xt7kh12v6z98 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7kh12v6z98/data/mets.xml Lexington, KY University of Kentucky 1999 A pamphlet detailing the integration of the University of Kentucky campus with information on African-American staff, faculty, students, and alumni. Appendixes include information on the first African-American graduates of each college at the University of Kentucky and lists of students who have received degrees from the university. books  English University of Kentucky Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. University of Kentucky -- History African Americans -- Education (Higher) -- Kentucky Segregation in higher education -- Kentucky Fifty Years of the University of Kentucky African-American Legacy, 1949-1999 text Fifty Years of the University of Kentucky African-American Legacy, 1949-1999 1999 2019 true xt7kh12v6z98 section xt7kh12v6z98 . ,   fl,” theAfnc .
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Fifty Years of the
University of Kentucky
African-American Legacy
Published by the University of Kentucky, 1999

 Keyman 1]
(Kelly Norman Ellis, April 1996) L
he leamed to Whittle his homemade keys in silent tennessee country
locksmith lyman t
kept a colored eardrum poised
where doors were latched and bolted
just to hear the tumblers fall into place
and click like a finger snap
this alchemist of keys
spun sturdy pieces of metal from his grandparents slavery
transformed collective southern silence
into down-home black power
this patient picker of locks
made the blue gate keepers weep
when he helped himself to their gilded keys
lifted them without trembling fingers from their pockets
in broad daylight
then dismantled the doors from the hinges
this conjurer of keys
cracked all their combinations
left their diners dance halls and schools gaping like astonished
mouths of
locksmith lyman t SC
his heart in sync with the spin of the tumblers ci
a keymaker man pi
never waiting for the gates to part 56
but pressing his own keys for padlocks B
here we stand ut
. . . hi
waiting for our Circle of keys A
impatient and fidgeting for doors to open CC
testing passwords and access codes L.
failing to notice that old fashioned latch key th
he has left for us in the hole t0
just a little rusty K
but still able to spring locks 11‘
and open sesame those sealed spaces hi
we have yet to enter [[3

 Dedicated to
Lyman T. Johnson
“View 1949 with a landmark decision that opened the
doors for black graduate and professional students
' j i , to attend UK. As a result of his determination
E ,. E and perseverance, Johnson became one of the
.4 .; ‘5 first African—Americans to attend graduate school
" 3 . & classes on the UK campus in Lexington.
“ ' UK honored Mr. Johnson in 1979 with an
E w 5 E honorary doctor of letters degree. The University
. , "a. of Louisville, Spalding University and Bellarmine
' \ College also have awarded him honorary doctorates.
‘ J *‘ ”1M In commenting on his doctorates, Mr. Johnson
? E "e ' '_ i E stated, “I earned my doctorates the hard way.” The
Jefferson County Alumni Association presented
"7* him with the UK “All—American” award, which is
7 given to an individual who has brought credit to
E' thelUniversity, to a chosen profession and to the
/ community at large. During his long, distinguished
' career, Johnson received many other community
Lyman T Johnson and professional awards for his courage and
This book is dedicated to the life and work M11 JOhHSOH continued his fight ‘0 support
of Lyman Tefft Johnson, a leader in the fight for integration, even as he hhd on his sick bed. _He
social justice, and all the freedom fighters in the donated $15000 to UK “In sincere apprecratron 0f
civil-rights movement who forced Kentucky to the struggles Of my four grandparents, all Of whom
provide opportunities for African Americans were slaves, and therr yearnrngs for the freedoms
seeking equal access to higher education in the that we are beginning to receive today...” This grft
Bluegrass state. afforded the opportunity for UK to start the Pursuit
Lyman T. Johnson recognized early in life his of Excellence Endowed Scholarship Fund. The .
utter disdain for second-class citizenship. He spent goal rs to. build the endowment SO the scholarship
his life fighting for equal opportunities for African— W‘h continue to support students at the Unrversrty
Americans. In the late 19405, he was encouraged by 1h perpetuity. Matching donations from alumm
educators and civil-rights activists, especially the and friends 0f UK are gracrously accepted.
Louisville Chapter of the National Association for
the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP),
to test the public laws governing segregation in
Kentucky’s institutions of higher education. In 1948,
he applied for admission to the doctoral program in
history at the University of Kentucky. He already
had a bachelor’s degree in Greek from Virginia
Union College and a master’s degree in history
from the University of Michigan. After being
denied admission to UK, he took his battle to the
federal courts. The courts ruled in his favor in


The concept of this publication began in Paul Taylor, Dean of Students, Lexington
the early work of the Lyman T. Johnson Alumni Community College
Constituency GI'OUP' Every year, Since 1990’ Selena Stevens, Information Specialist,
the alumni group sought to recognize the UK Public Relations
accomplishments and achievements of African— . . . .
American alumni. Its work led to the realization Diane erght’ Graphic AmSt’
that African-American alumni have persevered PUthhmg Sei‘VICes
and made significant achievements and Students: Danyel Cobble, Shannon Guerrant,
contributions to humanity. The students met Donald Hardison, Demetrius House, Melissa
the challenges of being minorities on a majority Moore, Helen Swain, and Kelly Tucker
campus. This commemorative publication seeks . . .
to tell the story of the desegregation, not just of to theAhSiZhjbseIi)‘::fflthj:kUI:ff§:itltug/eh:£23323?
the University of Kentucky, but also of higher . . y .
education in the Commonwealth. It is when people re-read ”.‘any versions Of thls document, espeCIally
learn from the past that the dark times in history Dr. Juanita Fleming, Lloyd Axeliod, Chester
are not re eate d Grundy, Jerry Stevens, Anna Bolling and Gerald

As thpe hew millennium approaches this Smith. Heidi Bright Parales, former UK Public
commemorative publication sheds light on the EsiiglfilfhigifhforofsgltigsiP6286111Sta spent many
success that can be achieved when people work Thi bi t‘ n 1% D t-h b b]
together, regardless of their skin color or ethnic withoutsalflltheca hingggll mfid ave oen poss1 e
identification. It is not possible to name all the p S a e—mai messages

. . . . . from Andrea M. Jackson, the Commemoration
people who contributed to creating this publication. . . .
The following individuals however are Program Coordinator. Her zeal for this preject,
acknowle doe d for their special contiibutions friendly persuasion and unyielding persistence are
c ' to be applauded. Lauretta F. Byars, Vice Chancellor
Valerie Wright, who researched and prepared the for Minority Affairs, recognized the. importance of
initial draft of the history of higher education for this prOject and carried the torch to insure that this
African Americans in Kentucky crucial record in the University’s history would be
. . . , documented.

Terry Birdwhistell, SpeCial Collections
Patty Bender, Technical Coordinator, '
Affirmative Action
Beth Haendiges, Program Coordinator,
Alumni Affairs
DeVone Holt, former Information Specialist,
UK Public Relations
Vernal Kennedy, Director of Public Relations,
Lexington Community College
Kurt Metzmeier, Coordinator, Law Library
Information System Services

 Table of Contents Q3“
3 the Africgn~
‘ Legacy
Foreword Dr. Gerald Smith v1
ALetterfrom the President Dr. Charles T. Wethington Jr. vii
Introduction Joseph Burch, Lauretta Byars, Derrick Ramsey viii
50th CommemorationSteeringCommittee........................................................ ix
Section 1 The History and Demise ofSegregation at UK 1
Section 2 African Americans Integrate into UK 6
Section 3 Looking Forward: The let Century and Beyond........................... 15
Section 4 Other Key EventsforAfi‘ican Americans at UK 16
1 Section 5 Administrators and Faculty 24
ially Section 6 Afi'iean-American Students and Alumni 36
id Section 7 Commemorative Events and Exhibits 42
MC Appendix
y A: L1st0fReferences46
"'bl B: First African—American Graduate and Undergraduate
:lge: Students at UK by College 47
on C: African-American Students and Degrees Conferred 48
ect, D: African Americans Who Received Undergraduate Degrees from UK ........49
:fior E: African Americans Who Received Graduate Degrees from UK 58
e of F: African Americans Who Received Degrees from '
this Lexington Community College 63

 Foreword 15
Gerald L. Smith, Director . 0“ Apliil 7’ 1949,
African-American Studies Plerre Whltmg dled' bl
%. He was a retlred C‘
and Research Program j ti African—American S]
; V'Qfivfi‘i custodian who worked L
//:/ 5‘" 57 years on the at
I i University of Kentucky A
a campus. His affiliation C‘
:3 dated back to the 1880s, a;
m when he carried water J‘
31;? l and mortar for workers 9'
Gerald L. Smith constructing the present an
administration building. a
In 1960, a memorial plaque was placed in h
the administration building in appreciation of K
Whiting’s faithfulness to UK. The plaque reads
that he had a “refined and gracious personality” n
and was loved by all who knew him.” Yet this i1
loyal African—American employee did not have t]
the option of sending his four children to the V‘
University for an education. A state law, passed 0
in 1904, had prohibited blacks and whites from C
attending the same school. Whiting barely lived g
to see this restriction successfully challenged. 1‘
. On March 30, 1949, Lyman T. Johnson C
won a lawsuit to desegregate the University’s d
graduate and professional schools. This decision
serves as the major watershed in the history of 0
African—American higher education in Kentucky. g
Because of his courage, Mr. Johnson became the e
bridge responsible for reconciling the past with V
, the present so we might now work together to 0
achieve a more diverse University in the future. C
t This commemorative publication will not r
‘ erase the years of struggle that still prevail in a
f the collective memory of those African-Americans 5
i who came to UK between the years 1949 and
i 1999. It does, however, seek to reclaim the spirit I
i of those like Pierre Whiting who came to the S
1 University of Kentucky with the determination to a
create an institution of which we all can be proud. E
‘ a
i s
1 i

 A Letter from the President

It is my pleasure to Our institutional commemoration of Fifty
be a part of this important _ i : Years of the UK Afi‘ican-Amcricun Legacy
commemoration of a F k provides each of us the opportunity for reflection.
special anniversary in 3.. a. g It is a time to look back on the many achievements
UK’s history—the 50th , ~ j and accomplishments in cultural diversity.
anniversary of African ’1; Likewise, it is a time for this University to focus
Americans on this i5: on its inclusive learning environment and the
campus. Half a century ' .. leadership position that UK and all of higher
ago, Mr. Lyman T. 3 education need to take in making this a better
Johnson, in Challenging state, a better nation and a better world.
the University’s As President, I am proud to report that
admissions policies, won Charles I Wethington 1n virtually every segment of the University is
a lawsuit that allowed joining in this commemoration. We have had
him to enter graduate school at the University of more than one hundred specific activities, including
Kentucky in Lexington. the placement and dedication of a permanent

The federal district judge’s decision, in effect, marker to the desegregation of UK and the labor
nudged open the door to integrated higher education of Lyman T. Johnson. This commemorative
in Kentucky. Certainly there were other challenges publication also will be a lasting document to
that would face Kentucky’s African Americans that progress. Together, we can ensure that the
who were determined to achieve the right to equal University of Kentucky will be a place where
opportunity in education in every corner of the future generations of African Americans, and
Commonwealth. This decision, however, had as indeed all faculty, staff and students, will enjoy
great an impact on equality in education in a rich, diverse and challenging educational
Kentucky as any other event until the Supreme experience in one of the nation’s premier
Court’s Brown vs. the Board of Education institutions of higher education.
decision of 1954.

The beneficiaries have been the thousands Sincerely,
of African Amerlcans who have attended and
graduated from Kentucky’s institutions of higher
education, as well as the thousands of other students : Z K. M y
who have had the opportunities of interacting with
our African-American students—both 1n51de and ' Charles T. Wethington Jr., President
outs1de the classroom. All persons—no matter thelr . .

. . . Unrversny of Kentucky

race or ethnic or1g1n—wh0 have attended classes
at public universities in Kentucky during the past
50 years are no doubt beneficiaries as well.

One of the elements that contributes to the
University of Kentucky community as being truly
special is its diversity of backgrounds, cultures
and beliefs. Diversity provides each of us the
opportunity to interact with people of varied
backgrounds and to expand our social, cultural
and educational horizons. African—Americans
and other ethnic groups have played increasingly
significant roles in helping make UK a leader
in higher education.


The Fifty Years of African Americans
at the University of Kentucky Steering Committee
. ~ CO-CHAIRS: to be limited to this small booklet. Such a project .
. ' “ § Joseph Burch, requires a more comprehensive analysis. As we 50°
. 1‘: ii; Vice President for move into the 21st century, the information in this a,
f , v University Relations booklet prov1des us an opportunity to pause, reflect g.
u, \i, on where we have been and evaluate our plans for ‘
. Lauretta F- By ars, the future to see if they have the substance needed
i .3. ' Vice Chancellor for to get us where we want to be. In so doing, be
2:! Minority Affairs reminded of the words delivered by Frederick
Derrick Ramsey, Douglas: Si
mph 3m Direcwr 0f The whole histor f h - o
y o t e progress
Community Relations of human liberty shows that all
Welcome to the concessions yet made to her august
_ ,gfi _ Commemorative Publication claims have been born of earnest
', i"? s» ‘ 0 f Fifty Years of the UK struggle... If there Is no struggle, there
‘b a; African- American Legacy. is no progress. Those who profess to
2. These pages provide a brief favor freedom, and yet deprecate
- \ limpse 0 f the desegregation agitation... want crops Without
if UK. Included are highlights plowmg Up the ground. They want
Laurent: gym of the accomplishments of rain Without thunder and lightning.
students, faculty, staff and They want the ocean Without the awful
.. alumni who have contributed roar of its many waters..This struggle
I: to the University’s national may be a moral one; or It may be a
. 4;: 4 2:} reputation for academic phys1cal one; but it must be a struggle.
.; ‘ and athletic excellence, Frederick Douglas
public service and personal Speech at Canandaigua, New York
achievement, as well as the August 3, 185 7
J University’s and society’s , _ .
- _ response to these changes. The history of African Americans at UK .
Derrick mev The entire story of the reveals incredible advances, from. total. exclus10n
’ desegregation has not been to a record 1,342 degree-seeking in'd1v1dua1s for
told, but we have tried to be as thorough as possible fall 1998' Certainly the Univers1ty 15 not .where
in our research and presentation. We do, however, It shouldbe m servmg the African—American
acknowledge that much has been left out. The community, bUt tremendous progress has occurred
, struggles of the African—American employees, during the past 50 YFarS- MOSt significant has
: whose presence at UK predates the admittance of been the. shift in attitudes from‘exclus1on to the
the first black student or the hiring of the first black recognition that campus divers1ty IS imperative
faculty, remain to be told. Far more could be said for academic excellence in the 2151 century.
of the students who challenged the University to
confront the issues of racial justice. The history
: of African-Americans at UK is far too rich in
accomplishments, contributions and struggles

 . element . Pr°9rs
If:Ct 39‘“ “u“ Associate Committee Members
“:3 .55 50 Anna Allen—Edwards, Director,
this § Years 0 Chandler Medical Center Minority Affairs
feflect ‘3; of Af ° - ‘
s for .9 the rlcoan~ Louise Graham, Assoc1ate Dean for
:eded 9%......,,a»»°°Amer1can Academic Affairs, Law School
Legacy Chester Grundy, Director,
African-American Student Affairs
Steering Committee Members Beth Haendiges, Program Coordinator,
Lloyd Axelrod, Director, Public Relations Alumni Affairs
Terry Birdwhistell, UK Archivist, Bob Schwemm, Professor, Law School
Library Spec1al Collections Becky Simmermacher, Assistant Director,
Robert Bradley, Athletics Department Publishing and POSta] Services
Elena Braithwaite, Graduate Student, Gerald Smith, Director, African—American
Medical Center Studies and Research Center, and
Fitzgerald Bramwell, Vice President, Professor, History
Research & Graduate Studies Rhonda Strouse, Director, Student Activities
Emmett “Buzz” Bumam, African—American Diane Wright, Graphic Artist,
Student Recruitment Publishing Services
V' ‘d . . . . . .
Ben Carr, 1ce Pres1 ent, Adm1nlst1ation Program Committee Coordinator
Juanita Fleming, Special Assistant to the Andrea M. Jackson, Minority Affairs
President for Academic Affairs
James B. Holsinger Jr., Chancellor,
Chandler Medical Center
James Kerley, President,
ion Lexington Community College
‘Or Stan Key, Director, UK Alumni Association
‘e ,
Everett McCorvey, Director, UK Opera Theater
Jrred Jan Schach, Director,
Teaching and Learning Center
l6 John Scharfenberger, Assistant Director,
6 Public Relations
David Stockham, Dean of Students,
Student Affairs
Elisabeth Zinser, Chancellor, Lexington Campus


 Section One:
The History and Demise of Segregation at UK

Following a landmark decision, University Of each race receive a separate education.
Kentucky President Herman L. Donovan In 1866, the Kentucky Legislature mandated
announced in June 1949 that “Negro students” racially segregated public schools. While students
would be permitted to attend graduate classes on of different races were not allowed to receive an
the Lexington campus of the state’s flagship education together, white teachers could teach
university. The road to a degree still would not be black students. Those white teachers who came
easy for Louisville school teacher Lyman T. primarily from the North to teach former slaves,
Johnson, who had filed the lawsuit that resulted in however, had difficulty finding housing
African—American students gaining admission to accommodations, and some were threatened or
the University, or for his fellow black classmates. actually subjected to violence. Few high schools
The reality is, however, that they knew it would for blacks existed outside urban areas in the
be a struggle, just as access to a higher education South, and colleges were even more scarce.
in Kentucky had been a struggle for African Indeed, within Kentucky, high schools were not
Americans before them. formed for blacks until the 18805, 20 years after

The history of African Americans on the emancipation, and these schools were located
North American continent is intertwined with their mostly in the state’s largest cities. This meant
struggles and desires to learn to read and write. most blacks either ended their schooling at the
The examples are numerous. Historians write that completion of eighth grade or went to small,
laws prohibiting African—Americans from learning private religious schools for high school courses.
to read and write were violated by slaves who
risked discovery and sure punishment. Booker T. Education Beyond High School
Washington said one of his earliest memories was To protect its requirement for racially
his “intense longing to learn to read.” Biographers segregated schools, Kentucky took steps to form a
describe W.E.B. DuBois as gradually seeing that black college. Legislators appropriated funds for
academic achievement enhanced one’s status in Kentucky State Normal School for Colored
life. Persons, now known as Kentucky State

After the Civil War, the Freedmen’s Bureau University, which opened in 1886.
was established with a major goal of equipping Until the early 1900s, however, quality
blacks with educational opportunities. The bureau education for black students at the secondary and
coordinated efforts of other Northern-based higher education levels in Kentucky was provided
organizations interested in providing educational primarily by private institutions. These included
opportunities. By 1868, nearly 3,000 schools with the Eckstein Norton Institute, which emphasized
some 150,000 students reported to the Freedmen’s industrial training and operated from 1890 to 1911
Bureau. Additionally, missionary societies and in Bullitt County, and the State Colored Baptist
blacks themselves added more schools. The University in Louisville. State Colored Baptist
groups of black people seeking educational University began as a black theological and
opportunities included children and teenagers who normal institute in 1879. By 1918, it evolved into
attended classes throughout the traditional school a liberal arts school called Simmons University.
year, students who attended school when they While these schools obviously met some of
were not needed to work in the fields during the needs for secondary and higher education of
growing seasons, and adults who attended evening black students, it was Berea College that
classes after a full day’s work. While Northern aid produced the vast majority of college—trained
societies such as the American Missionary Kentucky blacks in the late 19th century. Berea
Association and the American Freedmen’s Union College first opened in the 1850s with the avowed
Commission encouraged integration between races mission of admitting both white and black
in Southern schools, in actuality only a few mixed— students. However, hostile pressure from pro-
race schools existed. Southern mores required that slavery forces in the state forced the college to


 close before admitting any black students. The for the detrimental effect it had on the African— legisla
school reopened immediately after the Civil War American quest for higher education in Kentucky. Louis\
and began admitting blacks. Berea College. thereby. but also because of a moving dissent registered by provid
holds the distinction of being the first college in Justice John Marshall Harlan. This native of out_0f.
Kentucky to provide higher education to black Kentucky had been a slave owner. but had supported Offerm
students. By the 1880s. 60 percent of Berea the Union cause during the Civil War and had been Negro
College’s students were black. Berea College’s appointed to the Supreme Court by Abraham Black
actions produced a number of teachers for black Lincoln. Justice Harlan. who became known as the school
high schools. especially for Lexington, Louisville Great Dissenter in the area of civil rights. strongly $5.00(
and Frankfort. disagreed with the majority opinion in this and out-of
many other such cases. initial
Day Law Forces Segregation then—C
Many white Kentuckians were dismayed with Battling Back funds
what some called Berea College’s successful The Supreme Court of the United States. in filled.
experiment in race relations. When considering the both the Berea College and Plessy v. Ferguson A
rising tide of racism and segregation sweeping the cases. said separate but equal was the law. black
United States in the late 19th and early 20th Separation with equality. however. was far from Kentu
centuries. it was only a matter of time before Berea reality in all levels of Kentucky’s public schools. In segreg
College came under attack. Berea College the early 19005, the National Association for the progrg
specifically, and higher education for Kentucky Advancement of Colored People. an inten‘acial Additi
blacks in general. received a severe setback in 1904 organization. was created to combat the concept of wheth
with the passing of a segregation law aimed solely separate but equal and. ultimately. to end racial more ‘
at Berea College. The genesis of the law occurred segregation in schools. In 1909. a group of white
when Kentucky Rep. Carl Day. a Democrat from intellectuals and social workers, along with black Court
Breathitt County. visited Berea College and educators. journalists and ministers. met in New 1y
witnessed what he thought was social interaction York City to organize an effort to end racial violence begini
between a black student and a white student. Day and discrimination against blacks. From its educa
prevailed upon his fellow state legislators to pass beginning. the NAACP formed a legal department admis
the Day Law. which prohibited private corporations. whose strategy would be to use the courts to end Schoc
including Berea College. from teaching students of discrimination. The NAACP battled continually for on
different races in the same classroom. The law against the concept of separate but equal. studer
passed despite protests from prominent black While court battles were fought. others sought trainir
Kentuckians and court challenges contending that to meet the need for higher education by opening ruled
the Day Law denied rights guaranteed in both the schools specifically for black students. West handi
Kentucky and US. constitutions. Kentucky Industrial College for Colored Persons oppor
The Kentucky Court of Appeals and the US. initially opened in 1909 as a proprietary industrial they v
Supreme Court upheld the Day Law. The Supreme school in Paducah. By 1918. it became a state- 11
Court ruled in November 1908 that “the state court supported post-secondary school. Berea College the U1
determines the extent and limitations of powers trustees undertook a fund-raising effort to establish denier
conferred by the State on its corporations” and that. an all-black counterpart to Berea College. In 1910. noted
“a corporation is not entitled to all the immunities to they opened Lincoln Institute in Simpsonville. Addit
which individuals are entitled. and a State may Louisville Municipal College for Negroes. a liberal black
withhold from its corporations privileges and arts unit of the municipally supported University of schoo
powers of which it cannot constitutionally deprive Louisville. opened in 1929. must
individuals.” The Supreme Court judges, who had However. state government support for higher profes
already ruled in favor of racial segregation on education for blacks remained a low priority for and re
numerous occasions. took the opportunity to decades. In 1936. Kentucky legislators made a Gaine
reaffirm their strong belief in the separation of the minor concession for black students endeavoring to A
races. The majority opinion noted it was the settled further their education by assisting them through the syster
policy of Kentucky “to preserve race identity. the Anderson-Mayer State Aid Act. This act was a a grac
purity of blood and prevent an amalgamation of the result of efforts by Rep. Charles Anderson of in Oh
races.” Louisville who. when elected in 1935, became the Univr
The Berea College ruling is significant not only first black to win a political seat in the Kentucky Wilbe

 legislature. In 1936, Anderson and Stanley Mayer of and that status. along with Kentucky’s Day Law,
(y, Louisville gained enough support for legislation to made Carroll’s application for admission
by provide financial aid for black students to attend indefensible. Another test of the Day Law also
out-of—state colleges that taught programs not failed in 1941 when William Harkins tried to enroll
01‘th offered at the Kentucky State Industrial College for at UK. Legal inadequacies and Harkins’ weak
een Negroes (now called Kentucky State University). college preparatory background short-circuited this
Black graduate students attending out—of—state attempt.
the schools received $175 per school term out of a A case running from August 1941 until January
gly $5,000 state appropriation. Even when requests for I945 prcsented a more serious challenge to
out-of—state aid by African-Americans exceeded the Kentucky’s segregated colleges. Charles Eubanks. a
initial state appropriations during 1936 to 1938, Louisville Central High School honors graduate.
then—Gov. A.B. Chandler used emergency relief wanted to take classes in UK’s College of
funds to insure that all requests for state aid were Engineering. When he was denied admission
- filled. because of race. the NAACP took up his cause.
Amid efforts to provide higher education for Kentucky legislators again tried to get around
black students, an array of problems arose in Eubanks’ lawsuit by establishing a two—year
1 Kentucky. Not all black leaders wanted an end to engineering program at Kentucky State. Kentucky
3. In segregated schools. Some leaders said improved State’s engineering program, Willi one teacher, two
6 programs at black schools were a better option. students and inferior teaching materials. was in no
Additionally, discord continued on the issue of way equal to that at UK. However, this new
t of whether liberal arts or vocational programs were program gave Kentucky’s lawyers added
more beneficial for black students. ammunition as they employed delaying tactics and
:6 took advantage of Eubanks’ personal problems and
3k Court Decisions Undermine Segregation the inadequacies of his legal team. A federal district
~’ Meanwhile, court challenges nationwide were judge dismissed Eubanks’ lawsuit because the
lence beginning to undermine Kentucky’s segregated plaintiff’s lawyers had failed to prosecute the case
5 education programs. In 1935, Donald Murray sought within two terms of the court. Eubanks did not
ent admission to the University of Maryland’s Law appeal the dismissal.
d School. Maryland, too, had implemented a program In 1945. Kentucky GOV. Simeon Willis created
I for out-of—state stipends for its resident black the Commission on Negro Affairs to “study all the
students who wanted to continue their professional facts and conditions relating t0 the economic,
ght training In Murray’s C2186, however, [he state court education, housing, health and other needs for the
lg ruled the funds were insufficient and students were betterment 0f Negro citizens Of Kentucky." That
handicapped because they were denied the commission’s subcommittee on education found
15 opportunity to train in a school in the state where inequality in programs offered by black and white
'ial they wished to practice. colleges, inequality in per-capita spending for black
In 1936, Lloyd D, Gaines sued for admission to and white students and pointed to the dearth of
e the University of Missouri Law School. The school graduate education for African—Americans. Clearly,
‘liSh denied him admission because he was black and 21 time for Change was approaching.
’10, noted biracial classes were prohibited in Missouri.
Additionally, the school noted Lincoln University, a Separate But Equal?
ieral black school in Jefferson City, Mo., had a law Lawsuits in other states continued to play a role
,y of school. In 1938, the US. Supreme Court ruled states in Kentucky’s future. On January 12, 1948, the US.
must provide separate but equal graduate and Supreme Court ruled Oklahoma could not exclude
,her professional school opportunities to qualified blacks Ada Lois Sipuel from the University of Oklahoma’s
r and required the University of Missouri to admit Law School while the state was creating a law
Gaines. school for blacks only. Oklahoma responded by
lg to A brief run at