xt7k9882nv7c https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7k9882nv7c/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1958-02 bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "A Report of the Second Annual Advancing Education in kentucky Conference", vol. XXVI, no. 2, February 1958 text 
volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "A Report of the Second Annual Advancing Education in kentucky Conference", vol. XXVI, no. 2, February 1958 1958 1958-02 2022 true xt7k9882nv7c section xt7k9882nv7c h,












In August 1957 the State Department of Education, in cooperation
with the University of Kentucky, the five States Colleges, the Ken-
tucky Education Association, the Kentucky Congress of Parents and
Teachers, and the Kentucky School Boards Association, sponsored the
second conference on Advancing Education in Kentucky.

As we worked through our problems in 1956 implementing the
Foundation Program, it became quite evident that the real problem was
how to improve the quality of instruction. Since there was an urgency
to build quality into our program, it seemed fitting that we should de-
vote the second conference to this important subject.

The material in this publication is a compilation of the addresses,
panel and group discussions presented at the conference. It is my hope
that members of the profession will find this report useful in the
development of plans for improvement in the area of instruction.

Robert R. Martin
Superintendent of Public Instruction





Remarks of Presiding Officer and Introduction of Keynote Speaker
Don C. Bale, Head, Bureau of Instruction .................................... 91

Keynote Address of the Advancing Education in Kentucky Conference
Robert R. Martin, Superintendent of Public
Instruction .............................................................................................. 92

Pooling Resources and Sharing Responsibilities in Improving Instruction
In Kentucky’s Schools
J. Marvin Dodson, Executive Secretary,
Kentucky Education Association, Moderator .............................. 98


Plans and Stimulation for Group Work
Don C. Bale, Head, Bureau of Instruction ____________________________________ 110


Elementary and Secondary Schools Move Freedom Forward
Miss Waurine Walker, Past President, National Education
Association and Director of Teacher Relations and
Certification, Texas Education Agency __________________________________________ 112


James L. Sublett, Assistant Superintendent of Public
Instruction, Presiding

Ways to Improve Instruction __________________________________________________________________________ 119

Don C. Bale, Head, Bureau of Instruction, Moderator ............ 124

Clearing the Way for Improvement of Instruction Through Effective

Administrative Practices __________________________________________________________________________ 131
How one District Operates its Internal Accounting System
Walter W. Roshi, Director, Division of Finance ........................ 132
J. W. Gregory, Superintendent, Lancaster Inde-
pendent Schools __________________________________________________________________________________________ 133

Ted Gilbert, Head, Bureau of Administration

and Finance, Moderator ____________________________________________________________________ 137

Copy of Program, Advancing Education in Kentucky
Conference .................................................................................................... 150


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Don C. Bale,
Head, Bureau if Instruction

Ladies and Gentlemen, the Second Annual Advancing Education in
Kentucky Conference is now in session.

I should like to extend to you a most cordial welcome and assure
you it is an honor to serve as your presiding officer. Last year we
launched the Advancing Education in Kentucky Conference. You will
recall that on that occasion you discussed evaluation, supervision, and
public relations. This year you will have the opportunity to discuss
Advancing Education in Kentucky Through Improving the Quality of
Instruction. Since it is generally agreed that the primary purpose of
our Foundation Program is to provide a more adequate instructional
program for the youth of our State, I believe the subject will be of
great interest to all of you.

We open this Conference knowing that our Superintendent of
Public Instruction is also deeply interested in the instructional phase
of the educational program. We are privileged to have him for our
kBYIiote speaker for this occasion. He certainly needs no introduction.
We know him as a great educational leader. We respect his ability and
I.ar.n sure we will remember the great accomplishments of his ad-
ministration. It gives me great pleasure to present to you at this time,
our Superintendent of Public Instruction, Dr. Robert R. Martin.


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Robert R. Martin,
Superintendent of Public Instruction


It is a genuine pleasure to greet you on this occasion—the second
conference on Advancing Education in Kentucky. Just a year ago we
met here to consider the theme—“Launching the Advancing Education
in Kentucky Program.” Since then I have observed an abundance of
evidence that under your leadership in the local school districts and
local communities throughout Kentucky very real advances have been
made during the past year in education. A very real spirit of improve-
ment has moved across this state. This spirit is characterized bya
great depth of sincerity, pride in accomplishment, and truly now those
things which seem to be contagious are the positive. The whole attitude
on the part of the public and the profession seems to be that of begin.
ning Where we are and advancing as rapidly as possible under the fully
financed Foundation Program of education. For your leadership in
these advances I commend you most heartily.

I have taken the liberty of inviting you here again this year to
consider with us a new emphasis in our program of Advancing Ed'
ucation in Kentucky.

The great actress Gertude Stein as she lay dying was heard to 533'-
“What is the answer? What is the answer?” Then she said: “What is
the problem?” As we worked through the day by day problems of this
past year implementing the Foundation Program — as we found ansWers
and moved on to find the next answer, it became clearer and clearer
that the real problem is “How to provide quality instruction.”
Quality means excellence. There is an urgency about building excel-
lence into our total instructional program. We cannot wait until tomOY'

Recently a friend of mine while in New York saw a man sitting
on the sidewalk at the Rockefeller Center writing a letter. Beinga
friendly soul he said to the man, “Hello. Are you writing a letter if).
your girl friend?” “No.” “To your wife?” “No.” “To your Mother?”
“No.” “Well to whom?” “To myself,” the man said.

“I have heard of people talking to themselves, but never heard
of writing a letter to yourself. What are you saying to yourself?” ”W91?!
I don’t know, I won’t get the letter until tomorrow.” We can’t Wait
until tomorrow. It is imperative that this generation of children/the
boys and girls in school in 1957-1958 have instruction of quality.

VISION. There is need for a new vision.

A quality program of instruction for every boy and girl Should
be our goal beginning today.

Truslow Adams in “The Epic of America” gave us a clear viSlOn
of our task. He said in describing the American dream . . . that dream



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of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for
every man, with opportunity for each according to his ability or achieve-
ment. . . . It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but
a dream of a social order in which each man and each woman shall
be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capa-
ble.” He said further —- “If we are to make this dream come true we
must all work together, no longer to build bigger, but to build better.
There is a time for quantity and a time for quality. There is a time when
quantity may become a menace and the law of diminishing returns
begins to operate, but not so with quality.”

Dr. Arthur Adams of the American Council on Education said
recently, “The great American education is held aloft by two pillars
—one of quantity and one of quality.” A new era in the American
public school drama is about to unfold. This is the “era of quality”
education — quality learning. We no longer have to worry about
quantity. The elementary schools, the secondary schools, and the
institutions of higher education are trying to take care of the greatest
number of students America has ever had, we are faced with the chal-

lenge of providing the kind of education which will help citizens live ef-

The boundaries of quality are limitless; thus the challenge of this
new Vision of quality program of instruction for every young boy and
girl within the boundaries of Kentucky is an unlimited challenge. Out
of the magic of a new vision —- an ideal —— new realities are created.
The Foundation Program of Education offers an opportunity for us
in Kentucky to bring into reality the kind of program which will

Equip our future citizens so that they may have a fair chance in an
ever-changing World.

.Let me hasten to say that Kentucky has done much in the past of
which to be proud; however, as Horace Mann said: “We do not need
Patriots who exhaust their patriotism in lauding the past. We need
patriots who will do for the future what the past has done for us.”
The Past gave us this new vision and the Foundation Program as a

vehicle or means for bringing the vision into reality. This is our

COURAGE. This challenge calls for courage.

of pi: 1Paul in his second letter to the Corinthians spoke of a group
becausg e “:10 Were W‘l‘thou'fi proper undErstanding of their condition,
comparegsthe 531d — .They measured themselves by themselves and
some sat" f Ernselves With themselves.” Perhaps in the past we found
ourselvesisb action in seeing some improvement when we measured
When we y ourselves, but, we can. 111 afford to follow this practice
Welfare a Zre planning the educational program which affects the
to the facr‘: thhapplness of ourlc1tizens. It takes courage to face up
edUCation at when we cons1der in relation to the nation our past
12 years gerformance in percentage of boys and girls who complete
attend 0 public education, the percentage of boys and girls who

SChOOI at 311’ the perecentage of high school graduates who go







to college, and the percentage of college freshmen who complete college.
we find compelling reasons for accepting as our immediate task — The
improvement of the quality of education.

There is reason to take hope in education in Kentucky from the
standpoint of quality, however. There are schools in Kentucky which
compare favorably with the best in the nation. The parents, the public
in general, and our profession will not be satisfied until all our boys
and girls have educational opportunities of quality -— opportunities
which approximate the programs available to the children of the

Again, I want to emphasize that once we get this vision it will
take courage to meet our challenge.

In Carl Sandberg’s Abraham Lincoln he describes a scene in which
Young Abe is lying in his bed looking out the window conversing
with the moon about the struggles of humanity in its advances. In
discussng the struggles and headaches and efforts of our people as
they moved 'Westward, he had the moon to say to Abe, “The cowards
never started and the weak ones died by the way.”

Then, too, I am reminded of Jonathan Daniels’ reference to the
late Chief Justice Vinson who possessed courage of rare quality. When
he was asked where he got his rugged immobility, he said: “I grew
up in a country where it was dangerous to be afraid.” Daniels said
that Vinson had the courage of a stubborn heart. School leaders in
whatever position who embody this courage are in strategic position5
to lead advances in quality instruction and the whole world is saying
that it is dangerous not to provide good education. In fact. the
latest report from “The President’s Committee in Education Beyond
High School” contains on the very first page the followmg Significant
message: “World peace and the survival of mankind may well depeni


on the way in which we educate the citizens and the leaders of tomorrO“

Next to peace the most important problem in this world, in my judg'
ment is education—quality education—education which will nuture 1“
each human being his maximum development-his own fulfillment-

A great task of our schools is to provide the learning environment
which will enable students to acquire knowledge, attitudeS, appreciation
and skills necessary for participation in a free democratic societY- 1“
providing an enriched educational program adapted to the needs Of a
the children, let us ever be mindful that our primary function is t0 PW
vide good general education for all. It is our responsibility to furnish ‘9
society through our elementary and secondary programs enlightened high
school graduates—young men and women whose intellectual development
e01111135 them to go forward in progressive society as contributing, 19'
sponsible citizens.

Lest I be misunderstood I want to state that I subscribe to gOOd pro-
grams in music, art, physical education, driver education, and in all 0m
enriching areas of learning. Research shows that these areas of leaf11mg
through well planned experiences contribute also to the developmento'
the intellectual power of the child as well as making a contribution tot E
over-all delevopment of the individual. The education of each child totht





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limit of his capacity is our first responsibility. Beyond this basic task
various areas of instruction are important but not equally important for
all children.

The whole issue of whether to address the effort in education to the
average of ability or to the higher capacities derives from the assumption
that we have to make that choice. But why do we have to choose? Why
are we not planning to educate everybody as much as everybody can be
educated—some much more and some much less than others. Cassius
Keiper said, “Humanistic education is education that qualifies every
human individual to represent worthily in his daily work and life the
high potential dignity of man.”

We must have the vision and the courage to make our position clear
on these matters.

COOPERATION. We need the skill of cooperation. In addition to
a clear vision of our task, the courage to face facts and to act in light of
them, we need cooperation in solving this problem of quality instruction.

The skill of cooperation is vital to the improvement of the quality of
instruction. Biologically, research has shown that the key to progress for
living things is cooperation. The importance of cooperation can be easily
understood by all of us, as we realize that we all are dependent upon how
others carry out their responsibilities. Working in the field of education
simply is working with and for other people. There is significant evidence
that in Kentucky we are becoming more effective in the skill of working

The progress we make in the direction of providing an excellent pro-
gram of instruction will depend upon how each of us discharges his re-

In his recent, remarkable book, The Organization Man, William T.
Whyte describes an experiment of Western Electric—the famed Hawthorn
experiment—to increase production through changed lighting and other
physical factors. After repeated and puzzling results of consistently in-
creased production, regardless of how physical factors were manipulated,
the researchers concluded that participation of the workers in a coopera—
tive enterprise was the motivating factor. Here, perhaps, is the strongest
pomt of teachers; that a professional climate, based upon the assumption
of the creative power of democratic, cooperative teamwork, is the best
guarantee of improving the quality of teaching service.

. The essential cooperation involves not only the superintendent, the
Prlnmpal, the teacher, and all other school personnel, but the people of
the community also. Active participation of the people in the affairs of

education may well come to be proclaimed as America’s most important
contribution to education.

In addition to public participation in planning educational programs,
the People in each local school community provide another contributing
factor to the quality of education. A recent study in Connecticut on the
Eggs which most directly affect academic achievement revealed some-
th tg very important for all of us. Through the study it was discovered

a the kind of homes children come from, the social, economic, and in-







tellectual climate at those homes influence academic achievement. The
home climate, the home “attitude toward learning” can make a difference
in the quality of pupil learning.

Total school staff participation in cooperative efforts to improve in-
struction is being recognized as a factor of great importance in adding
quality to the program of instruction. The staff of the State Department
of Education is discovering increasing evidence that the quality of in-
struction in any area of learning improves to the degree that the lZ—grade
staff in a total school and/or a total school plan together. Further, it is
being found that as the staff plans together on one area of the instruc-
tional program improvement is evident in other phases of the program.
When close working relationships, based on respect, confidence, and un-
derstanding are established by all teachers in grades 1 through 12, the
child’s learning experiences appear to be enriched as he moves through
the 12-grade school program.

teacher—an excellent teacher in every classroom, and an excellent ad-
ministrator in every position are essential if Kentucky is to build quality
into the instructional program. This presents a challenge to our teacher
education institutions as well as to the State Department and local school

Dean Ernest O. Melby, of New York University, has said, “The ques-
tion of who does the teaching is probably the most important question in
the quality of any individual’s education. The individual teacher places
his signature on his work just as truly as the painter who writes his name
in the lower right hand corner of the painting.” Without the strongeSt
possible core of teachers there is little hope for the improvement of the
quality of teaching.

To deny that elementary and secondary programs of instruction can
be improved through improvement in the quality of preparation offered
our teachers and administrators is to deny the very cornerstone of our
American education system. The thirty-four colleges and universities in
Kentucky approved for preparing teachers are making a noble effort to
prepare competent teachers; however, our excellences in this area must
be multiplied. If somehow our teacher education institutions could
equip the future teachers of the nation with the understandings and
skills to put into practice the best that is now known about the education
of young people—how they grow and how learning takes place—3Ehe
impact upon American life would be truly magnificient.

In a significant little publication entitled Educational Adaptability
by Dr. Paul R. Mort of Teacher’s College, Columbia University, researCh
findings indicate that in the past there was a fifty year lag between the
time a good instructional practice was discovered and the time it was
put into widespread use. To reduce this lag Dr. Mort has made four
suggestions to the school leaders. First, he must broaden his work to
embrace the implications of the finding that the community as a whole,
not the school system alone, is the educationally productive organism?
second, he must give greater attention to invention—to nurturing it
within his own system and to establishing machinery to give his staff and



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public access to the inventions of his neighbors and others throughout
the land; three, he must enrich his methods of working with people so as
to recognize more effectively the critical place of the individual in school
improvement; four, he must look forward to the emerging more powerful
education and hold up the hands of those now working with him who
are helping to forge it. .

The emerging emphasis in American education is definitely one of
quality. If we are to demonstrate that quality need not be plowed under
by quantity and if each child in America, each Kentucky child is to have
his chance in life, each one of us must make an intelligent commitment to
our share of responsibility. The immediate need in Kentucky is for the
profession and the public to join hands in building into every classroom
in Kentucky the highest quality of instructional program which is p0—
tentially possible under our Foundation Program of education.






Pooling Resources and Sharing Responsibilities in Improving Instruction
in Kentucky’s Schools

Moderated by——J. Marvin Dodson, Executive Secretary,
Kentucky Education Association

Mr. J. Marvin Dodson. It is a real pleasure for me to participate in
this conference as a member of this panel and especially is it a pleasure
for the Kentucky Education Association to be co—sponsor of this entire
conference. The members of this panel are:

Dr. Ellis F. Hartford, University of Kentucky
Dr. W. J. Moore, Eastern Kentucky State College

Mrs. Raymond Bolton, President, Kentucky Congress of Parents
and Teachers

Dr. Leonard Meece, Executive Secretary, Kentucky School
Boards Association

Mr. Atwood Wilson, Principal, Central High School, Louisville

Dr. Hartford:

Mr. Dodson, fellow panelist, fellow educators, I suppose that any
representative of higher education ought to take seriously any such chal-
lenge as one on improving the quality of instruction. I suspect thatI
could get a pretty good response to the question of whether or not the in-
struction in higher education ought to be improved However, I won't
press that question. Of course, because of the realization that this ques-
tion implies a sort of frightening responsibility, one is conscience of the
need to say the right thing.

I remember an incident from my own lower education experience: in
a small rural community in west Kentucky from which I came, whiCh
impressed upon me the need to be able to say the right thing at the right
time, and the importance of knowing what you were talking about. It
happened that one of my school mates of the fairer sex came home from
school with my sister to spend the week end. (This young lady was a
member of a family whose name you would recognize if I dared use it
here, because it has become greatly prominent in recent years). She Was
talking about some of the experiences she had had in the little town about
three miles from where we lived which was at that time in the unfamiliar
process of growth and expansion. It so happened that one enterprising
young man of the community had dared risk the ire of the deacons of the
church and had started a picture show. This was an awful thing in that
community—a worldly thing, and my sister’s visitor was telling us about
going to see Simon’s new picture show. My folks didn’t believe in 1t
much either, at least not at that time. “What about the show?” She was
asked. “Well,” she said, “the pictures aren’t much good. Simon gets 1115
pictures from Louisville. The best pictures come from vaudeville.” My
remarks regarding this conference may not make a very good picture but
at least, they are not from the vaudeville of higher education.




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Dean Moore and I have two or three minutes to talk about the po-
sition of higher education and I don’t think it makes much difference
between us which talks about what because we are very much concerned
about all this and we are not inclined to feel that we have the answers.

We are almost like three boys with whom I started school—-in that
little rural school which was an institution of lower, middle, and higher
learning. Of these three boys that came from a neighboring family one
was in the higher education bracket—he was between 18 and 21; the sec-
ond one was in the so-called secondary school bracket—he was between
14 and 18; and the third one was along with me in the elementary school
bracket—he was under 10. These boys seemed to have trouble retaining
that quality instruction that Dr. Martin is telling us about. I remember
how the principal—he was not only principal but worked at doing every-
thing: he was principal, teacher, janitor, and all—reported the progress
of these students to my father. My father was the school trustee and a
member of the county school board in those days. The principal said,
“Mr. Hartford, I am studying those boys and here is the way I size them
up. The oldest one would if he could. The second one could if he would
but the third one couldn’t if he would.” I think that we are about in
that position in relation to the problem under discussion. We would if
we could, but I don’t know whether we could if we would. I hope there
are none of us that couldn’t if we would.

Well, to get down to business: What is the place—the contribution——
of higher education to the improvement of instruction? In the first place,
of course, we would have to recognize the fact that higher education, as
we call it, is starting to be more and more a central point of the educa—
tional experience of everybody. “Well,” you say, “that is fine: that is
in advance of our times.” Maybe that is true, but I would remind you
that already of the 18-21 age bracket, American youth are going to some
kind of institution of higher education to the tune of 32.1%; and if the
rate increases in the next decade as it has in the past, in another dozen
years exactly 50% of that age group will enter some kind of institution
of higher education. So we see that more and more of the American
p60p1e seem to be investing in something we call “higher education” as
a part of the normative experience of people Who participate in and con—
tribute to our colleges. I think Dr. Martin’s reference to a “specialized
verSion of the American dream” identifies that View. That is exactly
¥::t11:_happening in America and I don’t believe that we’in the educa—
th ta ield have any desrre to minimize or to delimit the realization of

a dream. So the first thought I would like to suggest is this. More and
more we are beginning to consider higher education as a part of the
normative educational experience. There is need for much of what we
:all higher education today to be changed. Indeed, some of us think that
haileeio (lioeal of change 'Wlll be required. A great deal more variety will
addition te ifitroduced in to higher education: that is the first thing. In
tribution 0th at, there are some particular purposes or objectives or con-
first plas hat should be realized in higher education as such. In the
liberal :9, lgher education in American, and elsewhere, must provide
the , 1‘ general education, if you choose, as would be most fitting in

1nd1v1dual case. General education of our leaders, general education







of those who make the most of their individual capacities and abilities—
this is the ideal of “maximum development” about which Dr. Martin
spoke. We might call liberal education that kind of education that teaches
people to recognize freedom, to value freedom, and to become confident
in the use of freedom. Of course, the second aspect of higher edu-
cation is to specialize the education of leadership in particular kinds of
provinces which a society singles out as needed. Let me tell you some
things which illustrate that. Our recent study of higher education shows
that each decade now a new professional field is added to the higher ed11-
cation curriculum. Each time those new fields must fight their way to
acceptance in a place in the academic world, sometimes over the opposi-
tion, and certainly the reluctance, of some elements already established in
the higher education picture. Social work, nursing, the field of elemen-
tary teaching, and other fields have recently come into the area of pro-
fessional education and have been included in the higher education cur-
riculum. And, we will see more of that. In 1946, a noteworthy study Of
higher education pointed out that for every fully educated professional
man, our society needed six semi—professional technicians. I haven’t seen
any doctor’s bills lately, and I don’t expect to soon, but several years EEO
it seemed to me that I was paying for several semi-professional tech-
nicians who aided and were at the disposal of the trained doctors. This
situation is even more pronounced in the fields of engineering and tech-
nology. In the last year or two, seven semi-professional technologists
have been needed for each professional one, all of which indicates the
growing demands placed upon higher education for specialized education.
Of course, we might justifiably direct that ratio to the process of ed11-
cating teachers in a special field. The third big function of higher edu'
cation is that of research. We not only inherit but must transmit and
pass on the elements of our culture and the accumul