xt7m3775vv74 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7m3775vv74/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1940 journals 1_17 English Lexington, Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Kentucky fruit notes v.1 n.17. text Kentucky fruit notes v.1 n.17. 1940 2014 true xt7m3775vv74 section xt7m3775vv74 ..7 ·-1 ,·'
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0 vm. 1 .1100;, 1940 ’ ’·’·,_'°*élfif N0. 17
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E W, D, Armstrong, Hortlculturist, Editor   if J,
d FINAL ISSUE among trees, shrubs and berry plants.
5* The January issue of Kentucky (2) St¤·=¤w*»~·‘·‘v plants that were
·€ Fruit Notes carried a statement to “°t covered with Snow °r mulch dup
9. the effect that the Special llortictil- ins [U6 extrenw cold W€&tht¥1`· or J¤I1·
_d tural work would end June 30 unless uu"? w€"€· m most °a?°S*_ Vuured m
additional funds were made available v‘“"°“s d°g"°’€’*· Thls mlury was
IY by thc lcgislamlw Instead of M0; worse in the new plantings set in 1939
LS 000.00 which was made available than in the Older Hemi The thicker
LS each year from 1030 to 10-10, $4,- ¤t¤¤<1 °f 1*****8, m°’° ““€’· wd
is 00000 pw. Wm. was um)l.0m.iumd fm. deeper rooting seemed to aid in pro-
*6 1040 to 10-12. rms 1-etiuctioii or ‘°°““g the older p‘“°"€s·
in $6,000.00 a year iu the funds for (3) Most of tttemiuty was caused
. operating the special horticultural during the week °f January 15 to 22
ye project will naturally result in a whcn there was no Snow OI? the
gy serious restriction and limitation of ground Over the southém up Of ¤
tit the amount of work that can be done, lvesteru Kentucky: Or m Jackson
lS_ Very little traveling can be done and lmrclmsgas A whole` The tempera-
ly 8 large purl Ot- the 0,)m_C0mHCt work ture during that week went below
Bd will be discontinued. Funds will not mm On two mgms and on one of
te be available for publishing Kentucky th°“* went down to 12 below Z€m' `
Fruit Notes ami uns is nic umn issue Plots that were rrtulctwd early showed
The spray service work will be con- much less Of the imury' ,
as tinued. While many curtailments will (4) The injury Shmved up as dark `
-3*- be necessary, this Dart Of the discolorations in the pith ofthe crown,
ng work will be made as effective as Of the plamS’ chiefly in the region
of possible. The strawberry work also whcm the mms join the crown' mid  
IS. wm have to be limited; however, in the upper parts of the roots. THIS x  
he here as in the other phases of the injury is stm visable and many roots  
gk work every effort will be made to mr now dead' i
e` render as much service as possible (5) Plots and fields that had any E
with the fum]; R\·;ti]R])lg_ mulch at all seem to have suffered  
ug less injury than unmulched fields.   V
rhe       Applications 0f t\\'0 and ll1l`€€ (OHS I
EXPERIMENTS per acre gave more protection than .
\v_ p_ ARAISTRONG lighter mulches. -7-
Preliminary results only arc avail- (0) In general, there are less I10I1·   Q
able at this time in the 1940 Straw- bearing plants (locally called "he"   W
berry mulch Project; however these plants in fields and parts of fields I _
look very promising so far. Here arc that were mulched before Christmas. `
some of the results that are showing A number of field counts made in  
up and can be determined before final the experimental plots show that the  
harvesting is completed: plots receiving 2 or 3 tons mulch per  
(1) The winter of 1939-40 was a acre in early winter had 68% of the   I
test winter in regard to winter injury tpiants bearing fruit, while plots not   V _

in · ` mulched until spring had only 28% through .1uly, August ami September stm
of the plants bearing fruit. is considered the bitter rot season, it
(7) Yields so far show an increase depending on the weather. lt was SIW
_ of about 50% in favor of the early puzzling to iiiaiiy that 1939 should uml
mu](;hing_ liave been at serious hitter rot year Spr
(S) A Colllplete report Oll the 1940 \\`l\t*ll ll WHS tlllv (ll` llllc (ll`l(‘Sl (lll los]
’ . results will be glveh urter the reeertls several years, A purtlztl explulltttloii den
_ _ fer the year ure eerhhlete is that in some sections of the state Jul
(0) Growers ure ureell te hhlhe the extremely dry weather did not lu"
3 ebservetlehs lh theh. 0h.h heltls_ sel in until August and even at [hr
Princeton where the droutli started Str
` BITTER ROT REMINDERS June 15 there was sut`t`ieient sliowcry nth
» . The bitter ret tllseuse or uhbles whs and cloudy weather and moist nights Ul.
V a serleus meter lh 1939 lh hruetleully after that time to be favorable for mt
evei·y orchard in Kentucky that con- “l"`*‘9tll¤1¤ the diseases. 'l`lier·: WM pie
Q V telhetl suseeutlble rurletles The hull_ not enough rain however until late SW
` vltluul lesses rerletl trehl Ohh. lr teh. fall to effectively wet the soil. The wi
bushels te es rhuus. es 15,000 bushels worst out-break seen in 1939 was in a ull
lh Che Jerrerseh eeuhty Orelulrth lh rank growing orchard in rich Ohio tru
T this lust ease the tllsehse tlestreretl river valley soil, partially surounded hh
‘ » breetleully the h-hele ereb reeurtlless by hills. The trees were nnpruned and H).
` of variety. In this case Delicious and "'*"'°` S0 “l"S“ l"g°tl“"` in thc wws \\'
Steyhlah `vere us butlly uh-eetetl us that the branches of adjoining trees W
ether verletles \\·`hiCh is uhusuhr iuterlocked. There was also a rank uh
Generally the vurletles [hut sul-l~el.t,tl growth ot vegetation on tho ground lu:
° most in 1939 were Klug Dur-ltl_ Gehleh and all of this contributed to poor
Delicious, _]Ouutheu_ Beh Durlsy lwully air circulation ami also made effec K:
Eades, Rome and Grimes. Many ll"" Sl“`*‘Yl“¥ l“‘l"‘“il’l*`· ut
` _- orchardists, who had never been Much thought, study and corres- lr
i t` t seriously bothered with bitter rot pondt-nce have been given to the bit- lu
= ·_ previous to 1939, were tln·entent~d ter rot prohleni since 1939 and at ul,
Q , With the loss of the major part of present the suggestions gathered in
j , tl’1€i1‘ CYOD. \Ve are glad to report from various sources seein to be Dt
‘  ` that many of these growers were alilo about as follows: M
` 5 to check this ' x
    _ and spread of the disease. In Kon- valuable insurance and a good pre- [
i .l tucky, the disease generally starts cautionary ]ll(‘1lSlll'(3 to include this l
V A _ about mid June and from that time on iirst bitter rot spray in their regular l
2 t

 V spray program. Coming at the time mulching material is purchased.
" it does it coincides with the first EX])€l'lIl1€l1t8.1 results thru the berry
S spray for summer brood codling moths season just past demonstrate that a
Ll and is often combined with this failure to mulch last December cut
F spray. ln orchards where bitter rot the yield 50 to 80 crates per acre or
“ losses have been severe this first Bor- a loss of $100 to $150 per acre.
U deaux spray should be applied about
C June 15 and be of 4-6-100 strength fol- SUDAN GRASS FOR MU!-CH
A lowed at two·week intervals with Sudan HFKSB. Dlahtéd thick hhd clit
tl three more Bordeaux sprays of 4-6-100 ooforo tho Sooo YOYIDB is the host
ll Srredgur ··Thd grower Should be known substitute for wheat straw as
Y alert to observe the first appearance o oo""Y mulch- It Gah h8 Dlhhtéd
‘° of the disease. lt usually occurs first from June 15 to July 15- SOW the Sééd
nr Ou (md certain [red (Buch yddr_ Hal]d_ on as good la11d as is available, 30 to
is pick V ddd destroy dd bmw. rot 35 pounds per acre. (The seed usual-
tc spotted fruits and search for over- IY Sells ut about- 5c Do? D0uhd·) SOW
lc wintering places, such as old fruit o" M11 llrollurou loud, and C0V€!`
.u stems, mummied fruit, cankers and with o Sluko hi*l`l'oW· Just h€t0i`€ th€
10 dead wood. The source will usually Sooo begins to foluu cut with 8 m0W€¤`- A
"‘ be round directly above me mst S¤¤¤ as it is well cured. rake with a
ld rotted fruits and should be removed. huY Yoko and Shock liké you Would
`-5 With the first appearance of bitter hay- Lot tho shocks Stahd ih th€
es wt, remove spurred {run dud Spray field until December and then mulch ,
lk affected trees and neighboring trees the bo"`! Hold usi¤s two t0hS D€1'
id immr,diar€]y_·· acre. lf the season has plenty of rain
  Recent te-ets carried out by Dr. Y0? may be able tov cut the Held
( Kadow in l»t-leware show that Bor- mma Al any mm }°u can expect
deaux mixture is still the most effec- from 2 to 4 tons per acre" Some A
  tive spray material to use in the bit- f?m?l€l'S_ have been fable to double .
I" ter rot sprays. In this work it was ulglr yield by applymg 100 pmmds 2
at shown that many of the newer mmlte of Soda per acm when the
ed insoluble copper Sprays had very grass is 2 to 6 inches in height. This
M poor spreading and sticking qualities Should be apphéd durmg a' rainy day , L
and that very little actual copper was to prevent bummg the lender grass' A j
’<'l deposited on the fruit and leaf sur- .5
*11* faces, Bordeaux mixture also helps A NEW CROWN BORER  
or- to correct arsenate of lead injury to CONTROL STUDY - I
lhl the foliage, Sulfur sprays are not Based on the work Dr. P. O. Ritcher  
HW effective against bitter rot. has done with crown borer in western  
MN Do a good job-—it pays big divi— Kentucky it has been established that E _ —
>il· dends in bitter rot control. crown borer-free plantings can he .
ll established by (1) digging young ‘ A
lll] WAN"]Q‘ED...]_()() STRAWBERRY plants before March 1, cleaning and — ;!
No G_ROWERS__T0 RAISE 100 washing them thoroughly and heeling   4.*-
ililh them in in clean ground, (2) using   `
lu" ACRES OF MULCH certified plants, (3) locating new A Z-
ulu MATERIAL- plantings at least 300 yards from old I V
l>l<· Half of the Strawberry farms of plantings, and (4) avoiding locations g
lily Southwestern Kentucky will have no where cinquefoil (five finger), a   `
<‘l`Y wheat, rye or barley straw available native host of crown borer is grow-   "
tut" for mulching their berry fields this ing.   I
ilus fall. This means that many fields will It is often rather difficult to be   (
u*u` pass through the winte1· bare unless certain that plants are dug from    
3 · V_._

 crown borer-free plantings or that all evidence on the beginning of egg lay- to
plants are dug before egg laying ing. 'l`his is by the dissection of sti
starts. For this reason other means female crown borers under a micro- l't
· of controlling this pest are needed scope. lf on a given date in February (tr
` and Dr. Ritcher is working on this or l\larch no females contain t`t1lly th
4 problem, developed eggs, it is good proot' that mt
i Experiments are being carried out no eggs have been laid. On the other Ai
` ` by Dr. Ritcher using methyl bromide hand, if one or more crown borers gr
_ which is a new chemical widely used contain full sized eggs then egg lay- in
` by nurseries for funiigating nursery ing can be expected whenever the re
. stock to control insects such as the temperature is about 70 degrees l·`, ra
Japanese beetle. Shipments of straw- llsing this system, the writer in
V berry plants known to be infested 1937 t`ound the iirst eggs laid at
with crown borer eggs and larvae Princeton about March S. ln wits,
· have been sent to Dr. Ritcher for there was danger ot` eggs being laid
i ‘ fumigation trials. If it is found that after March 10. Beginning last year,
the eggs and young borers in these Mr. Armstrong collected crown borers
, plants are killed without injury to at intervals in western Kentucky Sl
the plants should be of great impor- patches and sent thein iced to the I,
I tance to the strawberry industry. writer in Lexington for dissection, N
, Should this work prove practical it Last year (193ili there was danger S]
would be a comparatively simple of egg laying after March 7. In
step to establish fumigation sttttions This yt-ar. An. lxrnistrong and ins H
lll thi? $tl‘3·Wb€1‘1'Y $€€Yl0ll$ l\'h€l`€ helpers began collecting crown borer I-
gl'0W€I`S l€ll1t’S adults early in March. The tirst col- I]
fllmigiitéd in 01‘d€l‘ to h¤l·'€ ¤SSl11‘€11lC€ lection made at Princeton on March 4 u
that Olily CYOWII b0l`€1`·fl`€€ D1i1HtS ?1l`€ showed only slight egg development. “
, béillg set. A second collection made March lit C
_ The d€V€l0DIll€llt of this W01`k is and 20 included females from both
» · being watched with 21 g1`€·i1t deal of Benton and Princeton patches, but t,
‘ interest and with high l10Des by a none contained fully-developed eggs. U
_ ` number of strawberry growers. l\larch 22, Mr. Armstrong gathered 42 H
 . crown borers at Princeton. The iirst S
i CROWN BORER·—F}-{EE BERRY female containing fully developed I
 · PLANTS eggs was found in this shipment. t
` By P, 0, RITCHER, and W_ D_ ARM- Shipments of over 200 crown borers (
STRONG from the Magruder farm near Keyil ,
In Work carried on at Paducah and made on March 27 and April 1 and a >
·, princeton in 1937 it was Shown that shipment from Princeton on April 1
° growers could {me St,.awb€1.ry plants all contained females with fully- (
 _ of CTOWI1 borer by digging and clean- developed 9ggS· ,
‘ V ing plants before egg laying began. From the above evidence, it was i
i j ’ In general, the dead line for digging concluded that crown borer egg lay- i
` Q " plants in western Kentucky was set ing was delayed in 1940, beginning ·
t - , BS 3»b0l1t March 1, but the date varies about the third week in March at
  from year to year depending upon {no Princeton and Paducah. It was not
° g season. Each year the time has been SMG to dig SU`1l“'l>€l`1`y Dlilllls lll
`   ' 1‘€0heCk€d and growers advised by western Kentucky after l\iarch 21
~ : · letter, radio and newspaper of inn since there was a good possibility
Q i ·' Dl‘0p€I‘ time to stop digging plants, that some plants would contain
l 1 Since it is impossible to ilnd the <*l‘0Wll il0l‘0l‘ USES-
· · first egg laid, a way was worked out On the basis of thc 19-10 findings,
that would give circumstantial letters were sent. by Mr. Armstrong

 l was
- to fifteen county agents in the main are attempted improvements on, some
t strawberry sections, including the of the above mentioned varieties and
- Purchase, Marion, Bowling Green, other outstanding varieties of the
r Greenville and Louisville, advising United States and foreign countries.
¤ them as to the stage ot egg develop- Oiner workers nresent reid nf the
t ment and danger ot? egg laying. Mr. Sulall fruii breeding nregrnrn under
r Armstrong also sent letters to way in ineir Several nmieen Oi
s gl'0\l'€l`S Wllll llilsscd lllc Slillloll particular importance to Kentucky
`- lll5ll€€tl0ll {UV ¤l`0“'ll l>0l`€l‘ and me and this section of the United States
e results were used in newspaper and in ine nne Sirnwnerry breeding work
radio announcements. being dong by ine Tennessee Exneri-
ll ment Station with the work centered
t REGIONAL STRAWBERRY at the West Tennessee Experiment
t- AND RASPBERRY Station at Jackson, Tennessee. l't is
tl CONFERENCE suggested by Dr. Darrow that the
`. W_ D_ AI{hiSTRONG Tennessee breeding work is likely to
‘s On April 2627 inere wnn rr reginnni be of more importance to the central
Y small fruit conference at the Costal l`“il°d States Section than is me
P purine Exnernnen‘i Siniinnv Wiiinrdi breeding work being carried on further
L North (`arolina. The meeting was €“Sl·
`Y sponsored by the North Carolina De- On the Station grounds were also
purtment of Agriculture, North Caro- lucutetl S€:\'el‘£l.l tests that were Sh0W-
ls lina lixperiment Station and the U. S. ills; d€Cld€d illCl‘€aS€S in Blakemore '
’l` Department of Agriculture jointly; as Yields fl`0lll tll€ SD€l€lllg of tllé ll€W
’l‘ the three are cooperating in the work runner plants and the restriction of
4 under way at the station. Small fruit the llllllll>€1‘ of l'l1llll6l‘ Dliillts 1`00ti1lg.
l· workers of seventeen states from These cultural tests on Blakemore
[9 California to Maine were present. Wlllvll llslllllly Séts t00 HIHHY Tllllllér
lll The purpose of this conference was lllillltS Sll0llld b€ of gféat iH1D0l°t8¤C€
ut to inspect and study the results and ill Bl1lk€lll0l`€ Dl`0dl1Cl¤g S€€tl0l1S. A
~S· progress of the strawberry, raspberry Sllilcillg S>’St€1ll kl10Wl1 as tl‘lDl€·l‘0W
42 and blueberry breeding program; $ll1lClllg is bélllg l1S€d Wldély th€l`€
Sl study culturalexperiments underway; Witll tllé Blilk€ll101‘€ V&l`l€tY. IH 1939 r
?*l to observe commercial plantings in the tl`illl€·l‘0W SDHCBG Dlilllts pl‘0duc€d 3
W the vicinity; to exchange ideas with 6 Ylfild of 292 crates (24 Ql1Hl”tS) DBF  
VS other workers present and to lear11 of Fl€l`€ lll €0lllD3l`l$0ll to 243 Cl`8t€S f01' {
"il the scope of work going on in other tll€ l`€glll€il` lll3tt€d TOWS- It was $$0
il Siniee found that the spaced plants had i
1 Many new Strawberry Seieeiinns more leaves per plant in the fall and  
ll'- rind Seedlings were Seen inet win nn that this resulted in more fruit per ‘
doubt play a big part in the straw- lllam the uext Sl)l`i“g·
HS berry industry in the future. This Another cultural experiment on the A
lY· breeding program of the U. S. care of the second year patch was be- _
llg Departmentof Agriculture in coopera- ing started. In this. one plot was   .‘
ill tion with the North Carolina Station reworked just after harvest, one plot {
lOl has already produced such outstaud— was not reworked and no new runners ` ‘
lll ing strawberry varieties as the Blake- were to be allowed to root. These -
21 more, Fairfax, Dorsett, Southland, two plots were compared with a l1€\V  
lt>' Bellmar and more recently the Fair- planting, which would represent a   _
illll more, Daybreak, North Star, Eleanor patch that would be fruited only one  
Roosevelt and others. season. This and other treatments of r- .
gs, Many of the new seedlings and the second year patch are big prob- ,  
mg selections contain the blood ot, and loins in strawberry production. { *_
5 `  

V The raspberry work seen consisted Apples: lll;
of a number of new crosses and seed- Limo llljllly lll gallel-ul is l·€l)o,·m(l lll
llllgS twill which the “'0l`k°*`S are to apple trees by the cold wintcr l_l
' illtlllllllllllg to develop new "i“`l@ll€S which ranged from lt) to 18 below lll
better adapted to southern C0lllliti0llS. ze;-0 in all parts of the state at one all
l l time or another during January 1940,  
WINTER     In sonic apple and peaclics plantings. so
` a number of limbs died during nlu-
Slrawberrlesl _ winter. In some cases these limb
V In llle Plllllleell Seellell and weelem losses were ascribed to a combination in
· Kelllllelly lll gellelllll wllelle there was ot over—hearing in the fall ot 1939, ot VU
no snow on the ground during the llrolllll llljmy uml wllller lll-lllry lll~ll_l_ lll
Sllll Zelle lllelllllell Of `lllllllmly Ill' going into the winter in a weakcnt·d lll
i lllelle was eellslllellllllle lllllllly le the condition. Such a loss ot limbs is lll
- l elewlls allll lleelll lll lllillellelllly all of reported in the ldxall Orchards at lll
l ' llle llllmlllellell slllllwbelllly ll€l‘lS· Paducah in a block of Paducah trees lll
This was llllllllelllllllly llllle ef llle new that bore heavily in 1939. 'l‘ip killing
llal°lleS· lvllell gllellllll Sllllllell _lll of terminal twigs is also observed in $1
llle Slllllllg llewellell ll was Yell}, llellldl some Yellow Transparent plantings, lll
» causing many to think the injury had At the western Ky. ExDel_lml_lll N
A gllewll out Ol- llllll there had llecll no Substantion at Princeton in a planting gl
lluul-lg In adduion to tho dlSCf>l0l`f*‘ of 4 will- Old jomttlmn apples, tw¤·lv<· gi
tion in the roots and crowns, which IS were klllelll Clglll Scvcrel} lujulull ll
stnll visablel by the way, many of the three Sllghlly mjured and only hm cl
l plallls pallllelllllllly llle yellllgell elles unipjured. Ot 28 double \vork¤··l pl
were llelwed Out] Of the ground and Grimes of the same age, inter-planted ll
were llllulled S0 badly llmt they me with the above Jonathaus, not a. one
» plloducmg very few bellllles and many was injured. All of these trees as
_ i have been klllell well as the older apples and peaches  
Whoo blossoming storied. it was on the station ground received umn- l_'
V l H0?-9d g€¤€l`€lllY that Ml UUUSURI dormant spray of 3% oil emulsion in ll
_ ` ' lll11llb€l` of Plants “'€l`€ Dl`0dll€l¤S 110 December. The most severely injured 0
.  . blossom clusters, particularly in tho trees appeared to have an on scatter "
l E llllllllllclléd @6165- $01719 00l1lliS lV€l`9 appearance early this spring and died S
` ¤ made in the Experimental 1nulcl1 sgml after leating out. ll
g · plots which showed that 68% of Um M1; S_ (3_ Qhandler ot the Illinois 1
plants were fruiting in two plots Nlllllml Hlsmly Slllwley of Clll.b0ll_ ll
· heavily mulched in December while dale, llllllols l.€llOl.tS that he lllls i
 ·, only 28% of the plants in spring observed several orchards, both ll
{ llllllellell plots were llelllllllg llllle peaches and apples that were sprayed
, _ Harvest lleeelllls allll Olllel ellsellvlk for scale last fall and are showing
l · A llells are belllg made to eelllllalle tlle injury but that in no case has he seen l
Y ·. V llmelllll of lllllllly lll llle early and lllle that type of injury in plantings hav-  
’     mulched fields. From present indica- lllg llcgll Spmyed lll the Slll.lllg_ l
i   A llolls ll_ Seems llllllesl eellllllll llllll lt seems likely that tall spraying (
l E~ Bally wllllel llllllelllllg Wlll have plllll was likely tied up with some winter ‘
l li blg ‘ll"'l‘l€“‘lS in the 19*0 weslelll injury in the case ot the extremely ‘
l   . Kentucky strawberry harvest. llllld wllllgl. lllst llm_ll_ =
g   » There was less injury in the l
1 l ·• remainder of the state chiefly because peachcsi l
l   · a protective blanket of snow covered Over most oi the state the iirst
l i V the plants during the sub zero buds were killed by the January
_ weather. weather. '1`he Purchase region is
” 6

fortunate however in that the tempera- were in this way more subject to
ture was a degree or so higher and winter injury.
their fruit buds escaped, This sec-
tion also escaped the spring frosts STRAWBERRY FIELD
and practically every orchard is now MEETING
producing a full crop of fruit. The w·_ W_ MAGHJL
discoloration to the cambium in that One of the best Extension Demcm
Section has also cleared up' stration Held meetings I have held
At Henderson the trees are recover- during the past 20 years was that on
lng from the ·-16° weather with a the farm of Lester Harris in McCrack-
comparatlvcly few dying. A number eu County, Heath Community, May
of growers there and at Louisville 20, on the Experimental Strawberry
pruned their trees back considerably Plots conducted by W. D. Armstrong,
after growth started to take advan- Horticulturist of the Western Ken-
tage of this non-fruiting year to lower tucky Substation. `
the fruiting wood in their trees. Commercial Strawberry growers of
Trees ibut were lieuucu back. the Paducah district have always had
should by all means have their new u wide difference of Opmwn as t° the
gi.0u.lli lliiiiiiud Oui by lute June Oi. most desirable season to apply the
1 early July to prevent this thick new mulch and the proper am0u¤t_ to
I growth from shading out the low umm" Manx growers do not c0uS1d?r
, growth lil truest if this Cmwuuu it worth while to apply a mulch, in
· thick condition is not relieved it will fact a high Der Cent of the berry fields V
, cause the imus to grow back mil and do not get. any mulch before March or
l spindly and the purpose of lowering Curly f\Dm‘
l {lic bcml will bc ucimleul During January of 1940 the .tem·
3 perature reached zero several nights
Q At thc w°S‘°"“ KY Eximrilncm and on January 19 the temperature
S Substatiou at Princeton an interest- llmiiiiull iu lz below z€i.O__i,l.itli uu I
,. me ¤¤¤¤i¤i¤¤ lm <¤¤~‘¤l¤¤>¤¤ as =· mm- tm the gi-Omni in nie Paducah g
il result of the fall and winter. A block (li5li.iul_
ii of trees was cut back considerably This ubuuiuiul i€uib€i.utui.€ evideub ‘
ii after the loss of thc crop from a li, killed the fruit buds Ou about iu uf 5 5
,1 S¤~**¤r= **0** in 19***- Ml =¤¤¤<~t¤<·¤` me Sumiisi-I-,· plants and mlm-sti the 2  
l>l¤<·l< =·l·~·¤s Side MS left ¤¤·¤··¤*· In roots Ou mi additional   of uic hum  
i 1939 the uncut portion set much the wliciu uu iuulcli bud buuu applied be, Y 2
5 heavier crop and had to be thinned fore Clu.iSluiuS_  
; heavily while the portion cut back in Gi.u“.ui.S ulleudiug llus mgellllg  
ll 1938 set a smaller crop land needed “.ui.(, Yuri. uiuub Sui.iu.iSud at lb? cOu_ _  
u very mug thummg Of f"“‘t· trust shown in tlieberry plots from the " i W
u Due to the severe summer drouth. use of straw applied in December as I _
ii ilD“'€V€l`. lilL’ h€2lV§' iH(i€Il iill`{J,`C ll`€‘€S (‘0]l]I)ill`(‘(i to tilt) Alllltil ll]\l\ilL'i\llUU· " l
v_ failed to size their fruit and most of The dead roots and large P9? wut of Q f
it Was 1*';§," fruit. The fruit on the non-fruiting: plants iu‘ the March   _`
ig cut back trees was larger. poorer mult-hed plots was outstanding. More   if
ii. colored and gt day or so later. This details of this mulch experiment will   Q-»
li, spring, however, serious injury has be found on page 1 of this issue. I li  
' showed up in the larger uncut trees estimate the 2 ton ot mulch in Decem- l' f
that over bore in 1939. This is ber increased the yield this year over   `
thought to be due to a combination of 50 crates per acre.    _"
sl the overbearing coupled with drouth, Growers attending the Demonstra-   Ig;
by which caused the trees to go into the tion were also very favorably ini-    
is winter in a weakened condition and pressed with the appearance of the   rg.

 ri small planting of the Tennessee strain nieiid dosages of from 1-400 to 1-800 QJ
of Yellows, Free Blakemore wl1ich when using pyrethrum or rotenone fj:
l\Ir. Armstrong had planted i11 thc sprays. This is the equivalent of one  
_ spring of 1939 011 Mr. Harris farm for quart or one pint to the 100 gallons.  
an experimental test. A number of Aside from the known compatibility  
prominent growers commenting said, of nicotine sulfate with Bordeaux. no
. "Tl1ey show more vigor, berries are nictoine sulfate also kills lcafhoppcr  
_ slightly larger and the plants show no eggs. 'l`he pyrethrum and rotenone  
trace of yellows". All considered sprays have the advantage of being Q?
, them R11 improvement over the local much more pleasant to usc.  
strain of Blakemore being grown in None of the spray materials foi·  
‘ the district. grape leafhopper will kill adult leal”— "’§
~ , hoppers. Therefore, spraying should  
GRAPE LEAFHOPPER be timed to kill as many nymphs — $1;
i CONTROL (young Ieafhoppers) as possible. Q EL;J`  
I _ By P. O. RITCHER Spraying is most effective if done just  
Department of Entomology lllld before the oldest nymphs of the flrst  
Botany brood develop wings. This time in   ·
Leafhopporg are vg;-y giiiiill, tri- central and eastern Kentucky is about   .
angular-sliaped insects which pierce ·illllO 22 to 25. ln western Kentucky,  to
· the tissue of grape leaves and suck the date is several days earlier. In  F  
the sap from tho nn(l€i—$itl€_ The mst ease the .lune spray was not effective  
signs of injury are small whitish oi- or omitted. a spray late in July may  
yellowish spots on the leaves, \\'hen be necessary.    
h0DD€I'S HFS Z-lbulldallt, leaves are  
injured to such an extent that they 1940 KENTUCKY PEACH CROP  
booomo yollowlsh or brown and many Only two areas in Kentucky are  
l may fall Loaf injury oausos gmoos favored with a peach crop in 19-10. ,\  
to Upon ll-1-ogularly, mokos tllg grapes large portion of the fruit buds in the  
Soul. by Yodoolllg tho Sugar ooutom area around Paintsville and Pike- §§l_ ` 
_ 2 ’ and produces looso lmllollos of Odd rillc survived the suz—zero weather in  
 I Sized gltaooo Whoo lloopors mo January; the same was true in the  
· , abundant they fly in swgirms jf {hc SBCUOHS near I"aduCal1 and Mayfield ‘* 
 - vines are dlSml.l)o(l_ and in the Purchase section as a  
l The standard control H1€2`tSlll`B for wh°l€·  
l grape lgafhoppors ls oloolluo Sullotoy ln eastern Kentucky Mr. Fred Yan ll;] 
one pint to 100 ggtlloiig Or SI_]l‘;_]_y mlb Iloose from Paintsville reports that  
terial (1-800). Some Spreader Such as after surviving the January sub-zero Q_; 
. * lnid S03D or soap flakes Shoiilil bg weather the freezes of April 13 and g _gj" 
l " included i11 this spray. lf the nicotine 14, during blossoming, reduced all  
Sulfate is combined with l3oi·tl€iiiix varieties and all Init eliminated  
_ miXtUT€. the spreader may ho omitted ldlberta. At that time temperatures  
  ` 4 Other spray materials which gpg went to 26 degrees and 28 degrees. At I Q  
_   H kI10WI1 to be effective against loaf. this writing he reports a good crop of 1  
, , J h0PP€¤'S art? 1‘0t€¤0ne, pyrethrum, and Chainpion, Carman and Belle of  
~ -, Totenone and pyrethrum combination Georgia; the varieties eastern Ken- ’ ii
`   Sprays. These should be used as tacky growers depend on.  
ll  no I‘eCOInII1ended by the manufacturer. In the Purchase section, which in- l  
.   Attention is called to the fact that cludes all of Kentucky west of the  
l I some of these are said to be compati— Tennessee river, there is a full crop    
Y   · ble with Bordeaux mixture while of fruit on most varieties and most fi;
3   Others are HOL growers are now (June 3) busy thin- `rqfij
` IH general, manufacturers recom- ning the heavily set trees. _  
  li t.
tial , s