xt7m0c4snb0h https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7m0c4snb0h/data/mets.xml Kentucky Negro Education Association Kentucky Kentucky Negro Education Association 1951 The most complete set of originals are at Kentucky State University Library. Call Number 370.62 K4198k journals  English Kentucky Negro Educational Association: Louisville, Kentucky  Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal African Americans -- Education -- Kentucky -- Periodicals The Kentucky Negro Educational Association (K.N.E.A.) Journal v.22 n.2, February, 1951 text The Kentucky Negro Educational Association (K.N.E.A.) Journal v.22 n.2, February, 1951 1951 1951 2020 true xt7m0c4snb0h section xt7m0c4snb0h    

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 m K N E. A. Joumi

VOL, XXII February 1951, No. 2

Published by the Kentucky Negro Education Association

1740 West Dumesnil Street, Louisville 10, Kentucky

EDITOR: W. L. Spmwm, Executive Secretary, Louisville
PRESIDENT K. N. E. A.: R. L. Down“, St. Shelbyville

ASSCXDIATE EDITORS: W. B, Chenault, Stanford; E. K. Glass, Hopkinsville; V. E, Miller, Louise
ville; L. J. Twyman, Glasgow; W. M, Woods, Harlan; W. O. Whyte, Maysville

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS: R. B. Atwood, Frankfort; E. T. Buford. Bowling Green; H. E.
Goodloe, Owensboro; Mary E. Guy, Horse Cave; N. L. Passmore, Lexington; W. H. Perry. Jr.,
Louisville; Mrs. Lucy H. Smith, Lexington; C. L. Timberlake, Paducah; A. S. Wilson, Louisville;

W. M. Young, Lincoln Ridge

Membership in the K. N. E. A. includes subscription to the JOURNAL
Rates of advertising mailed on request

Table of contents

Editorial Comment ............................................................. 4
Cover Picture ......................... .., .... . 4
“The Presidents Letter," R. L. Downy, Sr. . 4

“A Reading Student, A Thinking Student"
“A Thinking People, A Free People," James R. O'Rourke ............................... 5

Notes on District Oificers ............................ . . 6
Student Participation Through the Student Council, . 6
“Segregation vs, Integration," Atwood S. Wilsim ...................................... 7
A Better Correlation Between Junior High and High School English, Frances vaant Munfmd. . 8
Reduce the Cost of Your Audio'Visual Program. . . . .

Diagnosing Silent Reading Needs, Bertha L. Bryant. .
Writing, H. L. Smiley .......
Constitutional Amendments. .
Music Notes, R. Lillian Carpenter. . .
Book Nook, Ruth Hill Imus ......
Standing Committees—1950:1951 . .
K. N. E. A. Kullings ............................................................ 20







 Editorial comment


Any urganimtion is no stranger than its Weakest
unit. This is true in all instances—even insofar
as our greatest national educational organization
is concerned.

This organization, the NEA, represents many
hundreds of thousands of treachery-teachers in
Whose hands lie the future of democracy. How
can we share our great ideal of democracy if it
is not first evidenced in those who train our
future generations?

The NBA, as the leading educational organir
zation for the teaching profession, must cease
hiding behind the undemocratic attitudes of
a few prejudiced educators, It is time now that
this great organization proves its grmmess.
This can be substantiated by quoting from the
minutes of the Joint NEA'ATA Committee
MeetinginWashington, 11c. "...the
NEA should take such positive and immediate
steps as Will provide that all members whose
dues it receives will have an assured opportunity
for statevlevel and localvunit delegate reprer


roughly translated, mans it all depends on
what you make it.

While there is no place for politics in educa'
tional associations, still educators, as individuals,
cannot sit and silently watch the passing political

As edumtors and citizens during the year 1951
it is our duty to see that forward strides in
education are made on the local, state, and
national political level.

We cannot alford to see the future of edu—
cation deterred by a mum 'umbo of lobbying
and political bickerin at all vels.

Contact your 1 litical representatives;
write your senators an congressmen.

Let us fight together to see 1951 bring even
greater educational gains on the local and state
political scene~1et us see a bill for federal aid
to education passed by the 82nd Congress


Dunbar Grade and High School, located one—half
mile south of Morganfield, is the only school
for Negroes in Union County. Built in a modern
style, it contains seven classrooms, lounge for
cachet-s, a gymnasium with modem showers
and rest rooms, and a storm heating plant.

The superintendent, Mrr Carlos Oakley, and
the Union County School Board work with
untiring elforts to aid the principal, Mr. E. R.
Hampton, and his eflicient staff of ten teachers
in providing a well'rounded educational and
community program.


The President’s Letter

February 1. 1951
To the Officers and Members of the
Kentucky Negro Education Association
Ladies and Gentlemen:

These are perilous times through which we
are passing. When we take a view of state,
national. and international world conditions,
we become somewhat alarmed. However, with
an abiding faith in God, We will be able to
surmount the arising dificulties.

Since my first letter, we have met on common
ground with all sections of our grand old Com.
monwmlth represented, and worked out definite
plans for our "DIAMOND JUBILEE" celebra
tion in April. Our efficient secretaryrtreasurer,
W. L. Spearman, has sent to all members of the
variouscommitteesourreportsonsu estionsthat
were oifered and adopted Novem r 18, 1950‘

We are grateful to all for the letters and Cards
of congratulations upon the first issue of our
JOURNAL. With your moral support, together
with finance, our editor can continue to give
you a good ‘oumal.

Let this the prayer of every tmcher:

O God, Thou who hast ever brought all
life to its perfection by patient growth, grant
me patience to guide my pupils to the best

Tach me to use the compulsion of love
and interest; and save me from the wmkness
of coercion.

Make me one who is a vitaliaer of life and
not a merchant of facts. Show me such a sense
of value. that I may distinguish the things
that last from those that pass, and never
confuse mountains with male hills.

Grant me insight to overlook the faults of
exuberance, beause I can see with prophetic
eye the possibilities of enthusiasm.

Save me, oh Lord, from confusing that
which is evil with thatwhich isonly immature

May I learn the laws of human life so well
that, saved from the folly of reward and
punishment, I may help ems pupil of mine
to find a su reme devotion for which he will
give his a . And may that devotion be in
tune with Thy purpose for Thy world.

Iviay I be so humble and keep so young
that I may continue to grow and to 1mm
while I teach.

Save me from letting my work beme
commonplace by the ever present thought of
all human endeavors; ing is most like
the Work that Thou hast been doing through
all generations. Amen.

Yours for an aggressive and progressive
association. '

R. L. Down“, 511., President K. N. E. A.

 “A Reading Student, A Thinking Student”
“A Thinking Peegled Free People”

Jams O'Rounxn

Teachers in the schools and colleges have a
great responsibility to the young minds we have
dedimted our lives to teach, especially during
these critical times. Are we sabotaging these
minds with neglect and rationalizations? The
administrator, teacher or librarian who is not
usin every available means to equip his students
for e challenges that lie ahead is as much a
demagogue as the legislator and/or politician
who figlhzts equal educational opportunities for
all p .

’12:;th and lecture educated students are
seldom thinking students. Education means
awakening and the characteristics of the edu-
cated individual are inquisitiveness, independ-
ence, intellectual courage and initiative. The
textbook and lecture educated student seldom

ssesses these qualifications. He finds it ex:
tremely dificult to keep up in college courses.
When the college sub‘ects him to the same type
education, he has s 'l greater difliculty in the
graduate school where he is likely to he placed
on his own.

By textbook and lecture educated I mean
students who read only what is Written in the
textbook about a thing rather than rading the
thing itself, e. g., the student reads about
various authors but seldom, if ever, rmds and
analyzes the Works of the author, The lecture
educated soudent usually lakes what the lecturer
gives him without making a contribution him-
self, and he is expected to give it back just as
it was given. Rarely does the student form
any ideas and opinions of his own.

Bemuse of the increased enrollment in the
Colleges and other demands of society after
college years, studenu must be trained to sift,
locate and interpret information when it is
needed. "The library functioning as an intel«
lectual laboratory and functioning as a method
in education has the chief power by the very
nature of newer methods of education."

If “Kentucky‘s Greatest Resource Is Her
People," and if “an informed people are a
democratic people," and I might add a thinking
people, then we who man ”Arsenals of a Demo
cratic Culture" (libraries and classrooms) have
a responsibility never before placed on dis
seminatms of knowledge and idmsr

Herman W. Liebert, in his article, Books~
Swords m Dreams, Library Journal. November 1,
1950, says, “Many jobs are dangerous because


they involve the handling of perilous materials
. . . with which a single misstep may mean a
local disaster. But none of these is so powerful,
so full of good, if handled correctly, so full of
destruction if handled carelessly as the com,
modity that librarians handle every day. That
commodity is ideas. The student who remains
in school from 12 to 16 years without being
exposed to the thoughts and ideas of the great
writers a ears to have about ”as much inspirar
tionasap teofmuifins.m

The increasing responsibility is on the faculty
of each educational institution. The efforts of
the librarian and the teaching faculty must be
more closely coordinated for it has become clear
that their respective responsibilities do not
merely overlap, but have merged,

In many of the combination elementary and
high schools the library collection consists only
of books for the high school student. Reading
a variety of books should begin in the elementary
iades in order that the reading habit might be

veloped. The Library Extension Division, Old
Capitol Building, Frankfort, will send fifty books
to your school to be returned. When these are
returned you may burrow another fifty copies,
and for only the cost of mailing.

One enterprising teacher told me how she
was able to give her students the advanta e of
a number of books. She had each member 0 the
class to purchase one 25'. 35-, or 50cent copy
of a Bantam, Pocketbook or Signet. Some pure
chased Modern Library titles. As a student
finished a title it Was exchanged for the title
owned by one of his classmates. During that
term several students read twentyefive titles,
More school principals and superintendents are
becoming library conscious and as fast as possible
are doing something about providing library

The faculty and library staE of Kentucky
State College is cognizant of the needs of its
students who plan to teach especially. We are
attempting to teach efl'ectively the use of books
and other library materials since these students
will be expected to assist in developing the use
of a variety of reading materials as integral
parts of the educational method of the schools
of the Commonwealth because we realize that
“a reading student is a thinking student,“ and
“a thinking people are free people."





PRESIDENT or rns seconn nismc-r K. N. a, A,
Mrs. Bessie S. Thompson of Eliuhethtown,
Kentucky, a product of Kentucky State College,
is a classroom teacher in Hardin County, chain
man of the National Program Committee of the
Kentucky State Alumni Association, and the
proprietor of a cleaning establishment in Eliuv
bethwwn. .

G. Brusco Hous’rou
PRESIDENT on me eons-m DISTRICT K. N, a. Ai
G, Brisoo Houston, a graduate of Lincoln
Institute and Kentucky State College, received
his Master of Science degree from Indiana
University in 1948, is a past president of the
Third District Association, and is now principal
of the Henderson County Consolidated Schools.

Student Participation Through the Student Ceunuil

Student participation is the active self/motivated
and responsible sharin of the pupils in the
planning and living 0 school life under the
guidance and stimulus of the family. Many
edumtors believe that this can best be done
through the student council. Under no circular
stances is student participation or selfrgovemr
ment to be taken to man complete control of
the school by the pupils.

1. To train for worthy citizenship through
cooperation, selfrcontrol, selfd'eliance,

initiative, etc.

No one council an fit every school.

All phases of the school must be given
proper training.

Make sure it is cooperative government
—not self! ovemment.

The schoo must feel a need for the

Each pupil must be represented.

The student should feel his represent

8. There should be no general restrictions



on representation.

9. The council must have a definite place
on the school program.

10. The principal implications of democracy
are basic to oouncil purposes.


1. Training for citizenship.

2. To establish better ficultyastudent and
better student'faculty relationship.

3. To develop an interest in and pride for
the school.

4. To promote selfexpression and self!
development. .

5. To instill the fundamentals of oorrect
parliamentary usage.

6. To develop good business habits.

Just when student participation began is
unknown. Even the Greeks had it. It has been
handed down to us in minus forms

It is important that we hear in mind that
self'guvemment and pupil participation are
two different things. Under no circumstances
is the pupil to govern himself. Thengovemmem

Cumin on page 7

 “Segregation vs. Integration”

A-rwooo S, WILSON

Today the Negroes of America are striving
more than ever to obtain integration in educa»
tion, sports, housing, and other areas of life.
There is nothing wrong with integration itself.
Certainly in a democracy complete oneness of
people is expected; equally discrimination and
segregation should be foreign to such a society
But the Negro, long suffering from the humilia-
tion and frustration induced by race bias found
in the American social stméture, has launched
an attack at the heart of the evil. His yearnings
are understandable; they are right and need no
defense. The Negro knows also the many
inequities that have come to him through the
antiquated theory of “separate but equal
facilities." While the Negro has every reason
to demand integration, there are certain peculiar
factors associated with it that deserve careful
consideration and mature thinking.

If integration in the American my of life
were to be complete, not partial, then arguments
against it would he senseless; but if it means
the giving to the Negro the rights and privileges
of an American citizen, but denying him the
right of employment within those arms into
which he has been integrated, then there is
much to protest. In our struggle for integration
we must never lose sight of the fact that with it
we also want "job opportunities.“ It is not
enough to possess the privilege of attending
integrated schools, if the doors of employment
in those same schools are closed to the Negro,
In his quest for integration the Negro must
include in his demands and obtain the right to
employment in the areas where integration is
accomplished Failing to do this, he may find
himself a victim of a type of discrimination more
sinister and more dismal than that which he
sought to avoid.

A good example of this type of thing is found
in the situation at the Louisville Municipal
College. When the University of Louisville
made provisions for the acceptance of Negro
students. it failed to provrde “job opportunities"
for the several capable and wellitrained teachers
and other personnel at the Municipal College,
which is a part of the University system, Here
we have the pitiful example of capable men and
women who are now forced out of employment
because of inte ation, and who are now faced
with the prob em of establishing themselves
elsewhere. This is but one illustration that
could be multiplied several times, unless we, in
our march toward integration, insist upon and
receive along with it the right to work in the
fields for which we are prepared

I can see valuable contributions of the K. N.
E. A. to the education of the Negro Child. Some
time in the future I think we should be integrated
with the K. E. A., but I think ”not at the
present." The interest of the Negro child can
best be served by an elfective and. wellorganized
K, N. E, A.

I am not quite ready to see the dissolution
of the Red Cross Hospital, or the Domestic
Life Insurance Company, or the Mammoth
Life Insurance Company, or any other similar
Negro businesses through integration. Not until
it is an established fact that the Negro will be
assured employment within integrated areas
shall I be prepared to accept abolition of Negro
business for whatever good that may come
through moegratioo.

Concluding, I urge "job opportunities" with
integration. Should we run so hastily into
“integration" that we approach economic
slavery? Let us stop, think, and evaluate this
important issue.

Continued [mm page 6

of the school is the function of the whole society
In which the school is found.

In developing a council, the ida that we are
living in and training for a democracy should
he kept in mind. The principles and aims of
the student council fit all situations The council
must be adapted to suit the needs, mores, etc.
of the community.

Building a council is a gradual process that
can only be done when all concerned are fully
educated as to the workings and benefits of
the council.

The types of councils, means of nominating
and electing members and officers, are numerous.
The type that can best be adapted to the school
should be used,

Activities for the council are many. It is best to
start with a few and enlarge the scope as the
council grows. Some possible activities follow:

1, Publish handbooks
2. Tutorial work
3, Help plan commencement
4, Student advisory group to the principal
5. Keep activity records and point system
6, Plan and conduct elections
7. Make good will tours to schools
8. Conduct courtesy, cleanmp, etc. cam!
9. Start new school activities
10. Exchange ideas with other schools
11. Make a community survey
12, Study student viewpoints and opinions


 A Better Correlatiun of Junior lligh and High Schmil English

Finances BRYANT MuNroun
chLisi-i TEACHER, MADISON IUNIOR HIGH sci-root, Louuvriis

The teaching of English should do main
things for our boys and girls. First, it should
give them considerable power of self expression;
that is, power to think clearly and to say sim ly
and eifectively, either in writing or orally,
whatever they haveoccasion tosay, but primarily
to express their own thoughts and feelings.
Next, it should give them power to appreciate
literature; that is, power to get from the primed
page all that is in the author‘s mind and hurt
when he is writing, much of which is not in
words but between the lines ~ suggested. not
said. Finally, it should give them habits of
accuracy in both oral and written work, and so
thorough a mastery ofa small bodyof grammatical
and rhetorical principle that arch one will be
able to say with confidence, “That is correct,
and I know it is correct."

Most experienced teachers of college freshmen
know that too many in each entering class lack
a mastery of die fundamentals of English which
should have been loomed by the end of the
elementary or junior high school. They are
unable to write the possessive case correctly,
misspell common words, know little of the use
of commas, regularly use of instead of have in
writing such an exprem'on as could have, capitah
ize and punctuate phrases and clauses as sen]
tences, have but little understanding of the
eflicient use of the dictionary. lack the mastery
of any standard letter form, have little idea how
to begin effectively a friendly letter or a simple
newspaper “story." and not only lack the read
ing habit. but wonder why anyone should think
it worth having in these days of the radio and

It is not the place of the colle to have to
train freshmen in the habits o s and
writing that should have been learned in the
elementary or junior high school; nor is it high
school work; and in general neither the hi
school nor die colle e deems it wise to ta
time to develop ha 'ts of oral and written
accuracy. The result is that many high school,
and even some college graduates, 0 through
life handicapped by the lack of these ndamental
skills. It seems, then, that too many primary and
intermediate schools, junior high schools, and
high schools are in part failing to solve the
problem of teaching the English which functions
in life.

The normal child, before he goes to school,
has almost unlimited powers of self expression,
and he has an endless supply of thoughts and
feelings that he wishes to express and that he
will express if given the opportunity. All the


things he talks about are things in which he has
deep interest. Equally true is it that children
in the primary des, the intermediate grades,
the junior high fetid, and the senior high school
level seem never to lack subjects to talk about
when they are by themselves, even if they are
at times silent in the presence of their elders,
Among their topics have been home alfairs,
school activities, their friends, their social life,
their rmding, their plans for the future, their
games and sports, and numberless other subjects
-——every one being something vital to them, even
though it seems commonplace to others,

Here, then, is a cardinal principle of mailing
selfvexpression. Ask the pupil to talk about and
write about only those things in which he has
a strong interest.

This principle excludes much of the repm
duction work of the conventional course in oral
and written English Once most books dealing
with the teaching of composition based their
exercises largely on reproduction. Now, for»
tunately, few retain any great number of repro
duction exercises, while there is general agree
ment among authorities that such work sholud
have only a small part, if any part at all, in
caching selfexpression. For selfrexpression is
not reproduction It is the expression of one's
own thou ts and feelings.

In teac ' g oral and written composition
seldom ask a pupil to reproduce something he
has read or heard about, Base selfexpressim
work on the pupil‘s experience. Rather, let him
stand before his class and talk interestingly for
three minutes about a familiar subject or hap'
pening. Use, rather than repress, the child‘s
normal desire to tell of his experiences. When it
seems necessary to delay him, make the delay
as brief as possible. assuring the child of your
interest and of your wish that he tell his class'
mates as well as you.

The class in oral and written composition
has no need for material other than the experi
ences of the pupils. Thwe experiences are ample
to supply subjects throughout the years of the
grades and of senior hig school. They can be
can t to omit formal introductions and to begin
wit strong opening sentences that will hold
the listener‘s or the reader‘s attention. They
can be taught to pick out the parts which will
interest others. They can he taught to arrange
their material in an effective manner. They can
be guided to an understanding of what an
interesting closing sentence must do.

Selfexpression is not something foreign to
life. Teaching it is merely bringing daily life

 into the schoolroom, merely training the pupil
to use more effectively the powers with which
he is usually endowed when he enters school.
The best er, then, is the one who knows
most fully the interests of childhood and of
youth; who has learned that children talk most
readily about the things in which they have
most interest. What these things are demands
attention. For the normal child oral selflexpresv
sion is as natural as breathing. The school should
use this instinct, not destroy it.

Would it not be Well for the senior high
school to give its new pupils a comprehensive
English test and a reading ability test? Then
the English teachers could frankly say of those
who did not pass the test, “Well, they are here.
They have been passed by the junior high school
teachers and the elementary tmchers. Instead
of teaching th- what we feel should be taught
to the senior high pupils, we will teach them
the junior high school English they have not

In like manner the elementary and junior
high school should deal with its pupils, not
attmipting to build the intermediate or junior
high school structure until the earlier founda-
tions are laid.

In the meantime should not the En lish
teachers on the senior and junior high so cal
level unite with the elementary teachers in a
comprehensive survey to obtain data needed
on which to base scientific statements as to
exact fundamentals to be taught in each grade
from the first to the twelfth, inclusive? A surv
has shown the words which pupils of on
grade should be taught to spell. Should not
tachers obtain equally scientific knowled
conoeming the punctuation marks and e
capital letters which a clearvcut smtement of
the habitvknowledge should inculcate? To
this might be added definite methods of both
oral and written drill, so simply and clearly
stated that the average tacher will have no
dificulty in using them. Such a report sent forth
with the enthusiastic and continued backing of
the teachers would show real results in the
senior high school in a few years‘ time.

In nothing are the schools of today more
derelict than in the requirement that children
and youths master and follow exact rules and
principles. Nowhere have the pupils been
required to do their work with perfection, so
many times, that to do it any other way would
become impossible. Accuracy is habit. So is
inaccuracy, carelessness.

This is not a plea for form rather than con-
tent, for accuracy instead of thought. Power to
Express is vastly more important than is accu‘
racy; but both are desirable. Literary apprecia’
tion is infinitely preferable to correct punctuation
and capitalization; but the two are so clearly

integrated that anything which really adds to
power in one will add to power in the other.
The fact is that in no one of the three are the
schools doing elficient workl English teaching
has been too definite, too theoretical, too ab»
stract. It is time for En lish teachers to get
down to the concrete, e definite, and the

The aim, then, in the teaching of accuracy
is the formation of habit rather than the mastery
of theory. In other words, speaking accurately
is an art, as writing accurately. Skill comes with
practice under mpable guidance. The more
nearly habitforming drills approach life condi'
tions, the more valuable they become.

If the schools wish to send forth graduates
who speak and write accurately, they must
make habitual all common oral and written
forms before the end of the elementary or
junior high school; they must not let inaccuracies
creep in during the high school and college

'od. Then the college graduate will not, by
hilspoedr and his writing, be "a disgrace to
his institution."

Until the lower grades send to the secondary
schools pupils far better grounded in the fundav
mmtals than they are sending, every high school
English teacher should have a daily dictation
exercise. It should deal with all errors found in
the written work of the pupils; and there will
be plenty of material. Insistence on relating rule
to punctuation mark and letter should be remem-
bered Constant care to be accurate will become
habitual if the teacher makes it clear that careful
written work in other subjects will raise the
mark in English, while slovenly work will lower
the mark in English and in other subjects.

Would it not be helpful if all teachers coopr
erated with English teachers? Is it possible to
develop accuracy if the teachers of other subjects
do not dmiand it? Will boys and girls get the
habit of accurate speech if they are permitted
in all classes except English to be careless in
their 5 and written work? Would it not
help ' we could get other teachers, mob a
specialist in his subject, to demand certain simple
capitalizations and punctuations of all pupils?
These teachers could present to the English
teacher the exceptionally good and the dis
gracefully bad papers handed to them by pupils,
with the understanding that good papers raise
the English grade, while careless papers lower
the grade. Some teachers have found that this
is most useful in making students careful with
their written work.

Too, if “every teacher, a reading teacher" is
a sound principle, it follows that teachers should
be prepared for this base of their work. They
should clearly see t e rmdin problem as a
developmental problem; know ow to appraise
the reading ability of pupils in their classes; and


 be acquainted with methods and materials for
helping individuals and groups to improve
their reading efficiency.

From the elementary, the junior high school
and the senior high school the pupil can take
nothing that will have more permanent value
than a love of reading. This the school should
give him, no matter what the cost