xt7ksn01168z https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7ksn01168z/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1940 journals 1_13 English Lexington, Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Kentucky fruit notes v.1 n.13. text Kentucky fruit notes v.1 n.13. 1940 2014 true xt7ksn01168z section xt7ksn01168z Vol. 1 December, 1939—January, 1940 U _ No. 13
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VV. D. Armstrong, I-Iorticulturist, Editor · UTR
. J"
THE SPE C IAL HORTIGUL- fruit has been favorably accepted
TURAL APPROPRIATION in the central markets in thepast.
The work that has been eamea U<>i~‘<>~‘~¤: St¤¤1`Z1Ct1CCS that will protectlthe good ·
A must by the U¤*m‘St*t>‘ of tEEII$£i’·"? I‘i?5Jl$€E€$?EZE1LiE§dti3€
Kentucky for the continuation of in Hx i . asi _ ti
this appropriation has been made P I f'_°C tic luiirg Pg Conga ' A
and is subject to the action of the 10} wm 0 mr pw ucmg STC Ons`
General ASS€mb]v_ Growers are also expressing the
' need for a wider use of inspection
      itlltl gfittllllgl of St1‘£t\\'l)€I`I'1€S HI i
    Slllllplllv DOIHTS. 1‘·€(l€I‘3.l-Stiii.8
H. B. PRICE, Head, Department of SITPPIUE pomt mSp€Ct1O1}’ by a' CQ`
Markets and Rural Finance, Agri. operative arrangement ot the Agri-
cultural Experiment Station eultural lixperinicnt Station With
stra,vbmy_gt—OmS of Kentucky §lQ§€T;\_,;· ;,’,?g}§‘QQ‘;i‘§,Q,‘§ $§l§;;‘;1,; (
are g1v1ngser1ous thought to means mink in Kemuckv both in 193;
of improving the marketing of Tmd 1,,.;,, The Seiwice proved SO V
Stm“`b€m`1€S` RQCQMITU Tcctmgs helpful both in providing a better
gg sgsmetg we $¤l‘ nes
. . Kentucky and surrounding orchard Efgm Hot m" “‘“l S°“€t’· l"€S"l‘ hea
.   ‘ S€0’ti0¤S- 1:15 P. M.—rne orenaroiet and the °°“'
y _ An outstanding feature of this *&h%§{;iS1E2tg· M- F‘“"`i“g*°“· $*9* go
. > · · ` °· e
; I Xear S plpgmm ls to bo tho d1SCuS' 2:00 P. M.—Some Cover Crops, Mr. rl
i ; ‘ sion by important growers, from W. C. Johnstone, College ot Agrienl- ,
_ _ ;_ over the state, of their 1939 experi- tnye. _ 011**
e. i enees Wlth Bitte,. Ret, other 2:1:>   M.-iOrchard Mice, Mr. G. C. Tel
orchard ex eriences strawberr O(i€1l`uk’ L` S" B‘°‘°g‘?‘“ Survey of ‘
‘ 1 _ ‘p ‘¤ _ y 2:4:1 P. M.-——Spray Service for 1940, b
i production and mzlrketlllg, I‘aSp- Mr, Armstrong. er
.   berry, Boysenberry and grape Evening Session Hrs
. ‘ 1 i ·‘ ` . CS
~ ~ { gr§&Vm%V C J h t ru b . 7:30 P. M.—Orcl1ard Pictures, Mr. tbl.
= , r· · · _O DS OH? lll mug Armstrong —— General discussion -
; l, some valuable information on cover Smoker. Um
{ { , crops. Dr. P. O. Ritoher will dis- THURSDAY fm
>. ‘ lOl
1 ;   miss Orchard Iooooto. and there Mr. William Fegenbush, President _
.   will be a discussion of the 1940 Kentucky state Horticultural gm
f Qt Spray Service. Society, presiding, _ 1113
l 1 il The Whole Program will here "g22.2·lti»‘i§.li.i...‘.;"‘£.§§.‘i"*’t..t?£i‘{.‘;ii Pt
    · , broad opphoetlooo to Practlcal Strawberries; Leader Mr. Magill liot
, i {111113 gI’O\VlI1g` needs and should be interviewing growers [rom the fol- O,
  ,   , ‘ of great jmpertenee to every fruit lowing counties: Messrs. Fred Fistor.
i L ·‘ grower in attendance and 3, Special Fayette; Lace WVren, ·l\leQrackon; Co
. M · Vincent Denunzio, Louisville; Pnnl C
; . . effort to attend should be made by Feb,. ei,,c,,,,,at, and pmt C S, Yr
` , A fruit men. Waltinan. I i I Po

   Alu. -*' P\'0Hi.&bl6 Strawberry ML Leonard OV8rby’   ·
§i$d::%(f3{0gT' A' S' C°1by' Univ"' three w e 1 1 known strawberry
   (xl!.-IBlpIs::rt:ess Meeting. growers; and   D. Armstrong,
W. W, Mmm, COMES of Agricuuurel Experiment Station H0rt1cultur1st.
presiding. Stops were made at (1) the
¤ 1:00 P. M.-~S0me Cultural Require- University of Tennessee Junior
· ments ot the Red Raspberry, Dr. College at Martin (2) R. R_ M0
` C°“"’· Umber r G {na is T
2:00 P. M. — Raspberrles, Boysen- arm: me 8 » en-Uesscer
i berries and Grapes; leader, Prot. and (3) at the Robert Leeper farm,
‘ e;..t..EiL‘:.i:· ‘:E$:“.».E.$?:““ii2;..z‘ Jackson- M ee of these eee
_ R- El MMA, Boyle Couiilty; BOB the McU1nber ’Yellows-free Blake-
· Scott. Kenton County; H. H. Jones, more Va¥`1€tY IS bems grown- A
- Fayette County. stop was also made at the farm of
¥ 3&(1uI;§€hTbT‘?:’;¤3)ty te New in GWP6 Mr. Denton Fly, Milan, Tennessee,
.' . ' n ' where a Yellows-free strain of
Q 3'30 P` M` Adjoummem Blakemores selected out by the
A TENNESSEE STRAWBERRY United States Department of Agri-
,1 TRIP culture is being grown. At each of e
Q Interest in the Blakemore variety '¢h6S6 P1e66S the f0li¤g6 WBS ef 8
c of strawberries has been increasing \1¤if01'H1 dark g1‘6e¤ 60l01‘ 8116. 110
Q- for several years in western Ken- 6Vid6¤66 cf the Y6U0WS disease W88
,· tneky. The 1939 harvest season seen by any member ef the party- .
' served to materially increase this BOU1 first Yee? arid S660¤d Y661‘ V
r. interest due to the greater financial patches were inspected. The high
§`· returns from this variety in com- ${2316 Of Cl1ltlV3tl0H ObS€1‘V€d Bt
` parison to the Aroma variety. 660h of these pl3I1tiHgS Wes of much
This was due chiefly to its earli- i¤t6I‘6St, cmd @116 11¤¤S¤eUY W611 ~
>' ness, its fine shipping quality and de\'€lOp€d I‘OWs of plants were a.
l· heavy yield. Much interest and reveletieh- Oh the rolling lend
_€ concern is also current among berry PYMUCHUY all the 66ldS seen were
e growers in the Yellows disease of terraced With wide broad-base _
the Blakemore veriegy_ terraces and all the rows were on = .
E- The Blakemore variety is the the contour. Many Helds were seen .
c einer variety in the large West where Straw _ hed elreedy beee  
3. Tennessee berry section just south beulee cut m PI`6P&I°aU0¤ fer  
0 of our Kentucky section. A num- mU1€h1¤g· {
’ ber of alert Kentucky strawberry At a stop at the West Tennessee   L
growers expressed their keen inter- Experiment Station at Jackson Mr. § V
est in making an inspection trip L. A. Fister, Horticulturist there,   -
3 through the \Vest Tennessee sec- showed the party over the extensive . A
tion, to study the so-called Yellows· st1·awberry breeding plots and ex- ‘
free Blakemore strains in produc- plained their program of work, and   ;j
pt tion there, and the general berry exhibited the many fine strains of 4; gf ;
Q1 growing practices. Such a trip was strawberries that are developing in   pe - ’
made on November 8, leaving the work there. The only yellows E   f
ri- Paducah at 7 A. M. and returning seen during the day was at the _ 6_·c . .
  to Paducah by 9 P. M., covering a Experiment Station planting there   C
,1f total of 230 miles. where an experimental planting of § ·  
.r, Those making the trip were twenty-five yellows infested mother   YC? 
ri: County Agent, Joe Hurt of Mc- plants had been made along side ;_{_§3_;j.j$
gl Cracken County, Mr. J. T. Warner, twenty—five yellows-free plants. Of     E
" Paducah; Mr. Lester Harris, Kevil; the twenty-ive yellows plants  
8   ’ 

 R I ·only twelve of them were g1·owing, WHITE GRUBS tc
out of these only two had made a By P_ O_ I{ITCI.IER ai
· Sllll$la°l0l`Y_ Dumber _0f 1`lmn°_1`S· Department of Entomology and Botany fi
· The adgoining row of twenty-five N _tt _ wb _ _ 1.t b P
’ yellows-free mother plants had all cx 0 TO"] meh W H Q gm S P
, . cause 111018 damage to Kentucky W
. lived and had produced a nice row Su__l“Vbcl_1_y patches than any other 1
_ _ _ ~ °f phmtS· _ insect. Often, as in this past sea- I.,
M12- A- N- Pfiltli, T€1111€$$00 Slimé son, d1·y weather is blamed for u
·: Hortieulturist, joined the party at damage that i11 reality should be b.
Greenfield and accompanied it the blamed on white grubs. Grubs g
. ` rest of the day and acted as a guide usually injure plants by gnawing lc
· - - and host; to the pai-ty while iii the 111lO the crown, and devouring the le
i State. Mr. Pratt pointed out that l`Q°lS~ lll ¤lll€1‘ 0¤lY UW UPS h
V ~ the acreage of old yellows infested 0l_lll€ l`00lS HWY he 01‘S of them. The t·
. . saw. It is easy to see that some of adults Ol lllls SP€€l€S HTG also Ti
. J the GHOWS infected mms We peculiar in that they fly 1nuel1 later t
. Y P .
T .V U have here in Kentucky did not m the Sgllimelgl tim; meet elle b
'   ·-·· come from such strains and fields Speciw .6 H u t °°t1°S Of Hm
Q   of plants as We hav . t d oi species begin to emerge the last of b
i ·,   ML Hangs I.€mm.k€g,s?i? ap; agad gl;€€,1E;€€§l‘i)1;p€1'S51E11'IlOIl and other c
  _ there are plenty plants of these Si H °1S’zm ab eggs dlilmg V
2 i . . Ven _ July. The small grubs overwinter
V i _ ows—free strains that can be had d . . .
t p . at 1_ bl __ an damage the beiry plants the c
    ‘ ,· Bgsogml 6 pU°€S· I Wlllll following spring. The large grubs C
F   _ pellgllg 0 _l1€¤1 to set 311 801% 01‘ S0 spend a second winter in the soil, i
p i   -— ut believe me, I want to know and become adults i11 June.
where m lant f " · · I
- Y P S come FOH1- Strawberry plants are most apt e
. __ 4

to be injured by gurbs if patches quire 6 to 8 years and a fowas
are set on land in sod the year be- much as 12 to 14 years. Usually
ny fore, if they are cle=e to the food pears begin to bear after 5 to 7
' plants of the adults o1· if the years; peaches 3 years; plums 5 to
lbs patches are allowed to become 6 years and cherries 5 to 7 years.
ky weedy. Strawberry patches set on Temperature and Weather--
ner loud in tobacco the year before are Sub-zero temperatures often kill
ea- rarely bothered by the giubs. lt is the fruit buds of the more tender
tor usually thought that a legume crop fruits such as peaches, cherries and
be before strawberries discourages plums. Weak and non-vigorous
lbs grubs. This may be true for many trees are less resistent to cold than
118 legumes, but the writer has found healthy trees.
the lespedeza sodsin western Kentucky Frost during blossom time fre-
ips heavily infested with grubs. quently results in injury depend-
mi There is very little known about ing on the severity of the tempera-
how to control grubs once they ture andthe attending conditions.
MS start to injure plants. 'l`l1e writer Even though no frost killing
OSB has found it pays to dig up plants 0Ccu1‘S, pollination may be pre- .
Sh, dying from grub injury and kill vented during cold stormy weather, A
The the grubs before they can move on thus preventing the fruit from set-
ind to other plants in the row. lt is ting. Pollen does not germinate at
by also possible to kill the adult beetles temperatures near the freezing
UGS by spraying their food plants with point and rains and stormy weather ‘
*€l`· lead arsenate and thus reduce the 11111}* prevent the work of bees which
»bl€ following year’s crop of grubs. are the chief pollen carriers. Some-
ur- This last suggestion may be of times beating rains wash the pollen
€i1I‘ interest to some McCracken County i1“`i1I>'· .
ion growers who have spray rigs avail- Poor pollination may result also
two able. because of self-sterile or self-
unfruitful varieties and lack of V
»ast FAILURE OF FRUIT TREES good pollen varieties. A large part
fen- T0 BEAR of the pollen of most apple vari- - _
id) A· J- OLNEY· Head eties will not fertilize their own
like D€¥’“U“€¤t °f Horticulture flowers, and little or no fruit will ,
; is Observations of fruit plantings set unless pollinated by another i
the in Kentucky have established the variety. The pollen of some vari- L
th_e fact that many of these are not pro- eties including Winesap, Stayman,
i 3 dncing satisfactory crops. Often Black Twig and probably Turley   ’
lrns failure to fruit is caused by failure are ineffective. Good pollen vari- l
The to blossom; although in many cases eties include Grimes, Jonathan, i
also the failure to bear is caused by the Delicious, Golden Delicious and . `
iter tree failing to set fruit after the Rome. .
ghcr blooms have been produced. Most varieties of plums and Q » g
this Sometimes, the cause for non- sweet cherries require good pollen   =
t of bearing is obscure, however, in most varieties growing nearby to insure   -
ther cases failure is due to one of several a good set of fruit. _ ` 4 '
ring wellknown factors. Sour cherries and most peaches ,
nter Age—Different. kinds and vari- with the exception of J. H. Hale g ·
the ety of fruit vary greatly in pro- are self-fruitful. g g
rubs ductiveness and to age when bear- ln orchards that do not have     .
soil, ing begins. Some varieties of ap- satisfactory pollen varieties these   ` -
ples may bear a little 4 or 5 years may be provided by setting young     ,
apt after planting, but the majority re- pollen trees nearby or top-working E   ·· ;

 2 some of the trees. Since this re- of the U.S. Biological Survey and nn
` quires several years, large bouquets arranged for some cooperative work nr
from pollen varieties may be Bout- in this state. tb
. tered thru the orchard at blooming On November. 27, severel niem_ Sn
‘ tum umd the permanent p°um‘ bers of the United States Biological ju
. imsere¤1d¤¤¤¤gh¤>bl¤¤m· sm-Vey me i11t0 reenter; on
‘l N¤*tM¤e—l¤ g¤¤<=¤·l me me   doo iemtive or-and   tl
· · lack vigor and trees that are over- w01_i_ Tri _ I H , l_ Mr G C of
vigorous set little fruit. Low vigor Oi   _i_ cf)? _11_?_t`;$ 0 t   ‘t, ‘ ;
° is the common t1·ouble and should Bi cl `I} " .15 in . gen or Ic t I
iological Survey in the Central th
{ ggruiggggted by proper use of States, Mr. Don A. Spencer, Dis St
` ‘ r Inseets and Diseases—In general Wil. I"l'°°t;*{",Q°"· E'h·°,_ hussbwl t"
t many home plantings, Sman c0m_ wolirnlginrt ic. lelwy xlnlg and tates B
. i mercial and some large commercial any I' °°m‘“ _ W `dlldj _ pf
· plantings fail to beer because of l`wo orchards in the vicinity of ll;
t severe inseot end disease etteoks on Princeton were examined earetully lb
foliege, limbs, blossoms, end tlre bye these men andrpractically no <‘<
‘ smell frnit_ As e direct resnlt of evidence ot mouse infestation was if
j severe ennle seeb infestetion to found. The orchard ot Mr. George ll
· V blossoms end yonng frnit stems in Miller of N alley Station, Jefferson _
_ 1939 mens, nnsnreyed trees lost County, was then visited because of lll
tlieir eron before it lied e elienee several complaints. Mr. Miller has bt
te sat. ‘ made of mouse injury during the gl
_ Adapted Ve,.iet,;ee__Meny veri_ winter, of 1938-39. In this orchard h'
eties feil to resnond to env end ell extensive meadow mouse, injury ff
treatments beoense tliey ere not was found. Therorchard 1S in sod ll
. adapted to the section in which @(1 S“PP0l`lS quite il rank "€S°m· if
_ _ they are planted. Tliis point tive ground cover. Numerous run- ll
  _ stresses the imnortenoe of nlent_ ways on the surface and beneath 93
l ’ · ing adapted Varieties. lnformetion the surface of the ground about the ll
e l ‘ concerning adapted varieties can t1‘€€S gore locatedl Severall dnests :,1
. Q _ be secured throu h the Kentuc “'€1`€ ug UP Wllcl I`°"€¤ € UG l
i I Experiment Statign end Entensilgi nesting places near the base of trees
_ ;. Sei-vice end by visiting local and large quantities of wild onions it
· grower-s_ thathhad been gatlnzred and stored ll
l in t eir nests or · i ·  
; °R°HV%R§A1t£g§§O§1;JURY Wim. r~u1-they Jlifaliiféi Et? it
‘   , · · vealed extensive fresh in`urr ll
  l `4 _ At various times in the past men- caused by the mice feeding on] the C
i tion has been made of mouse injury trunks of the trees this fall. The
;. Q inapple orchards. During the last fresh injury seen was occurring
Z   ~_ few years the mouse population just above and just below the sur-
· ¤ ._,. and injury has been increasing in face of the soil about the base of
j   several sections of the state. A the trees. Continued inspection in i
. i iQ number of reports of serious tree the orchard revealed that this 1
*_ ag loss in the Louisville section has injury was quite general in all l
  i li -_ _ been received and several such parts of the planting and indicated y
t j , orchards visited. that tree injury had started very 1
i l · ,, As a result of this tree loss and early and that the mice had not l
l   v_ the seriousness of the mouse prob- waited until hard severe winter (
5 {   lem, the Experiment Station con- weather had set in to start feeding i
- tacted the Rodent Control section on. the trees. Both Mr. Oderkirk 1
. . 6
ice`? ll

md and Mr. Spencer stated this was the profits by pruning. Pruning here
Ork first fresh signs of mouse injury refers to work on the producing
they had seen this fall and were tree and not to the training prun-
em- surprised to see the amount of in- ing which needs to be done on the
ical jury that had taken place to date. young tree, and this apparently
on Arrangements were made for Sllollld be Tefluced to as little
iuse these men to make some coopera- CUWUK as P0$·$1b1€-
. C. tive mouse poisoning studies in When trying to make a decision
the this orchard and the work was done concerning what type of pruning
tra] the morning of November 28. to do in your orchard, first consider
Dis- Some new types of baits are being your market outlet. What grade of
ieen tried out in this section, by the apples causes your keenest compe-
ates Biological Survey, and if these tition? Our observation has been
prove as satisfactory as prelimi- t}1at bulk, low grade apples from
V of nary work indicates, we should the near-by states iin the west,
uu}. have a new type ot orchard mouse north and east constitute our lead-
. DO cont1·ol program in this section of ing competition, especially in
was the United States, in the near ()ctober, November and early
1. future. December. During the past decade
$$5:; Finding of this severe mouse these low grade bulk apples from
Se of injury so early in the season should near-by states have established the
has be a warning to every apple local price of apples. The same
r the grower, particularly to those in variety of apples ofra U.S. No. 1 ”
hard heavy sod. Those who have suf- grade, ring packed in a new tub
jury fcred some injury in their plant- basket, would not sell for over 15 ,
L SOL] ings are quick to testify to the to 20 cents more per bushel on our
g€m_ seriousness of the newly observed local kentucky markets. ,
run- l“lUI`5’- These Wh-0 have ¤0'¤ Some of our Kentucky growers
ieath °XP°Yl€‘“C°d IUOUSC injury 8 Y 6 have kept quite accurate records of
.t the Prom tc 0"(‘l`l00k the ll0$Slbi1ll·Y of marketing costs, and find that the P
nests l”.l¤1`Y until Scrlmls l¤.l¤1`Y has sale of tree run fruit (culls out)
[ the 0€€U1‘1`€