xt7kpr7mqv4w https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7kpr7mqv4w/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1902 journals kaes_bulletins_099 English Lexington, Ky. : The Station, 1885- Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin n.99. text Bulletin n.99. 1902 2014 true xt7kpr7mqv4w section xt7kpr7mqv4w  t
  KENTUCKY {
( Agricultural E xparimant Station K
  OF THE ·  
T STATE GULLEGE UF KENTUGKY.  
BULLETIN N0. 99.  
OATS.  
l. Test of Varieties.  
2. Treatment for Smut.  
T 3. Test 0f Fertilizers. T   ·
4. Relative Value ofthe Varieties · {ag
F for Feeding.
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.  . BOARD OF CONTROL. .
    D. F. FHAZEE, Chuirinun, Lexington, Ky.
Q J. B. MARCUM, Jackson, Ky. ‘
_ GEO. B. KINKEAD, Lexington, Ky.
J. K. PATTERSON, I’1·esii1·ceto1·.
. J. O. L.»xB.\()I-I, (‘he1uist, Food Division.
€ GEO. I{OBEI{'I`S, Assistant Cliuniist.
\   ;¥l'I;‘é §}UIEU5€SBf\KF §Asst`s to Eutoinologgist und Botunist.
  A S. D. AVlil.iI’F'I`, Assistant (Jlnunist. -
I   D. W. MAY, Aniinzil Husl>21nEr:, AG1zroUrxrU1zrs*r.  
The soil of the Blue-grass Region of Kentucky is not ideal
for the production of oats. However by the application of .
potash fertilizers with good tillage and proper rotation, a fair l
yield can be had. S
The value of the oat crop as food for animals is recognized _
by all. Its superiority to corn as a food for work animals is
quite generally, if not universally, admitted. But in this sec-
tion of the State, where land is held at such a high value, it
does not pay to raise oats as a grain crop, except in proper gat;
V rotation. It is getting to be quite a common practice with T
many farmers of this section to harvest their oats before the _ _
grain is mature and cure them for hay. This is a very profit-  
able way to treat the oat crop. The only difficulty is that the  
oatlplant is not ideal for making hay as it is dilllcult to cure.   i`
` Oats, when not sown too thickly,is considered one of the .   “‘
best crops to give bluegrass a start, the advantage over other , LA
crops being that the oat crop matures early enough to allow T
the young grass to get a good start in the fall.
For the test of varieties last season, as for several years past,
the seed was planted in drills eight inches apart and at the
rate of six pecks per acre. Eleven of the plots were 1-20 acre
“ each, the rest being 1--10 acre, and they were all planted March "
19th. They were harvested on July 13th and 16th, the earlier
ripening varieties on the former date.
l

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    66 Bulletin N0. 99.
 I Table 1 gives the yield of grain and straw, calculated to i
 v the acre, the former in bushels of 82 pounds; also the char-
 8 g acter of grain and straw and the time when the grain
  was fully ripe. In table 2 have been collected the yields of
,·  I these same varieties for four years. The seed planted each
 I year was saved from the crop of the year before. The oats
E.   were not grown year after year upon the same plots, but were
i changed each year to a different acre. In 1898 the varieties ‘
were planted on Acre S. April 29, and were harvested July 22.
Acre S had been in potatoes in 1897 and corn in 1896. In
A 1899 they were planted on Acre I, April 11, and harvested July
  12. Acre I had been in wheat in 1898 and 1897, and in
S clover in 1896. In 1900 the only available place for the
; oats, unfortunately, was Acre O., the two halves of which
Q   had received different treatment in past years, rendering
  them unequal in fertility. This difference in fertility is
A > very apparent from the larger yield of the first nine varieties in
i   1900. The oats were planted this year onApril 7 and harvested
T t   July 11. Acre O was in clover in 1899 and sorghum in 1898.
  The first half was in potatoes in 1897 and 1896 and the last
r   half was in sorghum in 1897 and corn in 1896. In 1901 the
  varieties were planted on Acre B March 19 and harvested on
I   July 13 and 16. This acre had been in timothy continuously
  · for five years, and its soil was much better than that of any
l ; other acres upon which the oats have been planted; a circum-
. B I stance which will in great measure account for the much better
‘ " ‘ yields obtained last year than in previous years.
A Table 8 gives the weight of a measured bushel of each variety
. as observed for three years past, and the average of the three .
, determinations.
I Two tables, giving rainfall, temperature and some other me-
teorological data, have been included in the last part of this
bulletin and will be found interesting in connection with the
tables of yields.
Winter Oats.
In the fall of 1900 the Station received some black winter _
oat seed from Texas, which were planted October 19th of that
year. They stood the winter well, only a very small percent-
age being winter killed. They were harvested June 2~1th and
é

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I Oats. 67 »
- '1‘.xm.I·: 1.—YIIa1.I> or GIIAIN ANI) SIrI<.x w IN 1901, 12*1*0.
: s
ci ‘ Y 4.   _ . , ·
Z 1 kim) Um AQRL'1 Color Cliztrac- When '
Q . 1, 4, Y ,,_ , . __ . . _ ,· 1 of ter of fully
E 1 Nun, U1 YARILLX. Gmin. htiztn. 1 Grmn Stmw· ripe,
Q4 1 hu. lhe. 1 \
1  
-— ——-———;—;1 --}——:——— `
24 White Russian .......... 49. 1 3300 .White 1S`15l'O11°‘ July9  
_ D
13 1I1l1[)l`<)V(}(1 Weleoine. 47.6 3400 { " 1\\`eaIk " 14 ‘·
— 16 1Xe,2;ro Wonder ......... 46.9 3600 Black 1Nt.rong " 13 . KQ
22 White Belgiam (see 1 1 '  
No. 27) ................... 46.9 3600 1White 1 " " 9 »_
11 New Ainericam .......... I 46.2 3000 " 1 " " 9  
21 White Baltic .,.. . .... 1 45.9 3400 ` "   " “ 9  
27 \\’hite Belgium (see 1  
No. 221 .... . .. ............ 45.9 3300 " )[€(11’ll1 " 10  
20 Willeatwuke .............. 45.5 3550 I " " " 13 if ·*''
23 White Maine ............. 45.5 3000 ‘ " 1Strong " 9
28 1Mixe1i1C1{'1`ll.1`- 1 1
tawimi ..................... 1 39.9 3300 Black 1\\'ea1.lI " 16 Y_ 1
3 ;\1ll€1‘1CiLHTI'1lllll[)11... 39.6 2900 White Strong " 6  
25 Yellow (J}01‘1l1£ll1.. .. 39.6 3100 " 1 "   " 0 I
19 Prohsteir .... . .......... 1 38.8 3050 " 1Medi’nI1 " 10  
5 Auslruliatn ............. 1 38.5 3200 " Strong` " 12  
S |<%i:Lnt Yellow 1"1‘Gl1Cl1` 38.5 [ 3200 " 1X1€(11~]1l1 " 16  
G 1Bzu1ner ........,............ 1 37.8 1 3200 " 1Strong1 ·‘ 12  
» 1 ;\l110l'lCFL11 Ilamner 1       Z
(see No. 29.1. ......... 37.4 2800 " Strong " 13 I g 1
2 .\lllL‘l`1(J&11B(‘1Lllt}'. .... 1 35.0 3200 Q " 3 " " 10 {VA.
9 `(lohlen (liunt Siale .... 1 33.6 3300   " " " 16  
10 1(lreen )[()lB`§®;;...1 29.4 2700 I " I " " 16

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  _1 68 Bizllctiin N0. 99.
 ‘ Tnnnic 2.-Yimins or Gmux AND STRA\\' Fon Form YEARS.
‘ ; 1898 1 1899 1900 1 1901
  r P 1,11 5 11-1. $3 121 1·—,   2
.  1\Amco1VAn1mx. ;®1(;£;§1§£*§§5£ 
, £·11*:J’§ £4!1;;1u:.:1:*;§1xé1;;
‘ 122.1Z; ‘3E‘E§15E‘1E.L‘§1E;"Eg
xx 1WF1w-`€”‘1}I'~`§7· v¤·`   
1.   1 1 · . 1 . · . 1 .
1  TY 2
American Banner ,.................. 9 5 1090 18.9 800135 72000 217.4 2800
Americzmn Beziut * ..................... 17.51132017.9110501:10.1 2190215. 21200
5 1. 1
Ainericmi 'Friuinp 11 .......,........... 12.0 1100123 .b110801i1S.911090 219 . 012900
1 American \\`l1iLe ............. . ........ 18.311000 1$).01l1201425.l12271)43.4131900
1 Austrzilizm ...........,...................... 111.111].100118.9 1000 217.511780 218 .5 21200
‘ 1 , 1 1 .
1 Bauiner ......................... . ........... 10.9~l2:>0117.91 9309%.91199021T.b21200
1 Bzulger Queen ......................... `11i.511f1210‘20.71 S10 219.211580 41. .21 21400
; Giant Yellow French ..............._ 10.9112150 15 11 770 211).51211:111 98.5 21200
» { Golden Giant Side ...... . .......,.... 12.1915211 11   710 2»12.191112111 :1:1.1; 212100
1 1 Green Mountain ...................... 9.11 280110...1 970 15.2112180 29 .4 2700
1 @ 1 1 2
1 _. Hopetown .............................. 11.911240122.41112029.4110110-10.:121400
. 1 Imported Black '1`lL1'{8.I‘1il.11 ...... ¤l0.911270·18.21 040 21.7122100 319.9 :12100
1 lmported Welcoine. ............ . .... 9.81 1000118.91 940 27.2111821l-17.0 21400
' . * Lincoln ...................................... 9.l11100.121.3` S20 22111480 42. 21200
‘ 1 Muinniotli Cluster .................. l2.0111180122.41 920 211 .21121411 44.8 2700
` . 1 1 1
1 · Negro Wonder ........................ · 7. 1 11151111-;.7111-1031).11121111-411.11:111110 ·
  New Aniericzih ......... . ............... 9 1; 980114.71 TS1)2$.T1l7$(140.230111)
i Prln;;;le’s Progress ..................~ 15 1120110.81 880 28.7112100 42.7:15110
-. Probsteir ................................. 121.3Z 94018.21 920 28.7‘l2211218.821050
l» L ( \ .................,.......... 1 1 1v . .u . 1· · . ·I• ·
1 \V1(1Q'1\V‘l1'€ 8 11040115 4` 70029 41311040 5"$$0
:;,1 ` 1 1 1  
1_Y \\’h1te 11:11tje ........................... 11.2110S0114,T1 700 20.3114110 45.11 :1400 A
· ~. \\'l11tel1elg1:L11 ......................,. 9.11 881114 1 1110 24.51l220411.9S11100
· White Maine ........................... ‘11.911020110.51 58027.311110045.5311011
. 2 White ].1n>=si:u1 ........................ 11.91l1‘411113.3* 1120 25. 1121211 49. 212.100
Yellow GQ1'lll2l11 ......... . ............ 12.01 9001 9.81 0*.10 27.21112100519.021100
~ 1 1 1
_ Mziinmotli Cluster ................... 12.01l010`12.0l 720 24.911140 44 221000 _
White 11131g12\»l1 ...... .. ................... 7   9201121311 580 221.811120 45.9 212100
Mixed Outs .............................. S 1 920114.7 112019.11] $1211%.71:111511
Americzin 11z1.nne1· ....,.............. 7.715801121.11_ 0411 19.0121211 42 .4 21200
I ,___,,,,_,,_i__,/Y ,,_ ii_ i_(*_ W i fir ) i ii__)_()_ir___r ___i_)_i_r_ __ __ ;__ `

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Oats. 69
'ITABLE 3.—WE1GH·r OF A KIEASURED Bnsnm, Fon THREE YEARS.
4-* . 1 1 . Y, _
S 9 NAME OF VARIETY. 1 1899 1900 1 1901 Ax ER
mz     AGE.
 
. 1 - 1 1 -
1 AX11€1`1'l&I1 Banner .........................   21 1 24 1 21 1 26 \
2 Ainericain Beauty ............. . ...........   27 27 1 28 27.3 _’=
3 American Triulnph .............. . ...1...... . 27% 27% 1 29% 28.1 1
4 Aiiiericmi White ...... . ....................... 26 26 1 27 26 3 · ‘._
_ 5 1Aust1·ziliau1 ..................................... 1 27 ‘ 25 ' 25% 27.8 .,
6 Banner ..........................................   30 1 29 1 30% 29 8 ' *5;%
7 1Bl1(1}I(:‘1‘ Queen ................................   25 24 1 27% 25.5  
8 Giant Yellow French ............ . .......... 1 24 1 23 1 26 24.3 ~ gi
9 Golden Giant Side ...... . ........... . ....... 1 24 1 24 1 26% ’ 24.8 Q
10 1Green Mountain ................... . . ...... 22 ; 23% 1 24 1 23.1 ‘
` 1 J
11 1H0petown ..................................... 1 30 1 30 1 32% 1 30.8  
12 Imported Black '1‘m·ta1·izm ............ 1 26 1 26 1 27%   26.5 -¢—
13 Imported Welcome ........................ 28 1 3 % 1 32% 1 30.3
I4 1Lincoln .......................... .. .......l......... 1 22 26 1 26%   24.8
15 Mzuninotli Cluster. ........................ 1 28 1 29% 1 29% 1 29
Q 1 ` `
16 Negro Wonder ............................... 1 24 1 23 26   24.3 ·
17 1New Ainerican .......... . ............. . ..... 1 25 1 25 27 1 25.6
18 1PI`111,Q[10`S Progress. ........................ 1 32 1 32% A 33 1 32.5 —
19 1P1·ohstei1· ...................................... 1 S11 31 1 31% 1 31.1 ;
20 1\Videuwake ....... . ...... . ...... . ............... 25 1 27   27% 1 26.5
. ‘ 1 1 ` I
. 21 1Wl1itel&zmlt;i<: . .............. . .......,..........   25 1 26   27   26
22 1\\'hite lielginn ............................... 1 28 29   30 1 29
23 j\Vhite Maine ...... . .......... .. 1................ 1 2·1 29% 1 29% 29
24 1\\`hite 1{nssinn ...... . ........................ 1 28 1 28 1 29% 1 28.5
25 1Yellow Germain ................... . ....... I 29 30 5 30%   29.8   1
. 1 1 1 ` Yr
26 1)[2lll1l1l()1Qll Cluster ......................... 26 1 27%   28 27.1
27 White Belgian ...... . .............,..,...... 29%   29% 1 29% 1 29.5
28 Alixed Oats ............ . ........ . ...... . .......... 26 1 27 1 27% 26.8   _
29 1.·\111€I‘lCZlI1 Bzmner ...... . ..... . ........... 1 26   25% 29% 1 27  
  \

 ·   70 Bulletin N0. .99.
jy  yielded 50.8 bushels per acre. Seed from this crop were
 ‘ planted October 29th, 1901, and were up growing well Novem-
 - ber 20th, but when examined March 11th not one sprig could
 ~ be seen. They were completely winter killed. This result
  may have been due to the very severe cold weather in the
  ¤·  middle of December, the temperature having fallen to eight
  degrees below zero on the 15th of that month.
it 2. Treatment for Smut.
_’ The varieties of oats have been free from any smut since
Y 1897. They were given the hot water treatment the spring of
_; that year and the seed have since been kept in clean boxes and _
  sacks. The hot water treatment recommended is to immerse
_ , the seed oats in hot water at a temperature of 1341OF. for 15
  minutes. The method is the same as recommended for wheat
1, in Bulletin No. 09 by Prof. Garman, whose description is
; ; quoted below from that Bulletin:
I T   HCareful comparative tests of bluestone solutions and of hot
, ‘   water as preventives of smut show that hot water is quite as
_ if effective in checking the disease and has the advantage of not
TT   injuring the sound seed. When treating seed with hot water
t it is well to be provided with the following: A good Fahren-
1   heit thermometer. A large kettle in which water can be
  T heated. Three barrels. —
it i "The water in the kettle is kept near the boiling point, and
I   the supply in it must be replenished as fast as it is used. In
_ the first barrel keep ordinary water, and the other two should
- be about two-thirds full of water kept at a temperature of 131
degrees Fahrenheit. V T
TTFirst put a bag of wheat in the barrel of cool water and
T leave it until the seeds are moist. lt may be left for half an
. hour, or longer, but ordinarily two or three minutes is sullicient.
Drain out the surplus cold water, then immerse for a minute or
two in the second barrel, containing warm water. The object
of this is to warm the wheat so that it will not cool the water
in the third barrel. When warm, plunge quickly in the third T
barrel and leave it fifteen minutes. If the temperature shows
adisposition to fall below 131 degrees, add a little hot wate

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Oats. 71
from the kettle till it reaches the 131 mark again. It should
never be allowed to fall below 130 degrees, nor to go above 134 _
degrees Fahrenheit. With a good supply of hot water at hand
it is very easy to regulate the temperature in the barrel, much f
easier than would be supposed by one who has not tried it. At  
° the endof fifteen minutes the wheat is removed from the water ,
and spread out to dry. But it must never be spread out on a   I
° floor upon which smutted wheat has lain. The convenience, e_  
cleanliness and cheapness of this method of preventing smut ‘ Q,  
will certainly commend it to farmers, and I have no doubt but  
that it will displace the use of bluestone in course of time." A;
3. Test of Fertilizers.  
The oats in this experiment were planted April 15, 1809,
and harvested July 10th. Plot No. 1 was one acre in area;
the other plots were % acre each. ` ~
The fertilizers were sown May 27th. The fertilizers used _
and yields obtained, both calculated to the acre, were as A
follows:
Plot 1. 160 lbs. Nitrate of Soda, yielded 37.1 bus. Grain;
2,007 lbs. Straw.
Plot 2. No fertilizer, 31.5 bus. Grain; 1,700 lbs. Straw. kt;
Plot 3. 1601bs. Muriate of Potash, 30.4 bus. Grain; 1,506
lbs. Straw.  
Plot. 4. No fertilizer, 23.7 bus. Grain; 1,487 lbs. Straw.  
. There seems to have been a material incre_ase of yield from    
both the nitrate of soda and the muriate of potash. This ex- l    
periment was made upon the new farm where the soil is of the ·  
kind having a red clay subsoil. Tests reported in formcrhulle-
tins, made on the old farm where the subsoil is yellow, have
shown the largest increase from the application of potash salts.
4 j’YTi '·· _;;.—.` »  · _,_, "  T,

 l .
   .. 72 Bulletin No. 99
  4. Relative Value ofthe Varieties for Feeding.
#  BY A. M. 1·1s·rER cfimnsr.
 E In order to test this question analyses were made of two sets
   g of samples from the oats on each plot, one taken July 5th when
f' the earliest varieties appeared to be ripe, the other, two or _
f _three days later. The samples were weighed, dried, and the
‘ nitrogen determined in each. These analyses were made
i by Mr. S. D. Averitt. From the analyses of the ripest
{ samples and the total weight of the crop harvested from each
I plot, the number of pounds of perfectly dry matter and of pro- r
  tein which would have been contained in the crop from one
  acre of each variety have been calculated and are presented
  below in tabular form. The proportion of protein in the dry
if matter also is stated.
{   As protein is the most valuable constituent of feeds,
,   that variety of oats which produces a crop containing the
‘ i Q largest amount   well as the largest proportion of this
__   substance should, other things being equal, be consid-
  ered the best. These results, however, must be regarded as
_   only approximate and tentative. The main reason for this is
,i V that the samples for analysis were taken five days to a week _
  before the oats were harvested and weighed, and the changes
'f which took place in this time in the relative composition of
Q 3 some of the later sorts may have been considerable. Besides this,
we must take into consideration the difficulty in obtaining
fairly representative samples for analysis. The samples were
l carefully taken by Mr. Harper who exercised his best judgment `
in selecting an average, but it would evidently be a practical
l impossibility for any one, no matter how skillful, to go into a ‘
. 1-20 acre of oats in which some plants arc fully ripe while
others are more or less green and select a small quantity that
would in every instance correctly represent the whole crop.
For these reasons, as well as because the accuracy of the calcula-
tion may be effected hy other sources of error, small differences i
between the figures for different varieties must not be re-
garded as important.

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Oats 75
'1‘Anr,1c 4.—AMoUxT OF Puowicm AND DRY )[A'l"l`11c1:AT1‘1z1c, Diseiuzizs F g_
Z Q    
2 ?*   5% lee? l (eg  
E O ;:;’§;, -12.152151 m r< g__z   .
2* T ¤~.:*·E @2 g“‘3-E: ri 2   §'1?1E‘2-E *5
·—   gg `:=" 5-2 ,‘ g§` c? (E E QE ;SE·  
Q5   El   ? UC  
‘ 5.1 csail 9 1i°e.*~l 1    
~ *‘ 2 ·` .1 : ; i ...;·
1 ‘ 1 i 1 ’ · .
January..l39. il.49`4.l0i 2.61 13.0-L 1 H3.   ll. lil-1. 2141 O.
Februa1‘y.I47. 11.62 3.351 2.73 15.77 V Ul.   S1. lit). 3-1. Q 140.  
é 1 . 1 . .
March ........ i42. l2.;23'5.01> 2.7S 18.55   76. 1 4. 344..43   109. '
1 ¤ 1 1 T 1
April ......... 145. l4.52`3.r1x1—1.1·1·* 17.41 l $4. 1 :10. .19. lss l 289.
May .......... iu?. l2.67i3.S1l 1.1-1 ]1%.55 ' N.   45.  ;1Q‘.&v=.$.·1-41 .- --
 11 1 1 1     _ 1 A \'€1`&17é§
1 . 1 15%. 1 18110. 1 1000. 1 1001. 1 for 14
. 1 1ifr14;Wi_ir 1 1 · Yczws.
7 . gz:   :1:   :1:   :::1 $*1 rr:  
1  1\1ON'1`11N 1    Q-E               1
1 ¢:».~· 1.7;:11 Z. ~ ~17—": 7-».~$7<
gé 1 r- 12; r 4·¤ :·— 4-51 r Tw Fw?  
11" 1 1· 211   *2*1 ·“;1 1*2 .—
  1 E1 . za 7 :11 Z1 1 7%
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Q J£u1um‘y. ..... 0.515 1 3%   13.130 1 34 @2.13 36 1 1.40 34 4.1