xt7m901zfb4p https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7m901zfb4p/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1960 journals 086 English Lexington : Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Kentucky Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Progress report (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n.86 text Progress report (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n.86 1960 2014 true xt7m901zfb4p section xt7m901zfb4p %`@`?" `@"?"’7é"$$@@~ ” E3?}
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Results of the
Kentucky Hybrid Corn
Pertormonce Test - 1959
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Area Location Cooperator
Western l. wickliffe James Wilson
2. Owensboro Beverly Gregory
3. Hopkinsville Murray Wall
Eastern 4. Campbellsville James Noe ·
5. Lexington Ky. Agr. Exp. Sta.
6. Quicksand Robinson Agr. Exp. Substation
Charles M. Derrickson
Acknowledgment is made to Dr. John Hamlin, Director of the Universit.
of Kentucky Computing Center, for assistance in sum arizing the
IBSUICS reported in this p1'.'Ogl`ES8 report.

F. A. Loeffel, J. F. Shane and H. R. Richards
The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn
Performance Test is to provide an unbiased estimate
of the relative performance of corn hybrids being ‘
sold in Kentucky. This information may then be
used by farmers, seedsmen and research and extension ‘
personnel in determining which hybrid most nearly
possesses the characteristics which are desired or
required for a specific situation. The need for
the University of Kentucky Agricultural Experiment
Station to obtain this information is indicated by
the continuing shift to hybrids by the farmers of
Kentucky. Over 96 percent of the Kentucky corn
acreage was planted to hybrids in 1959.
Despite many setbacks to the potential 1959
corn crop, final production estimates indicate that
Kentucky farmers have enjoyed another bumper crop. .
A total of nearly 86 million bushels were produced
in Kentucky on 1.8 million acres. The 1959 state
average was 47 bushels which is exceeded only by
the 1958 yield of 49 bushels. This is the fifth
consecutive year in which the state yield average
has been greater than hl bushels.
A cool, dry spring enabled farmers to make
; unusually rapid progress in ground preparation
and corn planting. Ten percent of the corn was
planted in the state before April 28, especially
in southern and western counties. However, a
shortage of moisture became increasingly critical
until May 10 when showers brought relief. For the
week ending May 12, 92 percent of the weather—crop
reporters indicated a moisture shortage. By May 19,

70 percent of the corn was planted as compared to 25
percent in 1958, but persistent rains for nearly a
month delayed further progress. Cultivation was
hampered by the wet soil conditions and weeds obtained
a headstart to plague farmers throughout the season. b
Very limited rains in late June and early July
brought a threat of drought damage. The north-
central part of the state was affected most severely.
Early corn was damaged somewhat but the remainder
was saved by rains occurring about July 20. A
period of hot humid weather in late August and early »
September hastened maturity. Corn harvest was ahead
of schedule until late October when rain slowed
.progress. By November 1, 75 percent of the crop
had been harvested.
Kentucky average rainfall for the growing
season, April through September, totaled 21.27
inches which is 1.64 inches below normal and 7.45
inches under 1958. The western half of the state
received about average rainfall with locally ex-
cessive amounts while the eastern half received
below average rainfall.
Northern, Southern, and Stewarts corn leaf _
blight were locally severe in many areas of the -
state. Most damage occurred in western Kentucky ,
in the lower Ohio River valley.
The average yield for all hybrids grown at
six locations in 1959 was 94.3 bushels. The
highest test average was 9/.4 bushels grown at
Owensboro. The lowest test average was 91.3
bushels for the Campbellsville test.
The performance test was conducted at six
locations which represent corn—producing areas
typical of the state. These locations together

 with the name of the cooperator are listed on the
inside of the front cover. These testing sites
were grouped by geographical location into a
western and eastern area for convenience in present-
ing the results. Yields from Wickliffe, Owensboro,
and Hopkinsville were averaged for the western area. ·
Similarly the yields from Campbellsville, Lexington,
and Quicksand were averaged for the eastern Kentucky
Fifty hybrids which are available to the
farmers of Kentucky through com ercial trade
channels were compared. These hybrids, developed
by state and federal research agencies and by
private seed companies, are listed in Table 1.
Information concerning the seed source of the
hybrid, the kernel color and the type of cross are
presented. The type of hybrid is designated as
follows: double cross, AX; and a single cross as
2X. Seed of a single cross hybrid sells at a pre-
mium due to increased costs of producing seed. Forty-
nine double crosses and l single cross were evaluated
this year.
The pedigrees of hybrids developed by state and
_ federal agencies are listed in Table 2. Agronomic
information pertaining to the testing locations is
presented in Table 3. Results of the Kentucky
Hybrid Corn Performance Test are summarized for
periods of 3 years, 2 years and 1 year and are
presented in Tables 4-6 respectively. The hybrids
are grouped in the tables on the basis of kernel
color. Within groups the hybrids are listed in
· order of increasing moisture content. The reaction
of the hybrids to Northern, Southern, and Stewarts
leaf blight are sum arized in Table 7. The hybrids
in Table 7 are listed in alphabetical order.
Field Design.
Each hybrid was planted in Q plots at each of
the six locations with individual plots being 2 hills

 wide and 5 hills long. These plots were located in
different parts of the testing field to minimize
cultural and soil differences.
Yield. .
The corn from each plot was harvested and
weighed individually. The yield of the hybrids
was determined and is reported on the basis of
bushels of shelled corn per acre with a moisture
content of 15.5 percent. Adjustments were made
for missing hills but not for other variation in . ·
stand. Therefore, the yields at each location
reported in this progress report constitute an
average yield of the 4 plots after all adjustments
were made. p
The moisture content at harvest is the best
measure of relative maturity of hybrids which is .
available. A hybrid may be considered to be ear-
lier than a second hybrid if its moisture content
at harvest is consistently lower. Maturity thus
determined is not absolute but is relative to the
hybrids being compared.
Two moisture samples were taken for each »
hybrid by taking a sample from replication 1 and 2,
and fro  replication 3 and 4. The moisture content
in the grain was determined at harvest by removing
2 rows of kernels from each of 10 ears selected l
at random from each of two replications. The grain
from the 20 ears was thoroughly mixed and the
moisture content of a lOO·gram sample was determined
with a Steinlite moisture meter. ‘
Erect Plants.
The percent erect plants is considered to be
an estimate of the resistance of a hybrid to the
total insect and disease complex affecting standing
ability. This value is obtained by counting plants
with stalks broken between the ear bearing node and

 ground level and those which lean from the base at _
an angle of more than 30 degrees from the vertical.
This sum is subtracted from the plants present and
the difference divided by the total plants present
to give the percent erect plants.
Ear Height.
Ear height, distance from the base of the
plant to the point of attachment of the upper ear,
was measured visually using a scale with one—foot `
intervals. Visual ratings were taken on four plots
of each hybrid at each location.
All tests were planted at the rate of 5 kernels
per hill and the resulting plants thinned to 3 or 4
per hill. The percent stand was computed on the
basis of the total plants present divided by the
number of plants which would have been present if
all had survived.
Visual ratings of hybrid reaction to Northern,
_ Southern, and Stewarts leaf blight diseases are V
recorded at each location when sufficient natural
infection is present. A five—class rating scale
is used.
The performance of hybrids vary with weather
conditions which change from season to season and
from testing location to testing location in the
same season. Since the weather conditions cannot
be predicted at the time of planting, a farmer should
plant a hybrid which has a good performance in an
"average" season. The best estimate of hybrid per-
formance for an "average" season is obtained by
combining the results obtained from a large number
of experiments grown in different years at a number
of locations.

 The information presented in Table 4 is the
average of 17 individual experiments grown in 1957,
1958, and 1959. In Table 5 are sum arized the
results obtained from ll experiments grown in 1958 —
and 1959. Table 6 contains information obtained
from 6 experiments grown in 1959 at different
locations in the state. For this reason, the
information contained in Table 4 is the best estimate
available for comparing the performance of corn
hybrids for average growing conditions in Kentucky.
Improvements in corn hybrids are constantly
being made. An efficient corn producer will want
to keep informed on these improvements and to
determine if they will produce on his farm. For
this reason, it is suggested that new hybrids be _
grown frequently on a trial basis in comparison
with the hybrid or hybrids presently grown. A
farmer often changes his entire corn acreage to a
different hybrid. He then compares his old hybrid
grown the previous year with the new hybrid grown
the current year. Since the two hybrids were grown
under different weather conditions,this comparison
is not valid and often leads to incorrect decisions.
Hybrids being compared should be grown in the same
field using identical management practices. A
good way to do this is to plant one-half bushel or 1
one bushel of seed of the new hybrid in the center
of a field being sure to mark it at planting time.
At harvest, yield should be determined and other
observational notes recorded. It is important to
observe the hybrids frequently during the growing -
season as well. If this suggestion is followed,
a corn grower will be able to select hybrids which
most nearly fits his conditions.
Strip tests can also be used by individual
farmers to determine the value of other factors
contributing to production efficiency. It is
important for a farmer to have an unfertilized

 check strip, and a strip receiving twice the
quantity of fertilizer that the remainder of the
field received. This enables him to determine if
his investment in fertilizer was profitable and
~ whether he used too little or too much fertilizer.
The number of corn plants per acre in Kentucky is
generally too low for top production. Since seed
corn costs so little, it seems a shame that farmers
do not change the setting on the drill and test
for yield at different rates of planting. It should
be kept in mind, however, that plant population and
fertility level must be kept in balance for efficient

 Table 1. Hybrids tested in 1959.
Hybrid Color Cross Source of Hybrids
AES 801 Y QX Agricultural Experiment
805 Y ax Station (North Central)
809 Y ax
Broadbent 337 W ax Broadbent Hybrids I A
402B Y 4X Cobb, Kentucky
Cardinal 9 W 4X
107 Y ax `
DeKalb 803A Y ax DeKalb Agricultural
805 Y 2X Ass'n. DeKalb, A
812 Y ax Illinois
837 Y 4X
869 Y ax
898A Y 4X
925 W ax
1028 Y ax
Funk G—9l Y 4X Columbia Seed
6-134 Y ax Company, Eldred, —
G-144 Y ax Illinois
G-512W W 4X
G-71lAA Y AX
Hagan H-7 Y 4X R. M. Hagan
H-9 Y ax Owensboro, Kentucky
Ky 102 Y QX University of Kentucky
103 Y ax Agricultural Experiment
105 Y ax Station, Lexington,
106A Y ax Kentucky
206 W ax
205W W QX

 Table 1. Continued.
Hybrid Color Cross Source of Hybrids
Meacham M-3 W 4X Meacham's Koreandale
M-5 W 4X Farms, Morganfield,
M-7 W 4X Kentucky
Ohio L-51 Y 4X Ohio Agricultural
Experiment Station
Wooster, Ohio
P.A.G. 401 Y 4X Pfister Associated
434 Y 4X Growers, Inc., Aurora,
633W W ax Illinois and Huntsville,
Pioneer 309A Y 4X Pioneer Corn Company
309B Y 4X Tipton, Indiana
312A Y ax
319 Y 4X
1363 Y 4X
Stull 1OOY Y ax Stull Brothers, Inc.
lOOYA Y ax Sebree, Kentucky
101Y Y 4X
lOlYA Y ax
108Y Y ax
400W W 4X
40OWC W 4X
500W W ax
US 13 Y ax Experiment Station
523W W ax (U.S.D.A.)

 Table 2. Pedigrees of Experiment Station and
U. S. hybrids tested in 1959.
Hybrid Pedigree
AES 801 (WF9 x B7)(B1O x B14)
AES 805 (WF9 x 38—11)(C103 x Oh45)
AES 809 (WF9 x P8)(Oh43 x C103)
Ky 102 (Kys x 38-11)(K4 x L317) l
Ky 103 (WF9 x 38-11)(K4 x L317)
Ky 105 (T8 x CI21E)(38—11 x Oh 7B)
Ky 106A (WF9 x 38—11)(CI21E x Oh 41)
Ky 204 (K64 x 33-16)(K55 x Ky 201)
Ky 205W (Ky 209 x Ky 211)(33-16 x H21)
Oh L51 (WF9 x Hy)(Oh 43 x Oh 45) ‘
US 13 (WF9 x 38-11)(Hy x L317)
US 523W (K55 x K64)(Ky 27 x Ky 49)

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A. Choose between white and yellow corn.
1. Yield of white and yellow hybrids is equal. _
2. Feeding value is equal when ration contains A
protein supplement.
3. Midseason white hybrids may not pick as clean
as earlier maturing yellow hybrids.
4. White corn usually sells at a premium price.
5. White hybrids may not stand as well as yellow
hybrids of equal maturity.
B. Decide on maturity of hybrid.
l. A full-season hybrid will yield more than an
early hybrid.
2. If corn is to be followed by fall sown small
grains, plant an early or midseason hybrid. ~
C. Choose hybrid on basis of over—all performance. _
_` 1. Performance information from 3 years of testing
is superior to information from 1 year.
2. Performance information from testing at 6 ’
locations per year is superior to information
from 3 locations per year.
3. Small differences among hybrids may not be
4. Consider maturity, erect plants, ear height
and disease information as well as yield befo
making a selection.
5. A good standing midseason hybrid which yields 4
less than a full-season hybrid may be the
best choice.
D. Minimize importance of price in buying seed corn.
l. Cost of seed is very, very small in comparison V
to total cost of producing an acre of corn.
E. Buy enough seed to plant a minimum of lé,000 to
16,000 kernels per acre.