..................... 112
And Articles of Religion ........................... 109  State of public morals .............................. 114
Inquisition established ..................   109 'Suppression  ol nionasteries a master-stroke
Joan Bocher burned................       109      policy............                   114
11er answer to Cranimer .................... .11) Analysis of Ilallam's testimony and reason-
Barbarous law against mendicants ............. 111  ing on this subject ..........................   115
people opjiosed to the new religion ............ 11 2  The three conctiliscences ......................... 118
Popular insurrections ............................. 112  t on1clus-ion ..........................  11J


                                    CHAPTER Il.

              MARY; THE CATHOLIC RELIGION-4 RESTORED, pp. 120-158.

What Mary and Elizabeth did ................... 120  avowed and acted on by early Protest-
Macaulsy's testimony ......................... .121  ants ................... ..................... 1O0
Current opinion .........................   121  The "original sin` f' the ltelormation ....... 1:,0
What we propose to establish ................... 122  IalIlam and Miss Strickland ....................31
Marv's accession .........................   12-2  Nuntler.of victtilnt ..................................1 2
Conspiracy and rebellion ......................... 12!2  C auses which provoked the persecution...... 133
The relbrmed preachers. ..               1:2.3Political niotives and action.           131
'Cite popular enthusiasm ........................ 123 F Insurrections ied rebellious ..................... 13  
Marv resolves to restore the ancient reli-   !itLrv not naturallv cru.el .             1: 6
  gbOl ................................ 124 jProohf, of he r clemencmy ............................. ]: 6
1e1r constant devotion to it ...................... 121 H1er nercibtl treatment of Elizabeth ......... 18',7
Itidley's attempt to convert her .1.4 1       totCtuitsted stith the latter's Ireftiuteut of
mteps by which the restoration was accom-  l    31ry of Scots.                         1 .
  plisited ..............................  125 i  (mdtid tetiniony ot Agnes Itri, Mand ....... 1:4.
D)eprived Catholic bishops reinstated . 126  Malir3 restored the Uritish CnetittiGtart t-
Trhe acts of Edward VI. on religion re-         gerhbe lwith atltholicity ..]::. S
  pealed...                              126  Matry h tinenri: :l i ietnientl ciCianme. 1:.9
4 compromnise with the Holy See concern-    'I lit. cttreer o, this mat disected.1 ]:9
  ing church property ............................. 127  l,  n recantattions ...... .................. 141
Solemn scene ..............................   12s !iii dehat . ......................... 141
Cardinal Pole .............................. 1.28 . laentMlay's portraiture ........................ 145
His address.......                       128  Other provocations amid palliating circum-
The old Church restored.    .................. 12Sstances. ...........                   47
Chancellor Gardiner's last speech   and       I ,tiner and rthi.12.....                ] ,l
  death ............................    129  Andi other Catholic lisfuq ... ..................... 180
'the qtxeen's noble disinteresteduness .......... 129  Miss Strickland's theoti on the l lsecu-
The spoilers retain their prey .................... 130  lioin ................................ 1.51
fBloody Mary".............., 130F Cardinal Pole.                                     154
The persecution...        ..........,    130   lary's difficulty with the l'.l.1 ]      57
The principle of intolerance generally        Bishop Short's estimate oi Mary .        168

                                    CHAPTER III.

ELIZABETH-THE ANGLICAN CUtRCH            FnIMLY ESTABLtSIIED aY LAW, pp. 159-207.

Glance at the four reigns of Henry TIII.,     The ptlulic discussFion .17, 0
  Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth ........... 159  Bishop Fhort reviewerd ........................ 1,1
Elizabeth the real foundress of the Angli-   Catholic bishops intprisoned .171
  can Church..                           160  The arts enforcing conformity.           171
Four questions propounded ...................... 163  And establishing the Iook of Common
The first question .............         161  I'rayerand Thirty-Nine Articles ............. 172
T'mporal interests and political expedi-      The ehirchb establishied bv law .        173
  ency ...........................       161  Cath"lic bi.hops deposed .......................... 174
Mlizabeth and the Pontiff .      ........................3 1  The non-juring clergy .............................17 5
Stern consistency of the Papacy ............... 163  Vacancies in parislos .........................   175
lizabeth takes her stand ....................   161 Slecbanicsappointedtoreadthenewservice. 17.-
sir William Cecil ...........................   165 Bisblil Short's testintom'y .......................... 17,5
iler insincerity and hi.; intrigues ............... IC5 Third question ................ ..................... 1.6
Measures adopted for re-establishing Angli-  Foundations of Anglican hierarchy  .   1 76.  
  (eanim .15.................................. 16  Etilbarrassment  . ............................... 178
1ell lplan ................ .................. 16.5 Parker's consei ration ............................. 1. 178
Firm opposition of the Catholic bishops..... 166. Three great difficulties started .................... 178
14easons for their alarm ......... ......... 166 Thevalidityof Anglican ordiriationsat least
The queen crowned...............         167   doubtful...                    ............ 1l3
And immediately breaks her solemn oath.. 167 F The question of jttrisdictiu .183
The second qttestion ................................. 16! The fourth question stated ........................ 184
Did the Anglican church reform itself ...... 16  And answered ...................,.,.,., . 1f4
A packed parliament ............................ , 168 A curiotis '- bil" of Elizabeth.  1F6
The convocation in the opposition ............. 170 Elizabeth sw-arsa..                14-6
How its voice was bushed ......................... 170 Testimony of Itallamn.14- ]F6

 



CONTENTS.



Penal laws of 15    6    2     3........................... 186
Lord Monwtague's noble speech .................. 187
Hallant on Camden and Strype ................ .   189
Northern insurrections ...........................  189
A terrible and bloody code ....................... 190
Hallain on Lingard ...........................   190
Elizabeth's Inquisition ...........................  192
TIer "Pursuivants" ...........................   193
Fines for recusancy ...........................   193
The prisons filled ...........................   194
And the magistrates complaining .............. 194
Nobility and gentry ruined ....................... 194
Bloody executions................................... 194
Number of victims ...........................    194
Bull of Pope Pius V................................. 196



Vii



Did not cause, but greatly aggravated, the
  persecution.......................................... 196
Hallam's testimony .................................. 197
lie confirms all our important statements... 198
The rack seldom       idle ................................ 198
Loyalty of Catholics ................................. 198
Cecil defends the use of the rack ............... 198
The hunted priests ................................... 201
The church spoilers .................................    203
Nothing can soften Elizabeth .................... 204
Bishop Short on her rapacity, sacrilege, and
  tyranny............................................... 204
Fate of the church spoilers ....................... 205
Three other Protestant witnesses .............. 206
The verdict of history rendered ................ 207



                 CHAPTER IV.

MARY AND ELIZABETH COMPARED, pp. 208-222.



Relative length of their reigns .................. 208
Their respect for their mothers .................. 209
Their religious feelings and conscience ...... 210
Plautus ill the church on Sunday ...  .. 210
Their respective relations to the Church..... 211
Their comparative moral character ............ 211
Their disinterestedness and selfishness ....... 211
T'he one merciful, the other cruel .............. 212
The one liberal in government, the other a
  tyrant.................................................. 212
Hlallam on Lingard's authorities ............... 212
Testimony of Bliss Strickland and of Mac-
  aulay ....................................   213
Their restoring and crushing English
  liberty.................................................. 214
Their foreign policy ................................. 215



That of Mary single and honest ................. 215
That of Elizabeth tortuous and insincere .... 215
11er motto " Divide and conquer ................. 216
The success of Elizabeth the chief element
  of her popularity .................................. 216
11er ministers compared with those of Mary,
  and particularly Gardiner ...................... 216
Their respective persecutions compared .   217
Ilallam answered ..................................... 219
Macaulay's statement ............................... 219
Their deaths............................................ 221
Success of Elizabeth no evidence of divine
approval.............................................. 221
Awful death of Elizabeth, the real found-
  ress of modern Anglicanism .................. 222



                     CHAPTER V.

REFORMATION IN SCOTLAND-JOHN KNox, pp. 223-276.



Distinctive characteristic of the Scottish
  Reformation, compared with that of Eng-
  land ....................................      224
It works its way from low to high ............. 224
Condition of the Catholic Church in Scot-
  land in the sixteenth century ................. 224
Abuse of patronage ................................. 225
McCrie's statement reviewed .................... 225
Exaggeration .................................... .... 227
The real secret of the degeneracy .............. 227
John Knox ....................................   228
his motto...................................... 28.......... 228
Compared with Calvin .............................. 228
His life sketched ....................................  229
The fearful struggle ................................. 230
Ancient Catholic glories scattered ............. 230
What we propose to prove ...............  ......... 231
The Scottish Reformation the work of vio-
  lence ....................................     231
Assassination of Cardinal Beatoun .............2 31
Previous negotiations with Henry VIII.  232
The Scottish proto-martyr Wishart con-
  cerned .....................................  232 l
Knox approves the deed ............................ 233
his horrible " vein of humor" ................... 233
The Scottish nobles seek plunder .............. 233
The " Lords of the Congregation ................ 234
Two Solemn Leagues and Covenants .......... 234
Knox's ideas of religious liberty and tolera-
  tion ....................................     235
Conciliation thrown away ........................ 235
Burniag and destructive zeal .................... 235



Reformation at Perth ............................... 236
At St. Andrew's .................................... 237
And elsewhere.........................................237
Horrible destruction and desolation ........... 237
McCrie defends it all, as removing the monu-
  ments of idolatry ................................. 238
The queen regent offers religious liberty .... 239
11er offer spurned .................................... 239
Knox's idea of religious liberty ................. 240
Two armies in the field ............................ 240
Elizabeth of England meddling ................. 240
The queen regent deposed ........................ 241
Treaty of peace........................................ 242
How the Kirk was established by law ....... 242
Mary of Scots arrives ................................  24.5
Her first reception and treatment .............. 245
She is imprisoned at Lochleven ................. 245
John Knox her relentless Pleney ............... 246
He clamors for her blood........... ............... 246
Glance at her subsequent history and death.. 246
Miss Strickland and Mackintosh .........    ...... 246
How she was treated in Scotland ............... 247
She is hated by Knox ............................... 247
Her marriage with Darnley ...................... 247
Sermon of Knox ....................................  247
Who approves of the assassination of Rizzio.. 247
He flies from Edinburgh ........................... 247
Mary innocent..........                  248
A cluster of wicked men ........................  249
Murray the worst ..........       .............. 249
Mackintosh reviewed          .......................... 249
" The end justifies the means .................... 252

 



CONTENTS.



F  orgery...............................................g...  252
Whitaker on Knox and Buchanan ............. 252
Moral character of Knox .................. ...... 253
His death ..............  ...................... 263
Quotations from Miss Strickland confirm-
  atory of the above narrative of facts ...... 254
Mary's reception in Edinburgh .................. 254
The " Rebels of the Crafts ......................... 255
Tumult on her first attendance at Mass_...... 255
Her chaplain narrowly escapes death . .... ... 256
Mary's firmness in her faith ...................... 256
Knox abhors her music andjoyouuity ........ 25S
Malignant intolerance .............................. 25S
Cruel hard-heartedness of the Scottish no-
  bles..................................................... 259
Who will not wear mourning on the anni-
  versary of the death of Mary's husband.. 260
Church property .................................... 261
Greediness of lay Protestant impropriators.. 261
Knox's "humorous" lament over the desti-
  tution of the niinisters ......................... 261
The queen dancing ................................... 262
Sermon of Knox thereupon ............... ...... 262



IHls Interview with the queen .................... 263
Another interview......,............................. 264
Still fiercer intolerance ............................. 264
Another interview of Knox with the queen.. 265
He opposes her marriage .......................... 265
Knox's account .....................................  265
Still another interview .............................. 266
He mocks at the queen's tears .................. 267
Signs and wonders against lier .................. 268
She is blamed for the weather! .................. 269
Knox calls her a slave of Satan ................. 269
Is arraigned before the Kirk assembly ....... 270
His answer and behavior .......................... 2i0
Protests again against Mary's freedom of
  conscience ............,................................ 270
Tumult at her marriage ................I.......... 271
Mary promises and asks for freedom of con-
  science ................................................ 271
Her eloquent speech................................. 271
DButery.    .                            272
Horrid plo   l........................ 273
Butchery............................................... . 275



            CHAPTER VI.

REFORMATION tN IREl AND, pp. 277-303.



Irelanda noble exception..........................277
Engl.atd     labors in vain to destroy her faith.. 278
Ireland compared with England, Scotland,
  France, Bavaria, andAir-tria.................. 278
Progressive cruelty of the English govern-
  ment ............................................ 27 9
Successive steps taken to reform Ireland .... 280
Under Henry          VIII ................................... 281
Under Edward  VI....................................282
Attempts to thrust the new service on Ire-
  land....................................283
Its failure ...................................... ....................... 2K4
Hleylin's testinxony .........................I.........         284
(Glaring    incinsistency ...............................        284
Elizabethtrying toreform Ireland............ 285
Extracts froni Mc(ee ............................... 2f6
The terrible contests under Elizabeth's
  reign ...................................................     286
The O'Neill .............................................        287
The revolt of Desmond.............................2i7
And of Tyrone ......................................... 287



Wholesale confiscation . ........................... 288
Confiscation   of Ulster, Munster, and Con-
  naught ................................................ 288
The Deputy Mountjoy .............................. 288
Miss Strickland's testimony ...................... 288
McGee on martyred Irish bishops ............... 289
The English Jezabel ................................. 290
The system   of colonization ....................... 291
Rather one of extermination ..................... 292
Elizabeth's land partnership with Essex ..... 292
The English penal laws enforcedl in Ireland.. 293
Another more formidable code established.. 204
Its details furnished by Bancroft ............... 299
.A horrible picture .................................... 299
Other Protestant opinion and testimony..... 299
North American Review ........................... 300
Sydney Smith and Junius .......................... 301
Ireland faithful to the last ........................ 302
The result sumnmed up .............................. 303
Intolerance nobly rebuked ........................ 303
Conclusion.............................................. 303



                 CHAPTER VII.

REFORMATION IN THE NETHERLANDS, pp. 304-348.



Interest which attaches to the subject ....... 305
Prescott's Philip II.................................. 306
His prejudices glanced at .......................... 3u6
The Netherlands ill the sixteenth century.. 307
Their highly prosperous condition in conm-
  merce and mnanufactures......s....... .......... 308
The new doctrines pen