xt7mkk94905r https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7mkk94905r/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1940 journals kaes_circulars_209_02 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 209 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 209 1940 2014 true xt7mkk94905r section xt7mkk94905r  *i COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
  Extension Division
 V THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
    CIRCULAR NO. 209
I ` ;       _ iQ }   iv  
‘     ° .   l   Yat` i°
. h  _ ·.      ff '
1     v _  
‘   · "— _   {
· Lexington, Kentucky
June, 1940
i mmP&bgshed in connection with the _agricu1tural extension work carried on by coopera-
i A mult N? <>¤11ege'¤r_Agri¤uimure, University of Kentucky, with the U. S. Department of
_ giss Ofug/ifagillgi ciigsitlributed in furtherance of the work provided for in the Act of Con-

 y` i ‘ ` __" Ji A 4,  V i  [wg  M4; `  J    L, MH I
"’ A   \§   ` Q?  ..;{' '.     ` H; ,'  `    $6***}.* ;.‘.>".>F* :
A , _,' ‘ { |> .¤   .  i, -ig ` tg,  A   I · ,* 5   gy.  ,- . T¢ *,1%;
,., , I- F V J, ri;  _  _; ·  kk i § _ V V . V. ml I gv — _~., ` I
y __`    xy   4 AL , • :,_   S Eg, Y; ,
V V i" ,     me 1* . »?   ¤ ' .
 'N`} * ` ` ‘f E'l *  / "   A ` `R V"f" K; , `?    /{*4,»
\" •     `· ·· , if M `e~  · `  '*  .-  -... ~-' D
. _     .,4*  i3` T _,`, —t   ‘.  `I°    
V ·‘Z ’·   #   . ‘ V ’·   ,.   ·· fig?/' rr   *~  
i ig ,-tj; t ‘  
  i g i l
*1 v \ i
it i . ‘ —
gg   J  
.   _       " @”~» ., gwk,4 @»~·     .—.. _i i _ _ _ __   
  · '-·‘¤·' ETL-”` *.···   ' . .-"`”¢i· 7*1 WV w , wl M , 5,, ·— —.,;~ ,Z>J2c' »-Y"  
7 i      
:·._ _£g.;»»_.   yi; { é;§;;;r;i¢{»j;§t_s  en »~   r,.__ K   “,_,“; ’_.rTQ ,§C,(»;§;_._§  wi, . _ ;,§v&\¤i
·.   W      · v~¤ <   ..{·V         ~ ··¤ —~ , y ¤·~::».. i  
.   :-‘   ‘~‘~i€;“ if ’· ‘"‘—*?‘“   N   §`*.¢f M;€siM*rLet· (lucy
received and planted while still in a dormant condition. The stz1nlt~
altho red cedar or other lasting woods may be used. The lIllt'l’~
mediate posts should be not less than 7% [ect long, set about Zta
feet. apart, spaced lor two vines between, and about 2 leet deep.
Galvanized No. lt) or No. ll iron wire should be stretched along the
row, the upper close to the tops of the intermediate posts, and at1— _
other two feet lower. These should be stapled to the posts, hut not
tightly to the intermediates, and the wires on one end post shottltl
be ol ample length so that they may be rele21sed easily lor restretdi-
The form ol` the Kniflin system which has been most used at tl1t· 54..:. 
· Kentucky Experiment Station requires two upright tnain trunks, _._.  
one extending only to the lower wire, the other to the upper. r\n~ `
other lorm ol` this system uses only one trunk with branches extent}-
ing laterally on both wires; otherwise the treatment is pratttitallt
the same. There is little dillerence in yield.
In the first ol these plans the aim is to develop two strong slioott
near the base ol` the vine. These should be tied at intervals to tt
stake so that they make straight trunks and, il. the trellis is in posi-
1 tion, one may have its tip pinched oll when it reaches the loxru
wire and the other when it reaches the upper wire. This pindting
back usually causes the development of lateral branches. Iwo ul
which should be trained in opposite directions on each wire and
tied loosely. All other shoots should be removed. ln the spring :1
strong shoot cotmnonly grows [rom each bud ol these ltori/otttitl
canes, and upon the lirst l`ew joints ol` these spring shoots the llowep Q
and l`ruit are produced.
The linillin systetn ol pruning and training is distinctly a it-
newal system by which. at pruning time each year, wood wltidt i~
two years or more old is replaced by the ripened canes ol the ttmettl  
season`s growth. The system pertnits the removal by a single tut. i
ol` most ol` eacli arm with the drooping canes which have gtttttlt M
li|`<>lll ll. lleliore cutting oll these arms, however, the prunet slldlllll aughii

 Gmjms for I/10 Home 7
zm 4
ln \ ·"_ J; . 5“ R W, . ., _/w
lm /k   X I .> ‘. .
mr , 4 / / /    M
. . // fi r \`~ V 1 ` ~"`\
m1~ /. ,//V —\ ; ~ __, \g
YU I // ‘ ·— \—   ‘K ’ `T
¤ — ' ', I
¢]¤· K   ` . \_ .
\ . , .. ’, _ . ~. \ V
1hv R ‘ v`{ V . ~ \ ’
E A   1 r * \ ·
:m— _ . ,      · 1 . _ _l_ . . » ~
wml · `*’·‘;” /* ·· ‘ ' ` A K   ' " ` K
/, /{,/ .\\>_, · ( \ _ ,\ I
.1l .f .· ’:__; . m .
\l]~   . . . . (
W]. Figure 2. Tw0—trunk Kniffin in winter.
nllx -
wr)l¤ > rf `
» kl /,-·—~——-—-——-··~—— `   , WT'} k
md 4
· :1
` _
, ' _,,•»——- "Le N V
nu} ’ V
`Cl* M _
1 i~ / 1 ·‘
‘; »·  ` . _ _ M W. __ ._ __  *—
  ¤ n {_  ·   . "* ‘ é`? Eli I- `   '* ' ` I I \   `\> ,.\ \ iS`   ·. `#-
.- I   It I _   /.·; _§ . _\_ ` _) I —> > 2 '____ i Atv,. ~_. . I
uI_ ‘v A ‘2_ _. rw: v‘ ·r lh. _; 4} »‘_ ,4-; .· \ ,_ .   , 1
wu " ` ' `
HM >m;1%u¤‘c kB. Two-trunk Kniliin, pruned. Same method of pruning is used with ax
c— run vine.

 S Kcnlzicky Extcnsimz Circii/ur No. 209
first examine the head of the trunk and the base of the arm to {mit me U,
on each side, the best well-matured cane of medium size and lengt], mw (
which may be 11sed to succeed the lW()·}'C?ll` 2ll`lll that is to be cut (,|{_ swim
()ften, one or more canes are found near the head of the trunk. imc whilé
or two of which 1nay be HSl)lll`l`€(l,n 111211 is cut back to one or nt-,, UIUC
buds from which shoots are likely to grow in spring for use dy W 0[ C0,
newal canes a year later. A vine before and after pruning by dm Who,
linifiin system, is shown in figures 2 and 3. hos, I,
Pruning a Neg/ected Vine. The problem of pruning a [omg. mg li
neglected vine is often confusing. The usual methods cannot lie
applied to such a vine. Often there are many old trunks that must
be given drastic cutting if the vine is to be properly shaped and ty]
trained. .~\ number of healthy canes which matured their wood iiiid 0[ dh
buds the previous season should be kept to bear fr11i1. These any [hc W
be selected almost anywhere on the vine, but if one wishes to bring my (
the vine hnally under better control he should reserve a suflicieiii mmm
V number of the best canes he can find near the base or at least oii ;i mm,
central trunk, and remove all other branches, both young and oid, lim U
Sometimes, when the object is to produce crops from the oid viiie PMC.
while new vines are growing to maturity. the easiest method is lo [mw;
cut back all y()ll11g canes to two buds. HMC ]
cULT1vAT10N `l?'1"°l
The grape, like the orchard fruits, is distinctly benefited In  
. systematic shallow cultivation, particularly in the early p2l1`l ol tli1· me H
growing season. lf cultivation is not practicable El mulch of graw _,
clipping or straw many be llSC(l to advantage. __ H
Cover Cm]1. A good practice, which is widely followed is to wit lm 1)
a cover crop of some kind in .~\ugust, to provide a mat of vegetatitrtt Wlmil
on the ground, prevent winter washing of the soil and make wittlrt Tilllll
pruning easier. This cover crop, turned under in spring, proxitlo Timl
additional humus. Rye, barley or oats are often used. S1)Illl`fllllf" Him
with the addition of winter vetch. The rye-vetch combination ltztr (mlm
been used with satisfaction on the Experiment Station farm. yllllfix
Usually it is possible to maintain the fertility of the vineyard lit _ garde
annual application of barnyard manure, lf manure cannot be l111¢l· i lllllflt
` _

 Gmpes for t/ie Home 9
ntl. the use of nitrate of soda or sulfate of amnronia is suggested, at the
gtlr rate of one-half pound scattered thinly around each vine in early
off $P1·mg_ Nitrogen seems to be the most important elenrent needed
nrc while phosphorus and potassiunr are of considerable less direct
no value. Phosphorus especially is valuable in promoting the growth
re- of cover crops and usually should be used to supplenrent nitrogen.
the \\`hether or Dot to use commercial fertilizer may be denronstrated
best by applying fertilizers to one section of the vineyard and observ-
rrg- ing the effect on vigor and yield of frtrit.
rntl '1`he varieties conrrnorrly grown east of the Rocky Mountains are
intl of diverse origin, but rrrany of thenr are direct descendants of one of
nai the wild American species, Vilis lulzrrzscu, or fox grape, which is na-
irrg tive of the northeastern states and grows southward along the
ent nrourrtairr regions to Georgia. Others are hybrids of two or more
rr a native species, or one of these and I/’itr`.s zrinifem, the latter being
rltl. the common grape of Europe and of our Pacihc coast states. The i
inc pine vinifera grape is not easily grown in Kentucky but some of the
tn benefits of this remarkable species nray be had thru the many valu-
able hybrids which can be strccessfully grown here. Many hybrid
varieties are nrore or less self sterile and will be unproductive if if
In planted atla distance from other varieties. However, if such well-
~ known native varieties as Concord, \\'orden. Moore Early and others
thc . . . . . . . . ’. ..
M are freely mterplanted, this failure of the hybrids rs easily rectrfred.
lil" The cormrrercial grower will do well to nrake the greater part of
my his planting of the Concord variety. lt succeeds practially every-
hm wlrere in this latitude and no other variety gives such assurance of
Im contirruous productiveness, vigorous health and hardiness, com-
(lw lrirrcd with good quality. rlfoore Early and Wrrrzlezz, both earlier
HW than (foncorrf, may sometimes be ttsed to advantage to satisfy the
hm tlerrrand for grapes in the early part of the season. Niugrim, a hand-
sonre and productive variety, will meet the limited demand for a
white grape, and Czitawfm for a late variety. but it is dotrbtful if any
nf these will yield a better profit than the Cozrcorrf. For the farm
ln E garden or the srrrall lrorne garden in town. the case is tluite different.
nal.   While (Ioncord may well be included in every home vineyard, how-

 ]() lykvzzttzc/cy Extensimt Cirru/ar No. 209
ever- small, the lznnily will be better satisfied by at variety ol` kjmle wm
which prolong the season ol? ripe lruit. \ mug
,»my(,,l·(,_Y for my ],,,,,,(»_ The varieties suggested below are tel. ml,i(|_
onnnended lor those who are ttlt[2t1llill2l1` with the t‘llZtt`z1<`t.et·isti(, my MMC
many grape varieties. They are Hot $llI)llllllC(l its the only clesimlytr. scmu
ones suitable lor home planting. For those who wish to make tm] my V
larger- collections lor exhibition or lor their personal ple;N.,,_ nmlm
there are other kinds ol interest and value which haye been tey|U| in $(,1
npon the Station grounds and Whltll will be Sttggested on applinl. [Oy Sl,
tion to the horticultural department. By
Red varieties. the b
;\(i,·\\\’A)I—(2'll2lll|.)’ excellent, produetiyeness variable. larrac
\\'hite varieties. bm`}.
(T(>l,l)l·ZN hlllS(I,·\'l`—HHll(TS()lllC late yariety; excellent dessert (;’
quality. il SIW
Nt,x<;.·\t—l’robably the best general—purpose grape. (hmm
T:l{l·]I)()Nlt\—NC\\'§ promises to be the best early black rariety. HUH I)
Mooto; EAtAN—New; a promising grape siinilar to (jonrord but ‘l**‘lt*
ripens later and has better quality. (in lh
\\'otSCIlC. USU21ll)’ j2ll`1`lllg lllllst be 1·ejmj_ Tl
ed daily for several days. An excellent method of j)l`C\'CIltl11g(];1m_ gmwc
age from gree11 june beetles lll the lltlllle \'lllC)’Hl‘d is to sad; 1[IC \.m.d_
fruit. ¥j·hCS€
l,(’(lff]()/J/)('TS. SC\'C1`3l species of l€HfhOj)I)Cl` attack lllC grape jj] f1`Oll1
Kentucky. All are minute, triangttlar—shaped insects which pierce tlelaye
the tissues of the leaves and suck the cell sap. In late july they mat and p
appear i11 large numbers on the UIl(lCl`Sl(lC$ of the leaves, l\']mj lll€ [Y
disturbed they {ly in swarms. The Hrst evidence of leafl1oppe1— {11. is (ld?
jury occurs as small, whitish or yellowish spots on the leaves 111 %1""’*ll
severe attacks the leaves become brown or yellowish and may will
and fall. Either leaf injury or defoliation interferes with the proj). ,4
er ripening of the grapes and reduces the sugar content. 'l`l1t~ ._.
growth and vigor of the vine are reduced also. Since the young 1, my
V insects do not develop wings until they become mature, spraying  
is most effective just before the time the oldest ones develop wings.  
Use 2/E5 pint of ~1»()—percent nicotine sulfate solution, with ll gnat] oi  
soap spreader, for each lOl) gallons of spray solution. Spray the  
undersides of the leaves, using pressure. Apply in the middle ttl  
tl1e day, when the temperature is high. For 3 gallons of soltttitttt,   MS
use l/$5 ounce of nicotine sulfate solution and l% ounces of soap. g
Rootworm. The adult is a bettle which feeds on the foliitgr if  
and its work may be recognized by the chain-like marks on tht  
leaves that result from its habit of feeding. The larvae feed tm Tt·1u¤¢
the roots, devouring the smaller ones and stripping the l>ark;t11¤l  
eating out pits and burrows from the larger ones. The vines be W
come stunted or may be killed. Since the adults feed ()ll the leztlo euelggg
control consists in spraying with lead arsenate. (See spray sd1t*tl· 0lf1sh01
Sm/e /n.secIs. ()ccasionally grape canes are attacked In tim D_
species of scale insects. the grape scale, and the San jose scale. (ll ina ji
these the San jose scale is by far the ntost destructive. Botll lllill use h
be controlled by dormant spraying as indicated i11 the spray sdlttl \Ii\ E
llle. Sj>l`2lylIlg is llot recomtiiended unless the insects are p1`¤’*¢`lll·   A, _} U
jlaslt .1

 Grapes for the Home 13
will- The following spray schedule, for use of the commercial grape
Iam— grower, 1nay be varied to suit conditions found in the home vine-
thc yard. $01nC may dCsi1`C to use Only the mOSt important sprays.
Thgge are marked with an asterisk (*). Since black rot spreads
cm from year-old CHHCS to tl1€ yOLlHg CHHCS Carly in the spring, the
Cm (lglayetl (lO1`IHZlH[ Spfély Sl1OUlCl DOE be Onlltted. The preblossom
mm and p0stblOSSO111 SIJTHYS 211`€ IHOSI llI1pO1`tE11lt for the protection ol
Wm.] the [ruit. Bl3Cl< TOL CFIHHOL be COI1t1`Oll€(l successfully if spraying
V iw Ig delayed lllllll ll1C l`0[ E1])I)C21l`s OI} ll1C illllt. Tlioro spraying with
In good ])l`€SSlll`€ is l]TlI)()1`[211l[.
I Oil emulsion 2*}} or I Grape scale or San Jose
mpg 1_ Dormant season I Lllne—sulfur 1-S scale ( omit if no scale ).
vp *2. D layed dormant. New I I
jl Q griiiwtli aboutl inch long. I Bordeaux 8-10-100 I Black rot, mildew.
mw 3, Cluster-breaking 2 I I
>`ootI weeks after No. 2 or when I Bordeaux S-10-100 I Black rot.
l shoots are 4 to S in. I I
Ill *l_ lf'reblossom, when first I Bordeaux $-10-lilo I
C ol blossoins are opening. I Spreader (see note) I Black rot.
lltlll I l-Bordeaux S-10-100 |
’ *5. Poslhlossom, when I Lead arsenate 5 lbs. I Black rot.
ml, hlttotii is nearly complete. I Spreader (see note) I Berry moth.
`_ ti. Just before berries I Bordeaux 8-10-100 I Black rot.
lt;ttrt· touch, or when size of ‘ Lead arsenate 3 lbs. I Berry moth.
i pea. I Spreader (see note) I Hoot beetle.
I I Nicotine sulfate, 40 *5/} . %l1t. I
Ip T. June 22-25. I Soap, 2 pounds I Leaf-hoppers (Spray
I 1 I Water, 1040 gallons I under leaves).
N. July 22-25. I Repeat spray No. 7 if leaf-hoppers still numerous.
` It ‘ The most important sprays in black-rot control,
.ut¤. NOTE. The use of a spreader, beginning with the preblossom spray, increases
effectiveness. For 100 gallons use 1 pint of fish oil (made for spraying), or 2 pounds
hetI· DI fish 011 soap, or 2 pounds of cheap toilet soap. (Dissolve soap in hot water.)
llttl _
I Ol Dissolve 8 pounds of finely powdered bluestone (copper sulfate)
Um lll P1 wooden or "granite iron" bucket of water (if crystals are used,
use hot water and sus nend in cloth sack 2 inches into the water .
ht·tI— \ , _ _ _ _ _ _
tm I ·IlX l0 I)OUll(lS ol chemieal hydrated lime with wZ1tCl‘ llllo it llllll
V · .. J, . . ’ . . , t
pastt and strain into the tank or barrell containing :>0 to of) gallons

 l=1 ]\r(7}IfII{`]f)l Extension Circzrlar No. 209
of water. Dilute the bluestone solution to 8 to l0 gallons and acltl
it to the lime water, stirring well. If poison is to be added stir fi
pounds of lead arsenate into the paste, dilute, and pour into spun
tank while stirring. Make up to l00 gallons.
For 3 Gal/ons: If only a little Bordeaux is needed use if ounces
of bluestone, 5 ounces of chemical hydrated lime, l% ounces of
lead arsenate, and 3 gallons of water, and mix as directed atliovc.
Use Bordeaux mixture while fresh. Q
\Vhen winter pruning is done, remove and burn all llllllllllllflell  
fruits, cleacl wood and prunings. Berry moths over—winter in fallen `i'  
grape leaves and, to a less extent, in other trash. Leafl1opper~ (wi
overwinter as adults in tall grass and weeds. Anything that ca11|>t·  
done to destroy the hibernating quarters helps to control iht~\t·  
insects. f  
In the garden the clusters may be protected by sacking. in lieu
of the postblossom sprays. Sacking is not only protection from _
diseases, insects and birds, but is a means of producing perfeu  
clusters of fruit. For this purpose, the ordinary grocer`s 2·])t)llllll "‘ mi
manila sacks are satisfactory for most varieties, or 3-pound smb  
for exceptionally large clusters. lt is best to apply them soon alittr {
the blossoming period is past, while the grapes are not over 1;
inch in diameter, but they may be used to advantage even wltcn
the berries are two thirds grown. A number of sacks at a time mu} ‘
be sheared down from the top on each side for a distance of one
and one-half inches. After pinching off the leaf which is attacliul
opposite. a sack may be drawn up over the young cluster, f`oltlt·t|
over the stem and pinned snugly above the fruit. Sucking, of .
course, is not feasible for the commerical grape grower, but is fnglt
ly satisfactory in the amateur's vineyard and is almost inclispc·n~;1~
ble for one who hopes to take prizes in a fruit exhibition, for it i~
an excellent means of protecting the fruit and bringing it lo;1
. state of perfection.

i1` fi
s uf
    `      gv     `     ‘·=    
s . ~¢·  "  · */»    JM)  t M  
2 ·  >" *  V- "’ A     ‘‘‘‘   f? ·    ‘ “  .~ ~...
Hen ~   A.»·* * ¤-~   =;%:JL&l.             ~» T
_ _ ._  V   .... .I,;(;/ ;i_"` .  {L.};   _  V ,  _+,     _   A
1|>u [  ..»  . ·`  —    * ,. _   .    s?<* in   °*  .,’_.   5   . .  
  -     »   »`»   t   _,,.·‘ .‘          ·. - .
hvxlk J nc k K /    :>   vw `}; _._ . /   4;      .     · =,` I  .  xl; `l`_v.?‘f:‘;j_·   :
} _ »,   <   -{’_ -   I. r;jF°' xr; fi   `L >     .\;;.;"`E1v
_     ” ’‘‘‘‘    rjrszg   _ . · ,4;;    
I $*.5   ... . J? *;•b ` Ph *2 V.: .   ·\   I   “ (
hou ·\ •   IA_' i        .     gy} . N   . aq
mm LL g?.     ` ` , ‘. S
. . . (I _»_ V. g * { *
"’ s ’  'v` , `* ·   V.:   .....
uml ‘ ,   ‘~ ~ V     V »  
; » ·._.,· _     U. ‘·
mb ·  . » ·    ._   · `     a
IIN]. ri  *`°     x` `   .
.~ w   ‘ . ,.;»,: ;    i   ‘``=
.'llL‘Il   ·» l     · ‘ A ·-V‘·  
HWY "’ `     '.,,v , · i*
jm] Figure 4. Grapes sacked for protection against black rot and insects.
`_ Ill
_ _ >
Il 1~
um :1

` Pul
Linn of
` Agricul
of May