xt7mgq6qzr53 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7mgq6qzr53/data/mets.xml Hildreth, Samuel P. (Samuel Prescott), 1783-1863. 1848  books b92f491h652009 English H.W. Derby & co. : Cincinnati, Ohio Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Indians of North America --Ohio River Valley. Indians of North America --Wars --1790-1794. Indians of North America --Wars --1750-1815. Ohio River Valley --History. Ohio --History. Pioneer history: being an account of the first examinations of the Ohio valley, and the early settlement of the Northwest territory. Chiefly from original manuscripts. text Pioneer history: being an account of the first examinations of the Ohio valley, and the early settlement of the Northwest territory. Chiefly from original manuscripts. 1848 2009 true xt7mgq6qzr53 section xt7mgq6qzr53 










This work is published under the superintendence of the Historical Society of Cincinnati, and forms the first volume of its transactions. It contains a full account of all that took place in Washington county, where the first settlement in the present state of Ohio took place, from 1788 to 1803; or during the existence of the Territorial Government. It also presents an outline of the leading events in the Ohio Valley, before 1788. The materials of this book are almost wholly original, comprising the papers of Colonel George Morgan; those of Judge Barker; the diaries of Joseph Buell and John Mathews; the records of the Ohio Company, &c, &c.

The high character of the author for integrity, his long residence in the country, his attainments, and laborious habits, afford such assurance of the accuracy of the work, as to justify the Society in commending it to the public.

The Society has in its possession the manuscript of a work, containing ample biographies of the first settlers of Marietta and its vicinity, prepared by the author of the present volume. Should the sale of this be as large as its merit leads the Society to hope it will be, the volume of Biography will follow it in a short time, as the second volume of the transactions. 

There having been no historical account published of the first settlement of the Ohio Company at Marietta, but the brief one by the Kev. Thaddeus M. Harris, and the materials on which it was to be founded becoming annually more and more scarce, from the death of the early inhabitants, the author, in the year 1841, was led to commence this difficult, but, to him, pleasant labor. Having himself lived in the county more than forty years, he was personally acquainted with a large number of the first pioneers, and heard them relate many of the scenes described in these pages. No regular journal, or diary, of the progress of the settlements having been kept, to which he could have access, it has been a tedious work to collect all the dates of events with the accuracy desired. Many were ascertained from old letters; some by a journal kept by Simeon Wright, which was lost soon after his death; but an abstract of the most important things in which, was obtained several years previous. General Rufus Putnam's journal furnished the dates for many facts, but more were obtained from his letters. The files of old newspapers in the Antiquarian Library, at "Worcester, Massachusetts, supplied numerous authentic documents, from the letters of the pioneers to their friends, and to Isaiah Thomas, the editor of the "Massachusetts Spy." The diaries of John Mathews, Esq., and General Joseph Buell, of events on the Ohio river, before the settlement of the Ohio Company, afford many valuable facts in the early history of the country, deemed worthy of preservation, and are inserted previous to the account of that event. The journal of the transactions of the Ohio Company has been very freely quoted, and goes hand in hand with     the historical events that transpired among the colonists. One mode of collecting materials for the history, was to employ some of the few that remained of the first settlers to write down their recollections of the events as they occurred in the settlement to  which they belonged,  in  Marietta, Waterford or 


Belpre; and by collating these several sketches, the truth could be very nearly ascertained. The larger portion of these men are now dead, and many of the events would have perished with them, had they not been preserved in this manner.

The late Judge Barker furnished the most copious notes, sufficient for quite a good sized volume, on which is founded a large portion of this history. He was a man of a clear, sound mind, retentive memory, and correct observation. His character will be found in the volume of biographical sketches of the Ohio company settlers.* Colonel Ichabod Nye, and Mr. Horace Nye, of Putnam, and the late Charles Devoll, Esq., also supplied valuable materials for Marietta and Belpre. Many events are detailed with a minuteness not usual in ordinary history, but will be interesting to the descendants of the early settlers, and afford matter for the future historian. The period embraced extends only to the termination of the territorial government under Governor St. Clair. A preliminary account of the discoveries by La Salle, with the occupancy of the country on the Ohio river by the French, and the events about Pittsburgh, especially the campaign of Colonel Bouquet, in 17G4, are matters of history but little known to the commnnity, and very properly precede the account of the settlements of the Ohio company. The closing chapter, on the early and present climate of Ohio, with the natural productions of the country, will bo interesting to the student of natural history. In the Appendix will be found the address of Governor St. Clair, on taking possession of the territory under his charge; the 4th of July oration of General Varnum, 1788, delivered at Marietta; the yet unpublished eulogy of Dr. Drown, on his death, in January, 1789; and an oration on the settlement of Marietta, April 7th, 1789; documents long out of print and now rarely found. For these, the author is indebted to the Honorable AYilkins Updike, of Khode Island, who has preserved them with great care, and had them transcribed for this history. The labor bestowed on the work now offered to the public, through the Historical Society of Cincinnati, has been accomplished in such periods of time as could be found in the intervals of the regular practice of medicine, which must apologize for its many imperfections.

Marietta, January 1, 1848.

* See Advertisement. 


The shores of the Ohio river without inhabitants.     Watch towers.    Jesuit Missionaries on the Lakes in 1668.     Mississippi river discovered in 1673.    La Salle's discoveries.     Iroquois Indians.     Lake and river of the Illinois.     Iroquois invade the Illinois.     La Salle embarks on the Mississippi in February, 1682.    Arrives at the mouth 7th of April.     Returns to Michil-limackinac in September.     Returns to France and sails with men to take possession of the country.     His death.      ------ 1


Country on the Ohio but little known to the English until the year 1740.    Indian traders.     Colonial Ohio land company.     The French take formal possession of the country 1749.     Forbid English traders.     Leaden plates buried at the mouths of the rivers.     Copies and translation.     French erect forts.     Journal of Christopher Gist, on a visit to the Indian tribes.     Block house sacked at Logstown.     George Washington sent a commissioner to the French posts.   Fort Du Quesne built.     Battle at Great Meadows.     Copy of the capitulation in the original French.    Pontiac's Indian confederacy.



Ancient map, with a plan of Colonel Bouquet's march to Muskingum.     Indian depredations in Western Pennsylvania.     Extracts from Colonel Bouquet's expedition in the Indian country on the Muskingum river in 1764, with various incidents connected therewith.     Indian treaty at Fort Pitt in 1765.



Journal of George Croghan, deputy Indian agent, while on a friendly visit to the western tribes in 1765.     He arrives at the mouth of the Scioto river.    


The Shawanees deliver up seven French traders.     Arrives at the mouth of the Ouabache.    Encamps seven miles below, and is attacked in the night by the Kickapoos.    Arrives at Post Vincent.   Reaches the Kickapoo town and meets an assembly of the western tribes, with the chief Pontiac, at Weotonan.     Proceeds to Detroit.     The Indians give up English prisoners.     A treaty held with the Indians at Detroit, and speech made.     Intrigues of the French with the Indians.    Fort Chartres occupied by Captain Sterling, with part of the forty-second regiment    The Indians of the St. Joseph's river, make speeches to Croghan and Campbell.     Close of the journal.    Croghan arrives at Fort Stanwix.     His letter to Sir William Johnson, with his views of the policy toward the Indians, best to be pursued by the English.



Period of settlements on the Monongahela, and at Wheeling, Virginia.    Trade with the Indians.   Hostile attitude of the whites.     Indian depredations.    Expedition planned for invading the Indian country, called "Dunmore's war."     Battle at the mouth of the Kenawha.     Dunmore lands at the mouth of the Big Hockhocking.    Marches to the Indian towns.     They she for peace.   Eloquence of Cornstalk the Shawanee chief.    Dunmore returns to Fort Pitt.     Arrives in Williamsburgh.     Congratulatory addresses to him.

    The people oppose his measures.   Leaves the colony and goes to Florida.



Transactions at Pittsburgh, in 1776   '77 and '78, during the Revolutionary war.

    Colonel Morgan Indian agent.     His character.     Moravian Indians friendly to the United States.     Commissioners meet to treat with the western tribes.     Difficulties.     Report of Mr. Wilson, the messenger sent to visit their towns.    Letter of Colonel Morgan to John Hancock, President of Congress.    Indian murder near Washington, Pennsylvania.     Transactions at Fort Pitt.     Letter of Captain Arbuckle.   Speech of Colonel Morgan to the Shawanees.     Delawares arrive at Fort Pitt.    Tliirty large boats built for the transport of troops, &c.     Indian banditti.     Letter of Captain Morehead.    Indian letter.     Proceedings at Fort Pitt.     Price of provisions.

    Letter of the Governor of Detroit to the tories.     Strength of the western tribes.    Fort Mcintosh built.     Boundary of tho territory of the Delawares, &c, &c    Extracts from Col. George Morgan's Journal,     - 95


Journal of Joseph Buell while stationed at Fort Mcintosh, Fort Harmer and Post Vincent, from 1785 to 1788.   Also the journal of John Mathews, on the frontiers, during the same period, while surveying the Seven Ranges.     Cession of the Northwest territory, &c, &c.      -        -        . 140 



First notice for formation of the Ohio company.   First meeting, March, 1786, at Boston, Massachusetts.    Names of the delegates.   Committee appointed to draft association.   Articles adopted.   Second meeting of the company,

1787._Three directors chosen.     Doctor Cutler employed to contract with

Congress for land; one and a half million acres at sixty-seven cents per acre.   Location of the purchase.   Boundaries.    Reservations.   Winthrop Sargent aids Doctor Cutler in the purchase.     Meeting of the company.    Doctor Cutler's report.    A city to be laid out at Muskingum.    Four surveyors appointed, and a company of men to go out and take possession.    General Putnam the superintendent.     Early provision for schools and religious instruction.     Rev. Daniel Story employed.     Tiie pioneer party leave Massachusetts, December, 1787.    Boats built at Sumrill's ferry.    Embark on the river.     Downward voyage.     Land at Muskingum, 7th of April,

1788.    Names of the first pioneers.       -       ----- 193


The Indians welcome the pioneers to the shores of the Muskingum.     Early vegetation.     Surveyors commence works.     Letter of one of the settlers.    Reasons for selecting the mouth of the Muskingum for the settlement.    Letter of General Parsons.     Thomas Hutchins.   Description of lands.    Topography.    Salt licks.     Crops of corn.     Plan of 1h; city.     Ancient works reserved.     First meeting of the agents and directors of the company at the mouth of the Muskingum.     New city named Marietta.    Reasons for it.   Classical names for the ancient earth works.   Police officers and regulations for the government of the settlement.     Fourth of July.    General Varnum delivers an oration.    Governor St. Clair arrives.     Address to the citizens.   Commission.    Names of the United States Judges.   Laws promulgated.   Titles of the territorial courts.    Excellence of the laws. 207


Preparation for a treaty at Duncan's falls.     Indians attack and kill some of the guard.     Treaty postponed.    Great destruction of the wild game by the Indians.     First sermon ever preached in Marietta.     County of Washington established.    Boundaries.   rProposal to give lands to actual settlers.    Address to share-holders.    Progress of the colony in 17S8.     Great crop of corn.    Description of Campus Martius, with a plate.     Public dinner to Governor St. Clair.     Rev. M. Cutler preaches in Campus Martius.     Character.    First court held in the territory.     Names of the Judges.     Second court of quarter sessions held.   Judges.     Names of grand jurors.     Griffin Green, Jos. Gihnan and R. Oliver, judges.     First deatli.     Number of settlers in 1788.     Progress of the Indian treaty.     Good feeling of the colonists.     Articles of the treaty.     Indians invited to a feast.     Transactions of the Ohio company.     Section twenty-nine.     Donation lands.     Regulations 


concerning them.    Early winter.    Inhabitants suffer for provisions.   New road from Alexandria in Virginia, to the mouth of Muskingum river.   - 220


Death of General Varnum.     Oration of Dr. Drown.    Police laws passed at Marietta.    Address of the inhabitants to Governor St. Clair.    First marriage at Marietta.    Doings of tho Ohio company.    The 7th of April, directed to be perpetually kept as a public festival.   Encouragement to build mills.    Hostility of the Indians.    Attack on John Mathews, when surveying the sixteenth Range.   Seven men killed.     Mathews escapes to the river.     Colonel Meigs builds a block house.     Roturns to Marietta.     Arrival of Rev. D. Story.    Early frost.     Destroys the corn.     Sickness among the settlers.   Number of inhabitants.   Death of General Parsons by drowning.



Doings of the Ohio company.     A mill built.     Rev. D. Story to preach at Marietta, Belpre and Waterford.     Company lands explored.     Salt springs.

    Funds for schools.     Money loaned to the settlers.     Prospect of Indian war.   Guards of soldiers raised by the directors.     Spies or rangers.    Family of Governor St. Clair described.     Small-pox breaks out at Marietta.

    Famine of 1790.   Sufferings of the settlers.     Relief afforded by the directors.    Indian hostilities.   Letter of Governor St. Clair.     Colonel Vigo.

    R. J. Meigs, Jr., sent onamission to Detroit.   French emigrants arrive.    Settle Gallipolis.     Grant of land to them by Congress.     First townships organized. -        -        -        - 259


Indian war begins.   Massacre at Big Bottom.     Action of the court of quarter session on the news.     Spirited resolutions of directors for the defense of the colony.     Lottcr to Governor St. Clair, who is absent.     Soldiers raised.    Garrisons built.     Eleven thousand dollars expended by Ohio company.    Improvement of the public squares.     To be ornamented with trees.     Trustees appointed to take charge of them.   Letter of General Putnam to General Washington on the state of the colony.     Remarks on the war.     Company of United States rangers.     Dress of these men.     Captain Rogers killed.   Escape of Henderson.   Alarm of the inhabitants at the event.    Mathew Kerr killed.     Discipline at Campus Martins.     Cattle shot by the Indians.     Attack on a party of Indians.     Alarm at the news.   Indians killed at Little Muskingum.    Incidents attending that event.    Ohio company raise more troops.   Wisdom of their transactions.   Funds for religious instruction.    Surgeons appointed.   News of tho defeat of the army under Govornor St. Clair.   Emigrants from Nova Scotia.     Providential escape of W. R. Putnam.    Nicholas Carpenter and four others killed.     - -274 


The Ohio company fail to pay for their lands.     Amount of acres reduced.     Petition to Congress for one hundred thousand acres as donation lands.     Trustees of the land.     General R. Putnam treats with the Wabash tribes.    Cedar barge.     Dinner given to the Indian chiefs at Marietta.   Strength of the colony.     Rangers.     R. J. Meigs, Jr., attacked by Indians.     Names of the heads of families in Campus Martius.     Fort Harmer.   Names of families there.   Anecdotes of the French emigrants.      .... 305


Plate and description of the Marietta garrison at " the Point."    Night adventure.    Names of families and persons, with the houses in which they lived.    Anecdotes.     Schools.     Ohio company in 1793.     Donation lands.     Scarlet fever.     Small Pox.     Indian adventure.     Bird Lockhart.     Crops of corn.    1794.     R. Warth killed.     Packet mail boats established on the Ohio.     Adventure with the Indians.    1795.     Ohio company acts.    College lands surveyed.   Fund for support of gospel.     Colonists goon to their farms after the peace.     Rapid improvements.     First legislature under the territory.    Difficulties of traveling.     Delegate to Congress.     Constitution adopted and the state of Ohio formed.      ----- 325


Settlement of Belpre.     Topography and description of the settlement.    Upper, middle, and lower.    Captain King killed by the Indians.     Crops of 1789 destroyed by frost.     Famine of 1790.     Liberality of Isaac Williams.

    Expedients of the settlers for food.   Abundance of wild game and crop in the autum.     Boys killed at Neal's station.   Mill on Little Hock-hocking.        - 349


Indian war breaks out.     Garrison built, and called "Farmers' Castle."     Description and plate.     Howitz.     "Place d'armes."     New defenses built.

    Loss of provision by fire.     Send for a supply to Red stone.     John L. Shaw.     Hostility of the Indians.     Narrow escape of A. W. Putnam.    B. Hurlburt, one of the spies, killed.        ... 361


Transactions at Belpre.     Trials of the settlers.     Female dread of the savages.

    Mutual insurance society.    Floating mill.    Indian murders at the lower

settlement.     Scarlet fever; fatal effects.     Intermittent fevers.     Schools._

Names of teachers   Religious services.     Names of families in Farmers' Castle.   Spies or rangers.     Smallpox.     Domestic manufactures; cotton; rice; silk.   Sheep. -        -        ....        . 373 



Captivity of Major Goodale; his death.   Amusements in Farmers' Castle.    Perpetual motion.   First wheat in Ohio.   Adventure of Joshua Fleehart.     Value of salt.   Scioto salines discovered.    Griffin Greene.   Caution of Ohio company, as to salt lands.     Progress of the settlement.   Murder of Armstrong's family.   Jonas Davis killed.     Pursuit of the Indians.   John James.     Peace.   Leave their garrisons.   First orchards.    Character of the settlers.    -        -- -        -        -        -        - 395


Settlement of Plainfield, 1789.    Number of associates.   Manning the lots.    Topography.   Novel mode of clearing new lands.   Large cornfield.    Wolf creek mills, and plate.    Manner of milling during the war.     First sermon.     John Garder, a prisoner; adventures and escape, 1790.     Wild game.     Intercourse with the Indians.     Settlement at Big bottom.   Massacre of settlers.   Treatment of prisoners.   Alarm at Millsburgh.    Captain Rogers.   Alarm at Waterford.     Indian usages.     Shaw and Choate redeemed at the rapids of Maumee.     Brandt, the chief.   Humane usage. 419


Affairs at Waterford.    Garrison built.   Description and plate of FortFrye.    Names of families.   Attack on the new garrison.     Anecdotes of that affair.     John Miller, a young Mohican, gives notice.     Particulars of the event.    Jabez Barlow's adventure.     Captivity of Daniel Convers.     History of the event.   Taken to Sandusky.     Events by the way.   Sold to an Indian.    Adopted into the family.   Kind usage of his Indian mother.     Escapes at Detroit.     J. Van Sheik Riley.   Passage down the lake.     Gentlemanly treatment of the British officers.   Return home. -        - " 440


Strength of the garrison.     Watchfulness of the settlers.     Hamilton Kerr.    Spies at Waterford.   1793.     Adventure of Judge Devoll.     Abundance of wild game.   Schools.   Religious worship.   1794.    Increase of the settlement.     Amusements.   Abel Sherman killed.     Condition of the settlement.   1795.     Sherman Waterman killed.     Settlers leave their garrisons.    Salt springs.     Value of salt.     Company formed to manufacture salt.     Description of the works.     Two of the salt makers lost in the woods.     Sufferings by cold and hunger.     Great change in the condition of the country.        ...... . 463


Topography and primitivo aspect of the country, within the Ohio company's p urchase.    Character of the climate.   Excessive cold in February, 1818.    


Deep snow.   Table of temperature for twenty-seven years.   Amount of rain annually.     Late frosts.   Blooming of fruit trees.     Changes in the seasons in the last fifty years.   Range of barometer.   WiH animals.   Early

abundance of game.   Bears.   Panthers.   Wolves__Variety and abundance

offish.   Manner of taking them.        .... 484


Oration of General Varnum.     Of Dr. Drown__Address of Governor St.

Clair, &c............505 


The shores of the Ohio river without inhabitants.   Watch towers.   Jesuit Missionaries on the Lakes in 1668.     Mississippi discovered in 1673.     La Salle's discoveries.     Iroquois Indians.   Lake and river of the Illinois.    Iroquois invade the Illinois..    La Salle embarks on the Mississippi, February, 1682.    Arrives at the mouth, 7th April.     Returns to Michillimackinac in September. Returns to France, and sails with men to take possession of the country.     His Death.

For many years before the white man had any knowledge of that beautiful region of country which borders the Ohio river from Pittsburgh to the mouth of the Big Miami, and perhaps still lower down, it was destitute of any fixed inhabitants     a belt of country from forty to sixty miles in width, on both the north and south banks of the river, seems to have been appropriated by the tribes who laid claim to the territory, almost exclusively, as hunting grounds. Few villages were built near its shores,* nor were many of its rich alluvions planted with cornfields; although a country affording more bountifully all the articles needed for the well being of savage life, could not be found. The rivers teemed with fish, and the valleys and hill sides abounded in animals of the chase.   A soil more produc-

* Logstown and the Shawanee village near the mouth of Scioto were exceptions. 1 


tive of corn, beans and squashes, could hardly be imagined; and yet no fire was kindled along its borders, save that of the  warrior  or the hunter.    The  mirth and revelry of " the feast of new corn," echoed not through its groves; and the silence of the forest was only broken by the moaning of the wintry winds, or the howling of wild beasts.   This having been the condition of the country, we are led to inquire, why was it so ? and what could have produced this  abandonment of' so desirable a region? There doubtless was a period, soon after the removal or destruction of that half-civilized race, who filled the country with mounds and fortified cities, when their conquerors occupied the land, and lined the shores of the Ohio with their wigwams and villages, and nothing but some potent and irresistible cause could have led them to abandon it. From the traditions of the Indians themselves we find that cause to have been, the repeated and sanguinary invasions of a merciless enemy.   Year after year the savage and warlike inhabitants of the north invaded the country of the more peaceable and quiet tribes of the south.   Fleets of canoes, built on the head waters of the Ohio, and manned with the fierce warriors of the Iroquois, or Five Nations, annually floated down this quiet stream, carrying death and destruction to the inhabitants who lived along its borders.   All the fatigue and trouble of marching long distances by land was thus avoided; while the river afforded them a constant magazine of food in the multitude of fishes which filled its waters.   The canoe supplied to. the Indian the place of the horse and wagon to the white man, in transporting the munitions of war.   These they could moor to the shore, and leave under a guard, while the main body made excursions against tribes and villages, living at one or more day's march in the interior.   If defeated their canoes afforded a safe and ready mode of securing a retreat, far more certain than it could be by land.   When invading a country, they could travel by night, as well as by day, and 


thus fall upon the inhabitants very unexpectedly; while in approaching by land, they could hardly fail of being discovered by some of the young hunters in time to give at least some notice of their approach. The battles thus fought along the shores of the Ohio, could they have been recorded, would fill many volumes. That much of the ancient warfare carried on by that race of men, who occupied the country prior to the modern Indians, was done on and by means of the Ohio river, is rendered probable from the mounds, or watch towers, built on the tops of the highest hills near the shores. They almost invariably occupy points commanding an extensive view of the river, both up and down the stream. From these elevations the watchman could often give notice of the approach of a fleet, for some time before its arrival, merely by his eye; and if signal fires by night, and smoke by day, were used, the notice could be extended to many hours, or even days.

; That many of the river hill mounds were built for this pur-

{ pose, there can be but little doubt. *

These repeated invasions of the Iroquois discouraged the inhabitants of the valley of the Ohio from occupying its borders; and for many years before it was visited by any white man, they had retired to the distance of forty or sixty miles from its banks. Nearly all their villages and permanent places of abode were located at least thus far from the Ohio. This abandoned region was, however, still of use to them as hunting grounds, and probably more abounded in game from this circumstance.

The country bordering the Ohio river was in this condition, when the almost unknown regions of the West were visited by La Salle, the first traveler who has given us any valuable account of the climate, soil, and productions of the great valley of the Mississippi. As early as the year 1668, fathers Marquette, and Allouez, Jesuit Missionaries, prepared a map of lake Tracy, or Superior, and parts of Huron and Michigan, or "lake of the Illinois."   In 1673, 


Marquette and Mons. Joliet, a merchant of Quebec, passed through the lakes, up Green Bay and Fox rivers, and down the Wisconsin to the river Mississippi, which they descended as low as the mouth of the Arkansas. But Lit was many years after this time, before any white man visited the shores of the Ohio river, above its junction with the Wabash    indeed the whole river was, for a long period after, known by the name of Ouabache.

Too little credit has been given to La Salle, by us Americans, for his discoveries; travels which occupied several years, and in which he finally sacrificed his life.   Many of the cotemporary statements have been treated as apoch-ryphal, and doubtless some of them are so, while others, relating to the productions of the country and the intercourse with the inhabitants, may be considered as inclining to the marvelous; but the descriptions of the rivers, headlands, and general geography of the country, are as correct as could have been expected from the hurried manner in which the region was passed over.   Besides, we have no account of these discoveries from La Salle himself, and only from some of his companions.    He doubtless had made notes of his travels and discoveries, which were in his possession at the time of his death, and had he lived, would have been published; but dying as he did by the hands of traitors and assassins, his papers were all lost. Louis Hennepin, one of his subalterns, a monk of the order of Franciscans, who accompanied him in his expedition, attempted, some time after his death, to rob him of his right to the discovery of the country on the lower Mississippi, and appropriate the honor to himself.  He wrote first a history of the discoveries on the upper Mississippi, which he really made. This work he afterwards enlarged, by adding a fictitious account of a voyage to the mouth of the Great River.

In the actual voyage, the discoverers took with them arms and ammunition, and some merchandise to trade with 


the nations. This expedition started from the Illinois river, a little below Peoria, the 28th February, 1680. Hennepin's account of their voyage is said to contain many inaccuracies. "Monsieur Cavelier de la Salle, a native of Rouen in Normandy, the chief undertaker of the discoveries in Northern America, which make the subject matter of this book, was a man of extraordinary parts and undaunted courage. He was the first that formed the design of trav^ eling from the lake of Frontenac, or Ontario, in Canada, to the Gulf of Mexico, through a vast unknown country, in order to bring the inhabitants to the knowdedge of the christian religion, and extend the dominions of the king of France." He was patronized by the king; and Tonti, who had been an old soldier, happening then to be at court, was appointed his lieutenant. They left Rochelle, July 14th, 1678, accompanied by thirty men, and reached Quebec the 15th September. Count Frontenac was then Governor General of Canada. The following autumn was spent in visiting Fort Frontenac, near the outlet of the lake, one hundred and twenty leagues above Quebec, built by La Salle. The 18th November, they embarked on lake Frontenac in a vessel of forty tons, which was the first ship that ever sailed upon this fresh water sea. From contrary winds they were a month in reaching Niagara. " Niagara was the name of an Iroquois village, situated at the lower end of lake Conti, or Erie, above the falls."

Three leagues further up the lake, La Salle laid the foundation of a fort, but the Iroquois expressing their dislike to it, he refrained, and secured his goods and merchandise by strong palisadoes. While lying here through the winter, he set his men to work to build a new ship, or great barque, but the winter was so severe, freezing the lakes all over, that the work progressed slowly. He al