xt7m0c4skp73 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7m0c4skp73/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1921 journals kaes_circulars_001_2_104 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 104 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 104 1921 2014 true xt7m0c4skp73 section xt7m0c4skp73 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
May, 1921
1’uhlish¤~¤l in ¤·\»1111¤¤·th•11 with thm- 1\§|`It'\lIIIlI`2lI vxtmisioii work cairried
UH hy ¤·¤»·»p¤1·;¤ii¤»11 of thu m'olh·;i· of .·\Ql`I\'\lII\II`\‘, IvlII\'L‘I`SII)' of ]{QIIIll(`I€}°,
with tho I'. S. 1n·h;¤1·\¤m·111 of .\uri¤·ul1u1·¤~ and lIISIl'II\\IIL‘\I in I`llI'III0l`1\II(‘9
¤>|` lhv work ;»1·mi·h~4l for in tho 4\¤·\ of (`\»IlgLl'L‘$S nf May S, INN.

1. (`<.u¤pcz·z1tlw liu·»sIlI|rlIlll' COO
1lUl‘kl for Il1t‘ll1.
2. Tllc )lilll2iQ`UI' ls !lu~ must llll]1¤1l'l2llll Slllgflxf lmllvuluul lu
tllc <)1‘g'illllZilIl1lIl. uml tl1cl·¤~l`<»l·u {_{'l'<.‘ill <‘ill‘L‘ SlIl>lll\l lw l‘X\'l'('lS\'(l
lu L‘ll()USlllg' u muu fur this 1)()\llllIll.
V   ,l4U$$L'> (lf illll]llZllS lll lllilllill Illll`, lil il \'(‘l"\' llll`Q`k’ (`Xl\°lll, “_HS
Q mluc tol111p1·<·pc1·1'm·lll11g‘. llilllllllllg uml lueullug lu·l`·»l·.· {hu suwl; in Il
leuvos the l¤.>¤·ul Slllplllllg pulul. uml uw. llu·1·¤·l`<»1·u, lurgvly witlllu uml
the l:<>ut1·<»l of the slllplwl'. thm
4. G1'2l(ll11g' lungs ut 1lu· ?lllllg' pulul ls ;ulvlsul>ll· wlwu (Mm
grcutor not 1'€‘[lll`IlN 1*2lll lm 1·0¤·<~l\‘wl l'*ll` lugs su grmlml uml ping
l Wlléll tllc lucul 11l2lllJlg'&‘l' lllltl•Jl`$l2llll'¥»]>t'l'l_\' ¤»;u·1·z1u·1l ll\‘¢»su»¤·l< slalppluggz1ssm·lutl<»lls 1m·l·
have 1‘C1l(lO1'L’(l u l`lllilll¢'lill suviug tu llu-lr ]lll‘lIllll‘l'S, ll¤·w·l¤>]»t *ll*'*’
Z}, bcltell g`l`Zl(lC of llwé Nl|ll‘l{ Zllltl (’ll(‘Ulll'ElQ`l‘|l El Sillllll nl. <‘1·pr¤1·utlstN·l2lll(tllS tw this pttrpnst-
uml tl1t·l1‘stt:·¤<·s- wus sn ntttsimnlittg thut tht-tlt·x···h»p1m-ntsim·t-
thut tinn· hus p1·m·<-t-·l<-tl with t·t·n1ut‘l<:tl»l¤- rupitlity. Thus. it is
t-stiniuit-tl thut tht-i·t- un- m-ui·l_x· Thllllt) t·t»t»p:·i·utivt- livt--stt»t·l< ship-
pingus—m·iuiiI}l*I`2Ill\`l* shipping- hus plum-tl thu I.2ll`lllt‘l' in imwc
intiinutt- t<>m·h with lllill’l(\‘l t-nmlitinns uml tlcmumls. uml. tht-1*0-
i`<>i·t-, it is mit stn·pt·isin;;· thut nm- t·t-snlt nhtuim-tl hy <-nnpt-1·u-
tin- shipping ussttviutitnis in ntuny ltwulitit-s hus ht-t-n un in-
ert-uso in tht- anmtnnt nl` lin- sttwl; ruisctl uml un Illl1\I'O\'l‘llI\‘lll in

4 ('irrit/(rr X0. IUI
its qnatlity. Ntteevss in ('lIll1I(‘I`iIlI\'t‘ shipping hans ¤·m·oiii·ai;5t·tl
fairnters to fornt t·oopt·rattive orgamizaitions to nian·kt·t other l`atrnt I
products amd the traiining I'(‘l‘(‘l\`l‘(I in ('<)t\[N‘I'iIII\`l‘ shipping hits
been yatlnathle in an·liieving· results in more dillienlt lines ol A
cooperzttive inatrketing. 1*,
Like amy other eooperaitive IlliII'I{<‘IIII{I aissoeiaition at Iivt·· tl
stoek shipping aissoeizttion nntst he needed in at eonnnnnity I>el`ore  
it will succeed there. The ussoeizttion must return more nioney Q
to the fatriner tham he would he patid hy the lowatl live-stowl; _ “
V buyer. An estiniaite ats to whetlier this <·zm he done or not many S]
l be obtatined hy iinding; the freiglit, wonnnissiori amd other H
charges. amd estiinaiting the slirinkatgze in weight of the stock
wl1ile in tramsit. then voinpatring the p1·i<·e whit·h the loeatl hnyer sz
patys plus aill shipping amd selling: expenst·s_ with the price paiid 1·
` at the eentratl matrket. (`oopt·ra1tiye shipping nieets with the ll
greatest fatvor in eonnnnnities where the i`2II‘lIl(‘I`$ aire dissattis- ll
'iied with existing methods, amd in sneh eoiimmnities one er S
two sueeessfnl shipments atre nsnatlly snl`tieit·nt to dentonstraite
the vatlne of this form of selling. (
A <·oope1·a1tive live-stock shipping IlNSlIt'I2IIIlIII is atdatpted to I
the loeatlity where there is at need for am Cl‘()Il()IllIl'2ll inatrketing
process amd where niost ol' the live stovk is itiatrketed in sinzill Q
qnamtities, but where tho aiggregatte is t·o1npan·a1tively lairge. A a
eomnmnity which ships ont am atveraige of one eair eateh week 1
or every other week l.IIl'llISlI(‘S enough hnsiness so at inatnatger inzxy 1
be employed for at eonipatrattively sniaill sinn per van'. \\'hile ship- l
ping aissoeiattions work nntinly for the henvfit of the fairiner I
who does not have enough stovk to fill at eatr, the mam who hats I
sufficient eatttle of his own to ship in eatrloatd lots sonietinies linds '
it atdvamtaigeons to ship tln·ong‘h am atssoeiattioti. I

 C00])(’7'tl[I·l`(’ I1i1.·0-Slow]: Shipping Associations 5
NIS _ . . . .
_ I‘llI`SI. 1h1· l1v1· st111·k l111*1111·1·s lll EI L‘Ul1llIllllIlI}' 111eet and de-
Ul 1·11l1· t11 sl1ip IIl\'II' stwk ItIL!`|'III¢'I'. Ellltl t11 I.(lI'll] 1111 f)I`g&1l1lZ2ltl()I1
for IIIEII p111·p11s1·. I‘:2ll‘Il 1111111 Slltlllltl tl{jl`I’L‘ to ll12ll'l{L‘t his stock
IlIl't)ll}Ill this 11ss111·i11ti1111. as 111 s11 tlfllllgj he will help t11 protect
IIIIIINITII as w1·ll EIS his ll(‘I}IlIIt(ll‘ agaiiist 2tII(‘1l1]')IS t0 hreak up
_.l,_ the 11ss111#i11ti1111. 'l`h1· III(‘II]IIl’I°> 1·l1·1·t il l111111‘1l of III(`$$. 'l`h1- 1l11·1·1:t111*s 111 tIl1`11 se-
l1·1·1 JI 111111111g1·1· 111 11tt1~111l t11 all SlIl[lllI(‘IltS. Ile 1s the 11111111 gear
U}- wI11·1·l 111 tl11· \\`llUll‘ llI2l(‘IIllIt* }IIIlI what he 1l<>es 111* does IIOI do
Wk • will 111 EI large IlIl‘2lSlll't‘ (It‘I<‘l'lllIlIt‘ \\'ll("IIlt‘l' the 11ssr11·iat11111 is 21
ll}, SII{‘(‘l‘$.< 111* 11 t`11il111‘1·. 'l`h1· U]ll‘l'ilIItlIlS 0i` il shipping iISS()Cl2lIl0Il
l*`l` are as t`11ll11ws:
`Vk l. 'l`h1· III2lIlilxLft*I' keeps 111 t11111·l1 wi1l1 the f2Il`lll(‘1`S having
'1‘1‘ st111#k 111 ship 11111l I{IIt7\\'S 2ll>]II'(*XllIl2ll<’l}' when tl1is stock will bc
111l l'I‘2IlI_\' l't)l` $lll]lIllt*IlT. I‘liIl‘II l·2I1‘lll(‘l' 1111t1t11·s the 111111111;:01* \\'l1l‘1l
he his $IlIl'I{ will he 1·1·111l_x· Ill ship. the llIlIllI1<‘]‘ 11t` l1e111l illlll 2l})l)l`(>Xl·
  11111t1· weight 1111 shipping 1111)* s11 il list 111 the stock ready for
Ol. SIIIIIIIIVIII 1·1111 he 1Il2I(l(‘.
1111 LZ. \\'IIL‘ll s11t'ti1·i1·11t SIlIL‘I{ is listed t11 i1ll ll 1·111* the 111ilIl2Ig`•3l`
OI`(Il‘I`$ il st111·k 1·111· Illl‘(lll{,!`Il the local l`kIllI`t>il\\`ll 1111 }1Zl}f1* T. 'l`l11·····  
1·11pi11s 111 1l111 l1lillllf(‘Sl 111*11 111111l11. 11111· is 1111·l;1·1l 1111 1l11· i11si1l1· 2;
of 1l111 1·111· 11*1111 1l111 %i(1l'l{, 11lll‘ ('11l1}' is s1·111 111 1l11· ('|Illlllll\}¤l'lll  
HI'1]1 1·l111s1~11 111 sell 1l10 Sl(\l‘l{. 11111l 111111 (*11111 is l11·p1 l11· lll;'  
lll2lll21g'L‘l` 11s 21 1·@1·111‘1l.
` (i. 1\f1L’1‘ 1l11· ('ilI' llils i11·1‘|1 l1l`11l11*l'l}' ])l`l‘llill`l‘ll 1l11‘ >1111·l{  
is l11111l111l illlll 1l111 1]l?lll2\Qt‘l' sliips 111· "l1ills 11111" 1l11· l'2ll‘ 11‘i1l1 5
1l11· l111·11l fl'(‘l{1'lll 2lQ`l‘lll illlll 1li1·1·1·1s i1 111 l11· s1~111 111 1l111 lll1ll'l{*‘T
11111l c11111111issi:111 1i1·111 \\'lll(‘lI l111v1- l)l`l‘\'l1lllSl}' l11·1-11 1·l111s1·11.  
7. '1`l11·111111111;;1·1· 111·1·1:111p1111i1·s 111 l1,‘2lSl [>ill'l (ll. lllll $llllllIl1‘lll< I
111 111111·l<1·1 i11 111·1l1·1· 1l1:11 l11· lllily l11·1·111111~ [)l‘l`S1>llilll}' ;1l‘11llillllll‘¤l ‘
wi1l1 1l112 (‘(1lllllllSSl1lll 1i1·111 wi1l1 \\'lll<'ll 1l11· lllwjillllxllllllll is 1ll‘lll* _
lllg'1lll(l Tll?1l l11· lll1l}' l11· l`11111ili111· \\'llll 1l11~ 1111·1l1111ls 111` llilllllllllg
St()('l{ lll 1l11e Sll1('l{_\'&1l'(lS. l
b. -\fll‘l' 1l11· Nl111‘l{ ll2l\ ll(*l‘ll s11l1l iii 1l11· }'&ll'1lS, 1l11· l‘11lllllll\*
si1111 1i1·111 Sl‘ll(lS Rl Nl2lll‘lll1‘lll. 111· .`ill'l'llllI1l Nill1‘S.U 111 llll` lllZlll’
ilQ.`(‘l'. This 2l1‘l'11lllll s:1l1-s sl11111‘s llll‘ iwiglil lll. l‘Ill‘ll lllilllls >l()1'l{
\\'ll(‘ll S()lll. 11111l lll(‘ p1·i1·1· 1·1*1·1·iv1·1l l.lll` l‘2l<‘ll. (S11 page Sf
]*`1·11111 1l11· 111111l 111 1l1is 2llll11lllll 1l11~ 1·11111111issl1111 1i1·111 Slll1ll'1l1‘l*
Cll2ll'{I(‘S 1'111· f1·1·i;;·l11, y:11·1l11g1*. l·(‘(‘ll. 1·11111111issi1111. illlll s111111~1i1111·~
lllSllI`{ll1(5(‘. 'llllllS. \1‘l11·11 1l11~ Ill}lll2l{I¢‘l' l`(‘('(‘l\'<‘S 1l111 ]`(‘llll'llS l.l`11lll
CEl(€l1 Sllll)ll'l1‘1ll[ 111: l]1llSl 1lls11·il11110 1l11·s11 (‘ll2ll'g`(‘S 111111111g 1l1e vn-

 ('¢mp:rul[1·r I,[:·1-N/or/r N/IIUIIIIIIIQ .·iSSOCl·(IIl-(/IIS 7
  I _ ,... , .   ...,, I ._.,.,..,_,..., . .A.. . ...... Iiy.
’*`I` Imtv I   . .. . .,..,. I _.,A.......... , 192 .,...... I
.II Shippml 111 I I INIIIIIU III. I'(|lIlIIIlSSl<)1l Iirmid _,,,_,,,__v_,___,________,________
' Amlclrvss I. I. .. .I . .. ,..,,,,..., . .........,A...4.....,...
I;1 (‘ur Initials I. II. ('.» (`2II' Nu, I·1I1U:=NI, Itoutiiig ...4 (Railroad) ....
Name IRIIJIII   Kiilrl AI z11·l1i11g 1{gm;1rk$
1~ if.]-- ....I,.r.__ ,_,_,,__,-_'_III#~_,
.l<¤l111-lwlws I .. . I I (Www I 1 1<·It hip g ...........__..,.___,,,__..__
mt 1II»’Ill`)' .I111·ks1i11 I ~ (`uw x I+·1`1 hip II ........I...................
.I¢>l1H Univ .I .   T I $l·~<·i·s 11<>111z11‘l·1s .,I._...V....,_..,__,_A__,,,,,
II1•· wm_ $111iLh _  _` I I Si¤·¤·1‘ I iight hlp ___,_______,,,______,,__,_____
RUF IIRIKLIF   Z I IIIIKS I ll uvruss liurli ,.......4...___,,A____I,,,I.,_
Ii`} Tim .I1>I111s1>11 . 4 I Ilwxs ` I z1<·1‘0ss l1z11·I1 _ ...,...._,__,____,I_____,_,.,_
I.I,_, Ilw>I‘;i¢* L<*+· . . ll Hugs 1111 111;11·ks ,______,______,,,_____________
}·`1·g1I U1`ilLIIQ“}' _, Ii I Hugs I uu l`lIIll]) ,....,..,.__,_..__,,.__,_,.,__
iIII· AFCII 5I€\\‘uI`l .I ` l I Stan; 1 lef1 hip I .,,,,I_,___,_____,____________
_ Albert I11·1>1>ks T I Ilugs 1 1·i;:ht hip ..............................
IIIII   _,,.   I. I .   ,.r.v.v,.., . ...,,....... .   .I . .....,....., . I......_......,......,_....._
IIII‘ `_`I ` I“`,   II`_     II_`. ·[]f[YQQ[fX[[   `II` .   I.IS   .`I'IiSi.i.`.`_`S`II,i.`. ` _`_"I`_III."_`_`I"I`_i_`_`_`_`_"_"I`_`_"_`_`I",`_`_i, ” _`_' _
II';···11 ¤I~·II‘.•rl}` ·»1` tI.·· >1»»··I—; ;1 1`··1;111rr>i1111Ih1:rTK I1IIIl1v·I` [Hl1`[I4j[] Iif tI,·—
f·1ZI·»1x111; as 1iII··»I <>III :111·I :i1··11 111 1i.·· l1II`lll•‘I' us I1 iw-··iptI This is 111;1·I1·
I_ III I11I·I11·;·1v·. I\\‘·• ¤·<>]¤l¤s I·vII1L: ¤·II (iw 1‘¤»I1lfIl··i•· I`¤·I‘I11S :1111I \\'I1•—11 1111- 1'r*-
""\ 1111·1i> ;11··- 1· ···4iv··~l_ 1I1·~ 111;111;1:· 1* Iills 111 1I1~· E·¤\\‘·1 I·.11‘t I~t` 1111+1; I`¤>I'lII5. ;111I1
_ I s·11·Is »·11·· 1~»;·5 1·· 1I1¤· 1;11·111»·1· ;111·I 1»~1:iI11> t11·· <·tI.··1· 1`I»1‘ i1is1il»~s,1
D11pli1·z1t1> 1*. () .,...,,.._,,,,..,._....,__, _ _,,,,_____,,____________ I 1512 ________
I11 LI(‘L'()IIllI wiih. ,I,,   ..,., .. II IIIROY IIMIAR ._._,_,.__,,_,___, _ ____,,_,,___,,_,,__,___,,__
"III* Yu I I . 11111110 SIII`lIII{~ Yet
mul ANIME (IIIS>.IIl‘1lI,I(Ill wvigm nge wcigm 1"1·11·e A111<11111t
I I T-?   I_";'."‘_’I"__1”_'I _";‘
QI — _ I I I I _ I n r > _
· ai Hugs ll zicross l1z11·l< I {ISU 1II I {4.0 100 $I|T,III)
Iliiiz I I I I
1IIIl*’   ‘ '“‘T"' T ” ' ”   T ' TT") 77
\\'0igI11;1· ,___   .,.,,. (1.01*111 KIz11111ge1"I .,...,...........,. `
I _1, _ S) . T __ .. . I Total
""" F I·<¤ IMI 411;::1 ‘L‘I$I?$ `§IQiII" I·=·I*01   HG1
. pp I ` ‘ I weight  
I $2.06   $1.011 I $IIjT57_$1_IIII I $0.59 I 1111;:5 $5.39 I $5.39
I'II*°I` .».......   ......I.I....... ` .....I I 1.... I __,,.__I,..,. I .,_,._,_,,_._,,1 I Yaztls I _____,,________, I
· .II.I.........II . ....II...... . ....II.....III.“ I ....I.II....I I I.I.......I..... I mute I..,.... I ........
muh ....».......-... I ·.........I.I... I .......,....,I.. I ......._   ..., I ..,........   Shc0p_I _._,___.,___,__, I
c \‘z1— 1·Z111·l1is01I Iiml 1·I11—1*l1 N11. ITZI for l»11I11111·12 11110. ..I......,...........  $EII;I3r1

 S ('1`1‘1·u/111* X11. I0}
,,.,,....,___,,.,. . _,A. . ...._...__.. (X.l1lll‘ 111 (`l)1l1ll11SS1l>ll l·`ii·1111 ........, . ....,.   . . ,...  
___,____,_,.______,_,__,___ ....lA11l1'l(l‘1l ._,_ . . .   .. 111:111-1... ....V . . ..
Sold for z11·1·111i111 of ....,,....,,....,A,.., 1Nz111i1- 111 Shipping 1\ss11ui111i111i1 .
N0 .______,__A,__,__,,,A____...A (Sl11[){\1ll§ l’1>i11t1.... ....   .tl’0s1 (11111*1-1 .
-1*1115+ V H 7 K M mrirdw 'rm4·W_"_
c11z1s— ~ (`;1111€ I·l11;:;s S11;-ep\\'1-iglit l)01·1< 1‘1·i1·1- ;\Illl)l1ll1 '1`111;1l
Q-S 1 1 1  
1 . 1 __ . 1 _ _ 1 _ _
.. .....,,,. 1 cow  . ,.,,. . ....,....., 1.10 ,....,.   111- { $1;,,1111 1 l(’l1 111p
............ 1 1·11w .. ,.V.,. ... .,,,..., $70 ...,....._, l ti‘.,1· 5~1.IiS x 11-11 11ip
....». . .... T stem-s ,.... .  ..... . ,,,..` T,0?<0 ...., . ..._, Slgr 001.80 1111 111:11*11s
,...., . .... 1 Ste:-1* .,.. . ....,,   ,...... 1.200 .. .,A____,A ` $11_,1·_ 111150 ll`1§Ll11 hip
.. .,r,,.... . ,,.,.»..,,,,> T1 ..,. . ,,.... V 070 .,...,4A.. 101* $17.00 1l1111h;11·1<
.r.....,,,.. . .,A...>..,. . ·1 ..,...  . 010 ., __ ,_,_, Ellgv 80.13 11111 hawk
__,_,,,_____ ' __ ___,_,, _ S _____,,,.___ 2,-1210 _,____ . .___ ` S1;1· 2011.55 111>111;11·ks
___v__,____, H ,,,________ :1 _,__,,   420 __....._.,.. 01.Q1·_ Z£N.h5 111>111:1i·11s
, _,__________ ` ____,,_,___,,, 1; _______,.__,` 070 .,,,___,,_,_' 101- 07.00 111111’11111p
_______r____ _ _,,,,..,,.... T ..,....   1.720 ...., . ».... 101* 1T2.00 1 I`1}.{l11l1lIl
___,__,___,, _ ,,,__,,,,. 1st:1g_ ......,,,,ii —100_ i....,.,.... -l1g1· 18.00 1 11·l`l11lp
H     VKI. _ liiil         `vvr in       l
_;_11__1”_1_1___1___1{_t ____
. 1 R. R 1
; · _ _ , . ' ‘l
_ C11. \0 “€1ghtSl111 Q
1 ` l·`1·12ig111 (`ll`§lS 4 $317.50
46038 20,000 ............ $37.50 Yziiwlziga- 251}.10   . .
,________.___,.... . ............... . ........... . ............... Huy S200 lhs. 11.00 ,_ ,_ _ . .
.......... . ...... . ............... . ........... . .... . ......... (`()l‘l1 13 1111. ` 32.00 .... . .. .
.................. . ............ .. ............   ............ liispectioii ............ .. . .... .
.................. . ............... . ........... . ..............` l11s111·:1111·c ` 5.00 .... ..   .
.,,,__.....,..i... . .._............ . ........... . ............... (`(ll11lI1lSS1()I1 11i.S0 $T·t.T·1
.................. . ............... . .._....... . .... . ........ N1-L p1·111·<-1-11s `.._..   $1,—t3f2.372K
. 1 1 1 .
1'1()l1S Sll1[11>(‘1`S lll ]11‘<>ll(11'l11111 tu 1111- :111111111it 1»l` st111·1< shipp1-11 hy
(*111*11. 51:1111- :1ss1>1·ie1ti1111s z11·1- t`1>1111wi11g 1111- ]1l`2ll'1lS 1»t` liziviiig
ll1(‘ 1·<»111111issi1111 l11`1ll ]11'(11'2ll(¥ lll(‘Sl‘ l‘l1&l1`g`l‘N 111111111;; th1- Sll1[1}11‘l'$.
11111 it is 11Sl12lll_\' 10111111 l1l11l't‘ sz1tist'11c·t1>1·y t0 11:11*1- 1111- 111z111:1g1-1*
110 this as 111- is iii Pl 111-tt1-1· pnsitimi 111 :111,111st llllllfilllll 11»ss1-s 111-
l*`1·1>111 1111* 1111-1-g-0i11;;· stem-1111-11ts it will l1l’ S(‘(‘11 llllll 1-z11·h 111-
(l1\'l(lll1ll Sl11[)1l1(‘ll1 is ll Kl‘])2l1'lll(’ tlllll 111sti111·t l1l1S11lt‘SS l1`l1l1$llll‘
tiuii, 11l(’(‘1111g` its own 1-xp1-11s1-s, :11111 l.111' this 1'<‘2lSt>11, il 1iv1--st01·1;

 Co0p1·r111'1`1·1· I,[1·111-$(111*/; S}1ipp1`11g Assuciulions 9
shipping 21ss111·i21ti1111 ll(‘l‘(lS 1111 capital and requires o11ly a very
H     simple l.Ul`lll oi` l)l‘{I&lIllZiI1lll(‘}' until returns are made, which
` I ` usually takes 211111111 El week.
uml The lIl2lIl11{Il‘l' is ll$llEl·1l}' p21i11 Z1 stated kllllfbllllt per hundred
p1111111ls11t` stock shipp1·11 1lll‘(>Il{I1l lll(* 21SS(I<'l2l1l(1l1, wl1icl1 is an in-
vhhip t·1·n1iv1~ for I1i111 to 1·111·11111·21g1· ('U<>[1(‘l'211l\'(j shipping as niuch as
1·1‘1 11111 p11s>il1l1* \\'hilc 11111st 21ss111·i21tio11s p21y il specific 2ll11()ll11IjI)0l‘l11].l1-
.ilEli:;.1i;x, 1h·e1l 1)U1lll(1S of stock shippc11, s11111c p21y a percentage of gross
  1·e1·1~ipts. illltl othcrs pay il stated 21111o1111t per carload. The
~111211‘ll`U1CC1l()ll fund is often created by
`iiixn" holtling i11 reserve 21 specific illllfllllll per liunclretl pounds l1o111e
—T_ weight. t11 l1e lISC1l i11 l'l‘lllllllIINlllg` l1lC11l1)C1'S wl1o may sutter loss
tln-1111gh lll_l\Il'}' or 1lcath of illlllllills i11 transit. This amount
varies llrlllll 1 t11 4 cents, l.l`l*<1lll*ll1l)' being 1 or 2 cents lll;`ll€1` for
hogs than for cattle. Sonic &lSS(lCl&l1ll)l1S take out livestock
I IT _` I policies \\`l1ll lllNIll'illll't‘ ('(llllI)21lllL‘S in which case tl1e actual cost
·   » 1 of ll1Slll'ZIll1‘t‘ is lllwllllltoll from the l`01lI1`IlS. (See p21ge 11.)
l‘ll'Olll the p1·ec1·1li11g 11iscussion it will be see11 that the s11e-
cess or failure of 21 shipping association to a very great extent,
uml _l`·\i 1lcpc111ls llpllll its lllilllilg(}I'. lf l1e is in synxpathy with the move-
Fml-mg lllellt. is c21p21l1le. 211111 ]llill(t‘S an earnest eftort to de\'el0p CO0p€l`21—
"l`l1"l-S' tive shipping, success is 1llOl'C t‘0l'l2`Illl than if the 111iU121{`€l` lacks
‘l‘l'“'¥"l' G11tl111si21s111 211111 is in tlouht as to tl1e possibilities of cooperative
"***`* "l` ]llZll`l{Clll1Q,`. It is well to employ 21 nianager wl1o has had some
experience i11 shipping stock, although the methods of shipping
*`*"‘ll l‘l` may be quickly lC2l1‘ll(‘(l by anyone chosen as nianager of the as-
l*`**'l‘*"" S<1<¢i21ti1111. In soleeting the ]]1ill1ilg("l`, the directors of an associa-
V*‘·*l‘“'l‘ tion Slllll1l(l look for il man of integrity, honesty and tact, \\'l10

lt) ('tirett/or No. ltti
hus u pleusing personulit_v uml sonml husiness _iml;;ntent uml
who eurries the gootl will ol. the eonnunnity with hint uml he-
lieves in eooperution.
Eueh nieniher shoultl reulize thut volinne ol` luisiness is one
of the foumlution stones ol` the ussoeiution, uml shonltl ulwu_vs
ship his stoek through the nsroeitttiott even in the t`uee ol` tempo-
rury higrher hitls front its eonipetitors. Une ot` the niost lretlnent
uml xnost tlitlienlt prohlenis whieh ussoeiutions eneonnter is the
failure of nienihers to tleliver stoela whieh they hure listetl for
shipinent. This results in purtiull_v lilletl eurs with exeessive
_ freight eliurges for those whose euttle ure shippetl. Hottie usso.
eiutions huve utloptetl the sehetne ot. lining 1llt‘llll>t’l's who t`uil
to deliver stioek to the extent ol` whut their shure ol` l`rei;·ht
charges wonhl huve been. This wouhl not he neeessury. how-
ever. if every niun wonltl pluy l`uir with his neighlior in u true
y eooperzttive spirit,
Meniliers shoultl huntlle their stoel; properly l>el`ore ship-
ment in ueeortlzntee with sttggestioiis l`ron1 the niunuger. This.
us will he shown luter. is only gootl lnusiness us it retluees the
slirinkuge uml in the eml worlas u henetit to eueh intlivitluul
Losses whieh oeenr in shipping stoeh ure ol' two himls.
First. ueeitlents whieh result in erippling or the tleuth ol` uniniuls.
und. seeoml. u loss in weigrlit whieh un unitnul usnully nmler-
goes hetiveen the time it is loutletl in u eur ut the shipping point
and when it is soltl on the niurlcet. Losses ol` the lirst lciml niuy
be insnretl uguinst either througli insurunee eonipunies or un in-
surunee funtl, zts hus heen inentionetl. A eooperutive ussoeiu-
tion shonltl never eurr_v this risk without sonie nteuns ol` pro-
tection for its putrons. us it hus not snll`ieient linuneiul liuelaing
to snstuin u lieuvy loss ilY one shonhl oeeur. lt, is well l`or un

 ('m»[»¢1‘uI[:·r /A/r¢»N/wv/.‘ N]/l.[I[llH[] .l.s.wr·[u{[ons ll
uvl . . . . . . .
IW- ;|$$<>{‘lZIl!l¤ll _]\1\l >l&lI’lll¤Q l>ll~1ll¤‘~> Irv ('ill'l'}' 1l!Slll‘z1l1¢·<& with swim:
1‘a·li:1l»l¤· lix·•·-s1m·l< lII\lll'2Ill|‘l‘ 1·l»llI|lilIl_\'. :11 lvusl on its first few
sllilnmmis. 'l`his will givvll1<·;i~~¤»¢·ia¤Ti<»1i zm 1ll>l)irl'lllllll}'lUl)(‘gll1 A
ihv <·1·<·zi1i·»11 ¤»l` xm ins¤11·aim~•· fuml il` lh·· ]Il1‘ll1l)(‘l'S l>l`(‘fCl' this
ll i i`4.y·m lil' ]»1·<»i··¤·1i·»in. 'l`h·· ml\‘;1i1Iz¤;;w· <»l` >\1¢·l1 lIlSll1'ill1(_*O policies
_) ll islhzit ei ¤l··lii1il¤· [ll'l'lIlllllII is [uml uml th¤· iiisui·eim·<·¤·<»i11]>;i11your-
illil \ l‘i¢‘#ll1¤·i‘isl{_ lin ¤·;¤~¤· ·»l` lhss wl1··i··· ms1ii·;m·-»· is Cill`I'l<‘ll with an in-
tm $lll`il|li‘¢‘ <'¤>lI\[l11l|_\`. Ili<· l:iIZ··1‘ pays zi ···i·ini1i uimniiii ]»01·l1<·;1(lfn1‘
thy 2l|lllll1ll> lz111i•·s usually \`}ll'}'
im, l'1··»m il 1·» l2 i‘¤‘lll~ {wr h··ml MII hugs. 13 in 2l) wins mi (rutile,
>i\.__ uml 5 1l» li t‘¢‘lll> mi sl1¤···pl 1l¤‘lN*lltllll;j iipwii tho tll$`l2lllL’C tn
kW__ m;u·l<··t. l·`·»1· mixwl mers 1h··s·· i·;m·s mw- llll‘l'•‘2l>l‘ll 23 por cout
mil wlm-h 1···:l····ts 1h<· lll¤'I`i'2l\l':1|m· vuir
mw- \\`lil~n em lllS\lI'£llll‘l' ·»i· ;»i··»i··l·1i·»n fuml is ¤·i·vzilc¢l hy Thc
ll`ll¤‘ ;1>sl»wi;1li¤»l1, ;1~ is 1l1<‘ Plrllllllllll I11<*Il1<»nl nl. ll1>lll'il1g` ;1;¥z\iI1S‘l l(rS$C‘S.
lhw ;:1m»im: is h;is···l mi 1h·· ]¤¤:l1l11l~ ·»t` sl·»¤·l< sliipmul. The usual
`]lgl,_ z1im·1m1 wiililwlll l`<»1· ihis ]»11i·]»··sl· hy ;iss·»¤·i;iii¤»11s is 2<>1·Z3<·01its
[‘]lj,_ ]>l‘l'llll1l¤ll't‘¤·11i1¤ls¤»l`s1<¤¤·l<, ll is ¤·<»mim»i1 1·»h¤»hl2 n·c1ilspC1‘
qll.· lll\lll1i|¤]¤··¤l ilmnngli 1l1¤·z1ss<·;·i;11i<¤i1. Uilivr ihiiigs hoiiig equal.
1h·· l‘:lI<‘1l11l>l h·~ lni;·l1l·1· \\`lIl‘ll ]»i·i<·¤·s ami high ahem·lu1·ingp<—1·imls
<»l` low {¤1·i<·4·s, ,\llh¤»ug·li imisl lnssos m···111· in lrziiisit lhvy cam
ENT hw t‘¤>llll`¤>ll<‘1l in il \'l‘I`_‘.' lnrgn uxlviil hy tho sliippcr. l‘llllt‘21llll}'
ziiiimzxls wlwii <*l'¤l\\'lt‘ll in llvzitli. \\`;ig·m1 lmxos. hlmliiig chutcs.
mils. <·2H‘ ’fl<>iii·s¤·_ mm m»l’ lmhl ihcir own in vrowllcd
miiil <‘zl1's Willi ¤>1li<‘i‘ sl<»1·l(. llmngs 2ll'k‘ ¤ni`In*11 <»\'0l‘Vllt‘zllCll ill slU1il1lC1‘ {111Ll
NWN l¢>&iil.

12 Circular No. IUI
\\'here freight charges are made on a certain minimum
weight per ear. there is a temptation on the part ot` some ship-
pers to attempt to “`get their lll?
enumerated as causing losses through the death of animals in
The praetis of giving hogs a large feed of water and grain
or "swill" just hefore shipment is fast passing into disnse. al-
though it is yet one of the common causes of excessive shrinkage
in weight. The hog is tilled up on water or feed which largely
passes off before it reaches the market scales. The unduly large
feed, excitement of shipping. and strange environment all tend
to throw the animal’s digestive tract out of order, which leaves

 (,'(}(/])()`(llIil'l` I.i1·r-N{u¤·I.· Nliippiay .»lx.l't‘ sale. li` Ull thc other haud thc animal is
i lll given a I1UI'lllill dry l`¤·ed lN‘l.l>l`|‘ sl1i]»111¢·11t. it will 2ll`l'l\'() at the l
"l"- Slay]; yu;-.1; luiugry aud lllll'Si_\', aud will make goml usc of thc
`ll"' feed gxiveu it.
my l)i·ix·iu;5 stock long: tll*l2lll(‘t'$ to shipping: point causes au
Nil` (‘X('l‘>$i\`t‘ lU$$ lll \\il”ll,Illl. (lllll ll} llliliill i[ll(l 1)('l`$lPll`}llll}ll, Sl) ]l1(>St
li ll $lllI}]N‘l`S deliver their hogs. sheep a11d calves i11 wagons. while
lieavy cattle are uiore often 4ll'l\'t‘ll iu. Just as the distaucc from
tl1·· i-zll'll1 to slnippiiigx point all'··¤·1s the $lll`llll(Pl{1`l*. the distauec fl'tl1l1
‘ he sltipltiiig point to 1llill'l{t‘l has its ell'e¤·t. 'l`hc greater thc dis-
llll! tauee. the longer stock iuust stay i11 the t'l'U\\`llt,‘(l ear. aud thc
ll1·"1‘ llill;It‘l' the t‘Xt'llt'lIlt*Ill prevails. the {i'l`CHTt‘l` thc shriiikage will
<>11t‘ he, \\vt‘2llll•‘l‘ Ptllltlllltllli also atleet the Slll‘illl{2lgO. cold. rainy
!‘11>. weather aud hot. Slllll'_\' \\'t’1llllt‘l' hoth having a teudeuey to ill-
·\‘·‘1` t‘l`t‘2t>t‘ the Slll`llll{2lg1`l‘. lu $lltil`l. auytliiug whieh adds to the dis-
‘ l>)‘ (‘Ullll.t¤l'l ot` stock will iuerease. Ellltl auythiiig which adds to its
`¤¤1·l L'tlllll.tll'T will tll*t'l't‘2lSt‘ the sh1·i11lll$ltl(‘l'2llll1l1$, all stock brouglit i11t0 the
lll`lll sto1·l< yard is allowed feed aud water. lt‘1'lllt‘Ll a "iill." before
'l`lll* it is sold. 'l`his feed is t'u1·uished hy the stockyard eoiupauy
‘ll'l." illltl is t'llill';;'t'tl against the sliippeig aud this is auother 1`C2l$Ull
il"ll* why auiuials should he iu the hest eouditiou to take advautagxe
lll>l ol` it. Slll'llll{tl;fl‘, tlgured as the tllll.t*l`Pllt‘t‘ hetweeu home weight
l* lll Rlllll lll2ll'l(t*l weight at`te1· auiutals have l1ee11 fed aud \\`atQ1‘ed
iu the stoeltyards. varies l.l`t>lll uothiu;1 up to live per eeut or
rraiu 11ltll't‘.
·. al- ;\llt1lllt‘l` lllll)t\l'l2llll Stllll`t't‘ of loss lllll so {l'(‘t[llt‘llil}' noticed
ltage hy the li\·e»sto<·l< sliipper. although part ol’ it may he due to his
rgely l'2ll'l‘lt*SSllt‘SS, is the loss ol` lllt‘2ll ou aeeouut ol` hruises. The
large lustitute ol. ;\lllt‘l'lt°2lll Kleat l)<‘l{l‘I`$ estimates that a11 average
teud ol' oue—half pound ot` meat per hog killed i11 the l`11ited States
saves is lost ou aecouut of hruises aud that iu lfllll this loss was

14 (iIi)'('l([1lI` N0. IUI
equivaleiit to 50.293 hogxs of 190 pouuds t‘ilt'll, or 575 carloads. bc;
which 1’lQ,`\l1'L‘tl at $17.85 per lllllltll't‘tl pouuds, tl1e avera;;e price HH,
paid at Chicago (1lll`111g tl1at year. l\lt‘2lll[ a loss ot` >1·<2l.5l)S,SHt).t)t).
Losses 011 cattle 1ll'C t‘SlllllEl1t‘tl to he 1.27 pouuds per head, ll12l1{- V
iug a