xt7m639k5456 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7m639k5456/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1944 journals kaes_circulars_004_404 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 404 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 404 1944 2014 true xt7m639k5456 section xt7m639k5456 ~|T
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College of Agriculture and Home Economics
rrrr Agricultural Extension Division, Lexington
1; 11144
1e11I Oi
gf Ill?

F O R E W O R D  
The years following the war are viewed in this publica-
tion as a time ol opportunity for [arm people. They promise
to be a tin1e of opportunity because, on the one hand. much
needs to be done, and on the other the means are available
to do the things needed. Though farming will be redirected
to a peacetime basis involving perhaps many changes in pro-
duction, and though economic shocks undoubtedly will occur
—nevertheless, if the energy and resourcelulness devoted to
war are turned toward peace, much can be accomplished.
Members of the stall ol` the Experiment Station and Ex-
tension Division of the College of Agriculture and Home r
Economics of the University of Kentucky have given much
consideration during the past year to the postwar oppor-
tunities for agriculture. Farm people, when they may again
resume normal operations, will expect to take their part in A
developing their homes and businesses to fit the conditions t
following war. The material presented in this publication may j
stimulate thinking on those actions which will make for better  
farming. better farm homes, and permanently improved rural
'liioxixs P. (Zoom-tt
l)t·:1u and l)lI`('(`lUl`

 A U T H O R S
This publication was ]>re|>areeriment Station and ,·\<>‘ri<‘ultural Extension Division ol IN
t I ~
the University ol` lientttcky. under the direction ol a com- WHY
mittee eomposetl ol Dana G. (lard (C/mirvmnt), Howard \rV. gall
I Beers, \\»’. I). Nicholls, and H. B. Price. Final manuscripti fam
was hy   Allan Smith (lfrli/or), Irom reports submitted by gl?
‘ committees, as follows; UL
Thomas I’. Cooper. j. .·\llan Smith 9]]
\\'m. (Z. johnstone (Clzrtirman), _john H. Bondurant, A.   Brown, dud
lil, N. Fergus, l’. li. Karraker, E.   Iiinney. Iirnest   Nesins. .·\. j, O1` l
Olney. \\'i|liam (VL, Sttryant. liarl (L. \\'t·lrh hou
l,I\’liS'l`()CK gm
W. l’. (Larrigus ((]/zuirturtttl. n\. j. Brown, I’ortly<·e lily, I·`. Ii. I·Ittll. .
\\'. Nl. lnsko, jt.
I·ORI·,$ I S i HC"
jolm B. Rohcrts (CImirnmn), \\'. li. jackson, W. I). Nicholls, (L. H. in <
. Wiggin `
j. B. Kelley (Clmirmaiz), George B. Byers, Dann G. Card, Miss Ida hon
I·Ingman, L. S. O`Bannon, Farl G. Welch
W. .r\. Prire, Lec I·I. Townsend
.\(;RI(1III,'l`lIR.·\I, M,·\RKIi'I`INC. (2OOI’1·1Rn\'I`ION. the
.\Nl) 'l`l{.r\NSl’()R'l`,r\'l`l()N {INV
I,. .·\, Vennes (fl/mirmrtttl, .\.   Brown, (Z. ll, I’hilli]>s. ll. B. l’rit‘t‘. i,
Roy lf. l’rot·tor ugrl
.\(Ll{l(Zl‘l,'l`lll{.\l.(Zl{I·]l)l'l' ]{(_l
(Earl Nl. (ZlatL ((}/tuirtrmitl, Dana (Q. (Karel. \\’. I). Nicholls, Roy IC. I _i_
l’rot·tor JL '
. and
()\\'NliRSlIll’ .\Nl) l{l·`.N`I'.\l. ()l·` l,.\Nl), .\XI) I·`.r\I{Nl l..\B()l{ thu
\\'. I). Nicholls ((J/mirzmtnjl, llowartl \\'. Beers. jolm II. Bontlttrant. ,1,,
I.;nrr<·n<‘e .\. Bratllortl ‘ hl
Rt'R.»\I, IIOMIC .·\NI> (Z<)\t\ItINl't`\‘ SC],
Ilowartl \\'. Beers t(.`/tuirnmn). .\.   Brown, N. R. lilliott, Nliss [0 K
Static l·`.. lirikson. (Z. \r \Ialt:tn. \Ii~s Nlyrtle \\'el¤1l T4. Continuous development, of leadership in all comnnnnities,  
itiou ul and wider- interest in and more active support of organizations for  
: use ul farm and home, are necessary to full agricultural progress in Ken- ’
jsitm ttl lilfliy. l.i€Zl(l€?l`Slli]) and organizational (l(‘\'(fl()I)lI](‘Ill are nt¥C(l€$   state. This in turn will mean a considerable increase in volume of
fr i1ll·   business and employment for those who manufacture, sell, and dis- it
  tribute the fertilizing and liming materials and equipment.  
worls   It is estimated that about 3 million acres of Kentucky cropland I p  
ledger   have had a basic application of liming materials and 2 million acres f rl
€lf0l`l-   more do not need liming. The remaining 8 million acres suited to i  
in ·   crops would therefore require I6 million tons of ground limestone . Nt
_Qfi for a basic application of 2 tons per acre. Thereafter. about l ton .  
  per acre would be needed every S to l0 years, or about l.5 million tons _ Q
  it year. In IQ42 some I,3l6,000 tons of limestone were used on Ken- T ·  
US? el  { llltiliy farrns. lt is evident that to quarry, crush, and spread the amount A  
? l'““`   of limestone needed offers a postwar opportunity for local groups of {  
r must   farnrers, county agricultural associations, or private enterprise.  
Hfkcm   About $#10,000 tons of fertilizer materials, a large part of which 2
fm“€]`·   Wits 20—percent superphosphate, were used in the state in IQ4-2. For
' Us to  J fltll llSC'Uf the land, about I.2 million tons would be needed annltfilly.
` [im“‘   Such materials would contain about 40,000 tons of nitrogen, l55,000
about   tons of phosphoric acid (P2O5), and 90,000 tons of potash (KQO). Tl1iS
. l`<~ncc   would mean that about 3 times as much phosphorus as is now used .
  W0I1l(l then be used, about I5 times as much nitrogen and 21l)Ollt 20 1
rms ttt   times as much potash. The manufacture, transportation, and distti-  
is well  ti l)UllOll of this additional fertilizer to Kentucky farmers is in itself i
o farm ki  an important postwar opportunity.
.l`actot'}”   T`OW?ll`(l the supplying of needed nitrogen in the soil there will
ity for Q  likewise be an opportunity for more business, especially if wartime
— much   out. Sl percent of Kentuckys  
tillable cropland has more than a E5-percent slope (3 feet of fall per  
100 feet) which is an approximate dividing line between land which  
needs some special practices for protection against erosion and that  
which does not. Thus far, except on our steepest cultivated land.  
very little land in Kentucky is cultivated on the contour. On many =
[arms, for contour cultivation to le practical, field layout must be Q
changed, fences relocated, and cropping systems altered. K
The use of terraces, along with contour tillage, aids in saving 2;
12 ·

 tt. t tt
  . E tl
  ? lil
  a ·t
ifi t  
awed,   needed moisture as well as in carrying oll excess rainlall without 1 ii
sidues   undue loss ol soil by erosion. Because more water is saved lrotn run—    
ity I0   ning oil, yields per acre on terraced lields have been It) or I2 percent  
iClU€$·   higher than on similar unterraced lields. About hall ol our tillable » :15
S l0S$   land has lrom 3—percent to l2—percent slope, and about hall ol this, Y  
  or over 3 million acres, needs terracing lor adequate soil conservation. ‘    
 Qjyy It is estimated that less than 5 percent ol the land that needs terrac-    
 QQA ing has been terraced. Hillside or diversion ditches are needed on an- i F
  other 2 million acres to carry water oil gradually and reduce erosion. , Q  
mom   Laying out terraces requires trained 1nen. Power equipment is l  
Somc  Ei most eflicient and is almost a necessity lor making ellective terraces. ~ l yl
H has   At a cost ol   or $4} per acre the postwar terracing work needed tn  
)P$O1l·   Kentucky would involve the expenditure ol lt) to l2 million dollars  
ortant   tile and installation ol drainage systems on sotne hall a million acres  
ick and   ol land in Kentucky are delinite postwar needs. I
mul ~ V _ Water supply for livestock affects soil management
  lit 17 · llllless there is atletluate water lor livestock on pasture it is l)l;2|<`·
lk imo   ltrally itnpossible to make lull use ol cropping systems inrolrtng A
lumkys   <`p0gt`aplty, soil type, or degree ol erosion, could be more t‘<‘<>lH>tl\-
V T l(`?lll}' \1SC(l lor lorest than lor other lartn crops. Such land should be
I _ U I relorested and managed so as to produce lorest products continuously _
S‘“m¤ i and elliciently, See pages lil-36. ,
* 13 .
1 .

Kentucky’s postwar opportunities in crop production lie, [or the  
most part, in better practices which will result in larger and more  
_ economical yields per acre, rather than in a shilt to new or dillerent  
kinds of crops. Perhaps a [ew farmers can take advantage ol` special QEQ
opportunities in the growing 0[ such crops as sage, aromatic seeds,  
‘ and so on, but most farmers no doubt will continue to build their  
[arm operations around tobacco, corn, hay and pasture, and livestock.  
Limited opportunities lie in enlarged production ol hybrid seed corn  
and other seed crops and in the growing ol a [ew specialty crops such  
as [ruits and vegetables in some areas.  
Better balancing ol` crop enterprises with each other, with live-  =`i
stock enterprises, with the kind ol land and size oli farm, the labor  
available, the inclinations ol the lamily, and market needs and outlets, irgii
ollers an opportunity lor better larming on many [arms. This bal-  
ancing ol? [arm enterprises is a crucial matter in good farming. lt  
requires careful planning and good judgment. lt is purely an indi-   `
vidual matter on each [arm. Some larniers will need to reduce their i ·_
acreages of certain crops; others may lind it advantageous to expand  
' acreages of these same crops. Over the state as a whole such changes 1j,·
should add up to somewhat less total acreage in corn, much more in  
small grains for winter cover and pasture, and much more in legume- 1
grass mixtures on improved soil lor hay and pasture.  
Needed feed grain could be grown  
on fewer acres   ·
(Iorn is by [ar the most important grain crop in Kentucky, usualb i· _
about St) million bushels a year; but lor best use oli land the present “
total corn acreage in the state (about 2.8 million acres) is too large. .
'l`he need is not lor less grain, but lor growing as much on liewer V
acres, by increasing the average corn yield to at least ·lt) bushels per   »
acre, 'l`he average yield now is low, as compared with yields in other  
corn-growing states. ()nly once (lil-12) has the state`s average acre- ,
yield reached fit) bushels. Higher yields per acre will come with im-
proved soil, limiting corn to the level lands and rolling lands on K
which erosio11 can be controlled, use ol better hybrids, and Iiollowing C
ol` good cultural practices.
\\'ith cropping systems generally built around livestock and i
tobacco, the place lor small grain in Kentucky is primarily [or lall. '
14 _

   1 li 1
  1 tl 
  winter, uml early spring l)1lS1lll`(' uml |`0r winter cover crops. Some y    
  5% million acres l11()l`lf 01 small grain lllilll at present is needed li()l` 1  
  these pttrposes. l·`or wi111er cover a11d pasture 111 l`all, winter, uml `  
 fl; spring Balbo rye seems 10 be 111081. widely adapted 01 all tl1e Slllllll ·  
  1»,· grains, and LO 11ave the widest range 111 SCC(1i11g dates. \\’l1ea1 seeded 1 fl
11* lhc   early 011 good 1a11d protects the soil and 1ll1`l11S11€S grazing 111 early    
_m°1`°   spring. Barley deserves greater 11se 111 Kentucky as a leed grain. \\’ell   ,  
l°1`°_m   adapted winter barley seeded early 111 SCl)LC]Hl)Cl` 011 well-drained Q  
lmcml  Q lertile soil 1urn1s11es grazing 111 110111 1all Zllltl early spring. lniproye- .    
    ment o1 cold resistance 111 varieties 01 \\'ll11C1` oats will, 11 2i112!ll`lC(l. 1 1*1
mul   bring greater interest 111 111at crop. 1 y ;l
:s1ock. Q 11
[ com   '1`he extent 10 which soybeans will be grown 1()1` grain 111 Kentucky  
s such   will be (lClCl`1111I]C(1 ehielly by the ielative 2l(`I`C-lll(`()]1lC as eonipared 1  
 1·"Y with corn. Soybeans are l)l`ll11Z\1`ll}' adapted to 111e level l)()l1()llll2lll(lS Y  
  ‘`·’ where 111ey can be used 111 a l`Ul2lLi<>11 witl1 eorn 1lll(1 where power `
1 11111*-   lll2lCl1lIlC1`y is available. They should 1101 he grown 011 laml where 1
1111101   7 (`l`<)Si()l1 is a probleni.
bllllljlh.   1 i
is my   High-quality hay and pasture are  
ng. It   greatest crop opportunity
1 111111   \\`idespread adoption 01 soil-l111i1di11g l)l`1l(`ll(`CS and adapting 01 1 .1
; 111C11` *· crops to laml would mean greater acreage 01 pasture 2ll1(l l1lC21(l()\\'· yi
rX]J2111<1   land 2lll(l mueh 1l11})1`()\'C]]lCllL also 111 yields 2l]1(1 quality 01 l.11l`21gC·